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  • Blechnaceae (plant family)

    Blechnaceae, the chain fern family (order Polypodiales), containing 7–9 genera and more than 200 species. The family occurs nearly around the world but is most diverse in tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere. Nearly all of the species are terrestrial or grow on rocks. A number of species of

  • Blechnum (fern genus)

    fern: Annotated classification: …150 in the largest genus, Blechnum), distributed nearly worldwide but most diverse in tropical regions. Family Onocleaceae Plants in soil; rhizomes short- to long-creeping or erect (occasionally trunklike in Onocleopsis), scaly, sometimes with runners; leaves strongly dimorphic, the vegetative leaves one time pinnately compound, the leaflets sometimes deeply lobed, the…

  • Blechtrommel, Die (film by Schl?ndorff [1979])

    Volker Schl?ndorff: …film, with Die Blechtrommel (1979; The Tin Drum), his adaptation of the Günter Grass novel. The film’s episodic structure and expressionistic style marked a departure from his earlier work. Schl?ndorff’s other work included the film Die F?lschung (1981; Circle of Deceit), made on location in war-torn Beirut; a television production…

  • Blechtrommel, Die (novel by Grass)

    The Tin Drum, picaresque novel by Günter Grass, a purported autobiography of a dwarf who lives through the birth and death of Nazi Germany, published in 1959 as Die Blechtrommel. The work’s protagonist, Oskar Matzerath, narrates the novel from an asylum for the insane. He claims to have consciously

  • Blecker, Irene (American executive)

    Irene Rosenfeld, American business executive, who was CEO (2006–17) of processed-foods giant Kraft Foods Inc. and, after the company’s restructuring in 2012, of Mondelēz International. Under her leadership, Kraft, already the largest food-products company in the United States, expanded its holdings

  • Bleckner, Ross (American painter)

    Ross Bleckner , American painter known for large abstract works that show the influence of Abstract Expressionism and Op art. Bleckner earned a master of fine arts degree from the California Institute of the Arts in 1973. His Growing Grass (1987), an oil-on-linen painting measuring 108 by 72 inches

  • Bled, Lake (lake, Slovenia)

    Lake Bled, glacial lake in the extreme northwestern region of Slovenia. Situated 1,558 feet (475 metres) above sea level at the foot of the Julian Alps northwest of Ljubljana, it is a summer health and holiday resort and a winter sports centre with good road and rail connections and summer air

  • Bleda (Hun leader)

    Attila: Attacks on the Eastern Empire: …Attila and his elder brother Bleda inherited seems to have stretched from the Alps and the Baltic in the west to somewhere near the Caspian Sea in the east. Their first known action on becoming joint rulers was the negotiation of a peace treaty with the Eastern Roman Empire, which…

  • Bledsko Jezero (lake, Slovenia)

    Lake Bled, glacial lake in the extreme northwestern region of Slovenia. Situated 1,558 feet (475 metres) above sea level at the foot of the Julian Alps northwest of Ljubljana, it is a summer health and holiday resort and a winter sports centre with good road and rail connections and summer air

  • Bledsoe, Drew (American football player)

    Tom Brady: …season, the Patriots’ starting quarterback, Drew Bledsoe, was injured, and Brady was chosen to fill the position. His play was not spectacular, but he was consistent, making simple plays and minimizing mistakes. With Brady as their starting quarterback, the Patriots went on to post an 11–3 record in the regular…

  • Bledsoe, Tempestt (American actress)

    The Cosby Show: …(Malcolm-Jamal Warner), preteen Vanessa (Tempestt Bledsoe), and young Rudy (Keshia Knight Pulliam). Grandparents Anna and Russell Huxtable (Clarice Taylor and Earle Hyman) frequently appeared, and the irresistible Olivia (Raven Symone, who later starred in the Disney Channel’s That’s So Raven, 2003–07) was eventually introduced as Cliff and Clair’s five-year-old…

  • Blee, David Henry (American spy)

    David Henry Blee, American intelligence officer (born Nov. 20, 1916, San Francisco, Calif.—died Aug. 4, 2000, Bethesda, Md.), was a master spy (1947–85) in the CIA (and its wartime forerunner, the Office of Strategic Services) and was noted for his deft decision making. While serving as CIA s

  • bleeder turbine

    turbine: Steam extraction: In bleeder turbines no effort is made to control the pressure of the extracted steam, which varies in almost direct proportion to the load carried by the turbine. Extraction also reduces the steam flow to the condenser, allowing the turbine exhaust area to be reduced. Controlled-extraction…

  • bleeding (medical procedure)

    leeching: …incorporated into the practice of bloodletting. Enormous quantities of leeches were used for bleeding—as many as 5 to 6 million being used annually to draw more than 300,000 litres of blood in Parisian hospitals alone. In some cases patients lost as much as 80 percent of their blood in a…

  • bleeding (pathology)

    Bleeding and blood clotting, escape of blood from blood vessels into surrounding tissue and the process of coagulation through the action of platelets. The evolution of high-pressure blood circulation in vertebrates has brought with it the risk of bleeding after injury to tissues. Mechanisms to

  • bleeding begonia (plant)

    waxplant: Unrelated plants: The wax begonia (see begonia) is a waxy-leaved bedding and pot plant. The wax-leaved privet, or white wax tree, is a landscape plant used in warm climates. The wax tree (Toxicodendron succedaneum) is a Japanese tree grown for its waxy berries and stem juices that yield…

  • bleeding bread

    baking: Bacteria: …prodigiosus, causative agent of “bleeding bread.” Neither ropy bread nor bleeding bread is particularly toxic. Enzymes secreted by B. mesentericus change the starch inside the loaf into a gummy substance stretching into strands when a piece of the bread is pulled apart. In addition to ropiness, the spoiled bread…

  • Bleeding Edge (novel by Pynchon [2013])

    Thomas Pynchon: Bleeding Edge (2013) chronicles the efforts of a fraud investigator to untangle the nefarious doings of a New York computer-security firm in the year leading up to the September 11 attacks of 2001, all the while attempting to parent her children in the wake of…

  • bleeding heart (plant)

    Bleeding heart, any of several species of Dicentra or the species Lamprocapnos spectabilis (formerly Dicentra spectabilis), all of which are members of the poppy family (Papaveraceae). Bleeding hearts are commonly grown as shade-garden ornamentals and are native to the temperate woodlands of

  • bleeding heart family (plant subfamily)

    Papaveraceae: Physical description: …its own family, the subfamily Fumarioideae characteristically features bilaterally symmetrical flowers with two dissimilar pairs of petals. The leaves are often compound or finely divided. Many species have rhizomes or tubers.

  • bleeding heart glory-bower (plant)

    glory-bower: Bleeding heart glory-bower (C. thomsonae), a woody vine from Africa, has sprays of blooms, resembling bleeding heart, amid glossy, dark-green, oval leaves. Scarlet glory-bower (C. splendens), also an African vine, has clusters of red-orange flowers among heart-shaped leaves. Common in tropical gardens is C. speciosum,…

  • Bleeding Kansas (novel by Paretsky)

    Sara Paretsky: Bleeding Kansas (2008) was another departure from Warshawski and her Chicago milieu; it concerned the disputes and recriminations between two politically and religiously opposed families in contemporary rural Kansas.

  • Bleeding Kansas (United States history)

    Bleeding Kansas, (1854–59), small civil war in the United States, fought between proslavery and antislavery advocates for control of the new territory of Kansas under the doctrine of popular sovereignty (q.v.). Sponsors of the Kansas–Nebraska Act (May 30, 1854) expected its provisions for

  • Bleek, Wilhelm (German linguist)

    Wilhelm Bleek, comparative linguist known for his pioneer studies of South African languages as the “Father of Bantu Philology.” In his doctoral dissertation at the University of Bonn (1851), Bleek attempted to prove a North African origin of the Hottentot language. In about 1855 he went to Natal

  • Bleek, Wilhelm Heinrich Immanuel (German linguist)

    Wilhelm Bleek, comparative linguist known for his pioneer studies of South African languages as the “Father of Bantu Philology.” In his doctoral dissertation at the University of Bonn (1851), Bleek attempted to prove a North African origin of the Hottentot language. In about 1855 he went to Natal

  • Blegen, Carl (American archaeologist)

    Carl Blegen, archaeologist who found striking evidence to substantiate and date the sack of Troy described in Homer’s Iliad. He also discovered, in 1939, clay tablets inscribed with one of the earliest known European scripts and dating from about 1250 bce. While associated with the American School

  • Blegen, Carl William (American archaeologist)

    Carl Blegen, archaeologist who found striking evidence to substantiate and date the sack of Troy described in Homer’s Iliad. He also discovered, in 1939, clay tablets inscribed with one of the earliest known European scripts and dating from about 1250 bce. While associated with the American School

  • Blegywryd, Book of (Welsh law)

    Welsh law: …the Book of Iorwerth, the Book of Blegywryd, and the Book of Cyfnerth. The oldest manuscripts are those of the Book of Iorwerth, though the Book of Cyfnerth—which is attributed to Morgenau and his son Cyfnerth, members of the most famous family of lawyers in Gwynedd—reflects the earliest stage of…

  • Bleibtrey, Ethelda (American athlete)

    Ethelda Bleibtrey, American swimmer who overcame a crippling illness to win three gold medals at the 1920 Olympic Games in Antwerp. Bleibtrey began swimming as therapy to counteract the effects of polio. Because she swam without stockings in 1919, she was given a summons for “nude swimming”; the

  • Blekinge (county, Sweden)

    Blekinge, l?n (county) and landskap (province), southern Sweden, between the provinces of Sm?land and Sk?ne and the Baltic Sea. It is the second smallest Swedish province, after ?land. The coast is much indented, and the low, undulating interior slopes up toward the Sm?land Plateau, where it ends

  • Blemmyes (people)

    ancient Rome: Diocletian: …incited uprisings by both the Blemmyes nomads in southern Egypt and the Saracens of the Syrian desert and made use of anti-Roman propaganda by the Manichaeans and Jews. Diocletian succeeded in putting down the revolt in Egypt and fortified the south against the Blemmyes. But in 297, Narses, the heir…

  • blend (acoustics)

    acoustics: Acoustic criteria: “Blend” refers to the mixing of sounds from all the performers and their uniform distribution to the listeners. To achieve proper blend it is often necessary to place a collection of reflectors on the stage that distribute the sound randomly to all points in the…

  • blend (linguistics)

    Portmanteau word, a word that results from blending two or more words, or parts of words, such that the portmanteau word expresses some combination of the meaning of its parts. Examples in English include chortle (from chuckle and snort), smog (from smoke and fog), brunch (from breakfast and

  • blend (linguistics)

    English language: Back-formations, blends, and other types of word-formation: Blends fall into two groups: (1) coalescences, such as bash from bang and smash; and (2) telescoped forms, called portmanteau words, such as motorcade from motor cavalcade. In the first group are the words clash, from clack and crash, and geep, offspring of goat and…

  • blende (mineral)

    Sphalerite, zinc sulfide (ZnS), the chief ore mineral of zinc. It is found associated with galena in most important lead-zinc deposits. The name sphalerite is derived from a Greek word meaning “treacherous,” an allusion to the ease with which the dark-coloured, opaque varieties are mistaken for

  • Blended (film by Coraci [2014])

    Drew Barrymore: …Sandler in the romantic farce Blended (2014), in which the two portrayed single parents who take their children on an African vacation. She was cast opposite Toni Collette in the sentimental drama Miss You Already (2015), about two best friends coping with illness and the complications of family life.

  • blended bedding (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Types: …commonly, however, the layers are blended. This variety of bedding results from a check in the velocity of the transporting agent, and thus coarse-textured sediment (gravel, for example) is deposited first, followed upward by pebbles, granules, sand, silt, and clay. It is commonly associated with submarine density currents.

  • blended whiskey (alcoholic beverage)

    Blended whiskey, mixture of straight whiskey (that distilled from mash of a single grain) and mixed-grain whiskey or neutral spirits. Blended straight whiskey is a mixture of straight whiskeys only. Whiskeys are blended in order to achieve a uniform product with a balanced character and, generally,

  • blended yogurt

    dairy product: Yogurt: For blended (Swiss- or French-style) yogurt, the milk is allowed to incubate in large heated tanks. After coagulation occurs, the mixture is cooled, fruit or other flavours are added, and the product is placed in containers and immediately made ready for sale.

  • blending (yarn manufacturing)

    Blending, in yarn production, process of combining fibres of different origins, length, thickness, or colour to make yarn. Blending is accomplished before spinning and is performed to impart such desirable characteristics as strength or durability, to reduce cost by combining expensive fibres with

  • blending (beverage production)

    distilled spirit: Blending: Blending is another method of obtaining a balanced product with precise flavour characteristics. Blended products are composed of one or more highly flavoured components, a high-proof component with a low congener content, a colour adjustment ingredient, and perhaps an additional flavouring material. An example is…

  • blending (materials processing)

    cement: Blending: A first approximation of the chemical composition required for a particular cement is obtained by selective quarrying and control of the raw material fed to the crushing and grinding plant. Finer control is obtained by drawing material from two or more batches containing raw…

  • blending (petroleum refining)

    petroleum refining: Gasoline blending: One of the most critical economic issues for a petroleum refiner is selecting the optimal combination of components to produce final gasoline products. Gasoline blending is much more complicated than a simple mixing of components. First, a typical refinery may have as many as…

  • blending inheritance (evolution)

    evolution: The Darwinian aftermath: Contemporary theories of “blending inheritance” proposed that offspring merely struck an average between the characteristics of their parents. But as Darwin became aware, blending inheritance (including his own theory of “pangenesis,” in which each organ and tissue of an organism throws off tiny contributions of itself that are…

  • Blendung, Die (work by Canetti)

    Auto-da-Fé, novel by Elias Canetti, published in 1935 in German as Die Blendung (“The Deception”). It was also published in English as The Tower of Babel. Originally planned as the first in a series of eight novels examining mad visionaries, the book deals with the dangers inherent in believing

  • Blenheim (New Zealand)

    Blenheim, town, northeastern South Island, New Zealand. It is located on the Wairau Plain at the confluence of the Omaka and Opawa rivers. About 1830 the entire plain was sold by the local Maoris to a whaling captain. First settled in 1847, it grew rapidly following the discovery of gold (1864) and

  • Blenheim II (British racehorse)

    Whirlaway: Breeding and early years: …purchase of a nine-year-old stallion, Blenheim II. During his racing days the horse had won the Epsom Derby and later had sired the Derby winner Mahmoud. Blenheim II was sent to Claiborne Farm in Kentucky, where, on April 2, 1938, one of his mates, Dustwhirl, gave birth to a blaze-faced…

  • Blenheim Palace (palace, Oxfordshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Blenheim Palace, residence near Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England, built (1705–24) by the English Parliament as a national gift to John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough. During the War of the Spanish Succession, he had led the English to victory over the French and Bavarians at the Battle of

  • Blenheim, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Blenheim, (Aug. 13, 1704), the most famous victory of John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlborough, and Eugene of Savoy in the War of the Spanish Succession. The first major defeat that the French army suffered in over 50 years, it saved Vienna from a threatening Franco-Bavarian army,

  • Blenkinsop, John (English inventor)

    John Blenkinsop, English inventor, designer of the first practical and successful railway locomotive. Blenkinsop’s two-cylinder, geared steam locomotive utilized the tooth-rack rail system of propulsion. Four Blenkinsop engines (built 1812–13) hauled coal over cast-iron rails from Middleton,

  • Blennerhassett, Harman (American alleged traitor)

    Parkersburg: …south, was the home of Harman Blennerhassett, a wealthy Irishman who supposedly plotted with Aaron Burr to seize the Southwest and set up an empire. Inc. city, 1911. Pop. (2000) 33,099; Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna Metro Area, 164,624; (2010) 31,492; Parkersburg-Marietta-Vienna Metro Area, 162,056.

  • blenniid (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Blenniidae (combtooth blennies) Eocene to present. Resemble clinids in fins and body shape but differ in being scaleless and in having a steep forehead and only a single row of teeth in both jaws, the teeth being close-set, long, comblike. Sometimes a pair of large to…

  • Blenniidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Blenniidae (combtooth blennies) Eocene to present. Resemble clinids in fins and body shape but differ in being scaleless and in having a steep forehead and only a single row of teeth in both jaws, the teeth being close-set, long, comblike. Sometimes a pair of large to…

  • Blenniodei (fish)

    Blenny, any of the numerous and diverse fishes of the suborder Blennioidei (order Perciformes). Blennies are mostly small, usually marine fishes found from tropical to cold seas. They are slim, ranging in form from moderately elongated, as in some of the tropical species, to very long and eel-like,

  • blenny (fish)

    Blenny, any of the numerous and diverse fishes of the suborder Blennioidei (order Perciformes). Blennies are mostly small, usually marine fishes found from tropical to cold seas. They are slim, ranging in form from moderately elongated, as in some of the tropical species, to very long and eel-like,

  • bleomycin (drug)

    antineoplastic antibiotic: include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, bleomycin, mitomycin, and dactinomycin, all of which are derived from species of Streptomyces bacteria. While these drugs may have antibacterial activity, they are generally too dangerous and toxic for that use. Antineoplastic antibiotics are associated with blood cell damage, hair loss, and other toxicities common…

  • Blepharis (plant genus)

    Acanthaceae: (140), Dicliptera (150), Blepharis (130), Lepidagathis (100), Hygrophila (100), Thunbergia (90), and Dyschoriste (80). The small genus Avicennia contains at least eight species of ecologically important mangroves.

  • blepharitis (medical condition)

    Blepharitis, common inflammation of the eyelids that is marked by red, scaly, crusting eyelids and a burning, itching, grainy feeling in the eye. The eye itself often has some redness. There are two forms of blepharitis: anterior, which affects the exterior edge of the eyelid, and posterior, which

  • blepharoplast (biology)

    protist: Cilia and flagella:

  • blepharoptosis (physiology)

    Ptosis, drooping of the upper eyelid. The condition may be congenital or acquired and can cause significant obscuration of vision. In congenital ptosis the muscle that elevates the lid, called the levator palpebrae superioris, is usually absent or imperfectly developed. If severe and not corrected

  • Blériot XI (French aircraft)

    Blériot XI, monoplane built and first flown by the French aviation pioneer Louis Blériot in 1909. Blériot took to the air with his model number XI for the first time at Issy-les-Moulineaux (near Paris) on Jan. 23, 1909. Principally designed by Raymond Saulnier, the Blériot XI was a tractor

  • Blériot, Louis (French aviator)

    Louis Blériot, French airplane manufacturer and aviator who made the first flight of an airplane between continental Europe and Great Britain. Blériot, a graduate of the école Centrale in Paris, met and married Alice Vedène while performing military service as a lieutenant of artillery. He used his

  • blesbok (mammal)

    Blesbok, (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), one of the gaudiest of the antelopes, a South African version of the closely related sassaby. The blesbok ranged the treeless Highveld in countless thousands throughout the mid-19th century but was hunted nearly to extinction. It has been reintroduced,

  • blesmol (rodent)

    Blesmol, (family Bathyergidae), any of about a dozen species of burrowing African rodents that live in arid regions south of the Sahara (desert). Blesmols are highly adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They appear virtually neckless, having strong, blunt heads with incisor teeth protruding forward

  • Bless Me, Ultima (novel by Anaya)

    Rudolfo Anaya: Bless Me, Ultima (1972; film 2013), Anaya’s acclaimed first novel, concerns a young boy growing up in New Mexico in the late 1940s and an elderly healer who changes his life. Heart of Aztlán (1976) follows a family’s move from rural to urban surroundings and…

  • Bless the Beasts and Children (film by Kramer [1972])

    Stanley Kramer: Final films: Moviegoers also avoided Bless the Beasts and Children (1972), a fable about six social misfits who try to free a herd of buffalo, although it later attained the status of cult classic, thanks in large measure to the presence of child actors Bill Mumy and Miles Chapin. After…

  • Blessed Damozel, The (poem by Rossetti)

    Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Early life and works: …force of his poem “The Blessed Damozel,” published in 1850 in the first issue of The Germ, the Pre-Raphaelite magazine. When it was exhibited in 1850, Ecce Ancilla Domini received severe criticism, which Rossetti could never bear with equanimity. In consequence, he ceased to show in public and gave up…

  • Blessed Event (film by Del Ruth [1932])

    Roy Del Ruth: Early films: Blessed Event (1932) was a crackling comedy, with Lee Tracy at arguably his best as a gossip columnist willing to do anything to increase circulation, and Employees’ Entrance (1933) starred Warren William as an unscrupulous department-store manager who wreaks havoc on the lives of those…

  • Blessed Mother Teresa of Calcutta (Roman Catholic nun)

    Mother Teresa, ; canonized September 4, 2016; feast day September 5), founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to the poor, particularly to the destitute of India. She was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Prize

  • Blessed Peter of Montboissier (French abbot)

    Peter the Venerable, outstanding French abbot of Cluny whose spiritual, intellectual, and financial reforms restored Cluny to its high place among the religious establishments of Europe. Peter joined Bernard of Clairvaux in supporting Pope Innocent II, thereby weakening the position of the

  • Blessed Sacrament Sisters for Indians and Colored People (Roman Catholic congregation)

    St. Katharine Drexel: …Indians and Colored People (now Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament), a congregation of missionary nuns dedicated to the welfare of American Indians and African Americans. She is the patron saint of racial justice and of philanthropists.

  • Blessed Sacrament, Sisters of the (Roman Catholic congregation)

    St. Katharine Drexel: …Indians and Colored People (now Sisters of the Blessed Sacrament), a congregation of missionary nuns dedicated to the welfare of American Indians and African Americans. She is the patron saint of racial justice and of philanthropists.

  • Blessed Teresa of Calcutta (Roman Catholic nun)

    Mother Teresa, ; canonized September 4, 2016; feast day September 5), founder of the Order of the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic congregation of women dedicated to the poor, particularly to the destitute of India. She was the recipient of numerous honours, including the 1979 Nobel Prize

  • Blessed Virgin Mary (mother of Jesus)

    Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated in the Christian church since the apostolic age and a favourite subject in Western art, music, and literature. Mary is known from biblical references, which are, however, too sparse to construct a coherent biography. The development of the doctrine of Mary can

  • Blessed Virgin Mary and Saint Aethelberht, Cathedral Church of the (cathedral, Hereford, England, United Kingdom)

    Hereford: The Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. Aethelberht exemplifies all architectural styles from Norman to Perpendicular. The see was detached from that of Lichfield in 676, Putta being its first bishop. After the body of Aethelberht, a slain English leader, had been brought…

  • Blessed Virgin Mary, Purification of the (religious festival)

    Candlemas, Christian festival on February 2 commemorating the occasion when the Virgin Mary, in obedience to Jewish law, went to the Temple in Jerusalem both to be purified 40 days after the birth of her son, Jesus, and to present him to God as her firstborn (Luke 2:22–38). The festival was

  • Blessed Virgin, Rosary of the (Roman Catholicism)

    novena: Some Marian novenas, most notably the 54-day miraculous novena, involve the recitation of an entire rosary.

  • blessing (religion)

    Benediction, a verbal blessing of persons or things, commonly applied to invocations pronounced in God’s name by a priest or minister, usually at the conclusion of a religious service. The Aaronic benediction (Num. 6:24–26) was incorporated by Luther into his German Mass and is preserved by modern

  • Blessing of Moses, The (Old Testament poem)

    biblical literature: Concluding exhortation and traditions about the last days of Moses: The second poem, “The Blessing of Moses” (chapter 33), blesses each of the tribes of Israel, one by one, and the blessings are associated with God’s love, the law commanded by Moses, and the kingship of God over his people. There are indications in both poems of a considerably…

  • Blessing of the Bay (ship)

    Medford: …Medford began in 1631 with Blessing of the Bay, one of the first oceangoing ships to be built in America. Later, the city’s merchants were active in the triangular trade by which rum made from West Indian sugar was traded for African slaves, who in turn were sold to the…

  • Blessington, Marguerite Gardiner, countess of (Irish author)

    Marguerite Gardiner, countess of Blessington, Irish writer chiefly remembered for her Conversations of Lord Byron and for her London salon. Her father sold her into marriage at 15 to Captain Maurice St. Leger Farmer, a sadist from whom she fled after three months. He died in a drunken brawl in

  • Blessingway (Navajo ritual)

    Blessingway, central ceremony of a complex system of Navajo healing ceremonies known as sings, or chants, that are designed to restore equilibrium to the cosmos. Anthropologists have grouped these ceremonies into six major divisions: the Blessingways, Holyways, Lifeways, Evilways, War Ceremonials,

  • Blessures, Les (poem by Charbonneau)

    Jean Charbonneau: In 1912 Charbonneau wrote Les Blessures (“The Wounds”), the first of several volumes of poetry that dealt primarily with philosophical speculation and myth. Sur la borne pensive (1952; “On the Bounds of Thought”), which invites his readers into a garden of delights where life is a spectacle of Persian…

  • Blest Gana, Alberto (Chilean writer)

    Alberto Blest Gana, novelist who founded the Chilean social novel. Blest Gana began his education at the Santiago military academy, and, while studying military engineering in France, he came under the influence of the French realists, especially Honoré de Balzac. He returned to Chile in 1852 and

  • Bletchley Park (government establishment, England, United Kingdom)

    Bletchley Park, British government cryptological establishment in operation during World War II. Bletchley Park was where Alan Turing and other agents of the Ultra intelligence project decoded the enemy’s secret messages, most notably those that had been encrypted with the German Enigma and Tunny

  • bletting (botany)

    medlar: …undergo a process known as bletting (i.e., the flesh turns soft and brown); it then takes on an agreeable acidic and somewhat astringent flavour. Several varieties are cultivated.

  • BLEU

    Low Countries: …in economic integration, forming the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) in 1921, followed after World War II by Benelux. That union allows for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between the three countries; coordinates their policy in economic, financial, and social fields; and pursues a common foreign-trade policy.…

  • Bleu (film by Kie?lowski [1993])

    Krzysztof Kie?lowski: …the French flag: Bleu (1993; Blue), Blanc (1994; White), and Rouge (1994; Red); respectively, they explored the themes of liberty, equality, and fraternity. The films were released several months apart and, although each can stand on its own, they were designed to be seen as a single entity. One theme,…

  • Bleu-blanc-rouge (novel by Mabanckou)

    Alain Mabanckou: His first novel, Bleu-blanc-rouge (1998; Blue White Red), concerns the discoveries of an African immigrant to France. When this work won the Association of French-Language Writers’ Literary Grand Prize of Black Africa, Mabanckou’s course seemed set.

  • Bleuler, Eugen (Swiss psychiatrist)

    Eugen Bleuler, one of the most influential psychiatrists of his time, best known today for his introduction of the term schizophrenia to describe the disorder previously known as dementia praecox and for his studies of schizophrenics. Bleuler studied medicine at the University of Bern and later was

  • Bleustein-Blanchet, Marcel (French entrepreneur)

    Marcel Bleustein-Blanchet, French advertising magnate and entrepreneur who founded France’s first advertising agency, Publicis, where he created a number of unforgettable advertising slogans and pioneered the use of radio for publicity purposes; he also founded Le Drugstore, a chain of 24-hour

  • Blevins, Rubye (American singer)

    Patsy Montana, (RUBYE BLEVINS), U.S. singer who was identified by her yodeling-cowgirl songs, especially "I Want to Be a Cowboy’s Sweetheart," with which she became the first woman to have a million-selling country music hit song (b. Oct. 30, 1914--d. May 3,

  • Bley, Hyman Paul (Canadian musician)

    Paul Bley, (Hyman Paul Bley), Canadian jazz pianist (born Nov. 10, 1932, Montreal, Que.—died Jan. 3, 2016, Stuart, Fla.), was an iconoclastic ever-evolving musician who became a leading influence in experimental and avant-garde jazz. He studied music from childhood and began performing in public in

  • Bley, Paul (Canadian musician)

    Paul Bley, (Hyman Paul Bley), Canadian jazz pianist (born Nov. 10, 1932, Montreal, Que.—died Jan. 3, 2016, Stuart, Fla.), was an iconoclastic ever-evolving musician who became a leading influence in experimental and avant-garde jazz. He studied music from childhood and began performing in public in

  • Bleyl, Fritz (German artist)

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