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  • B?cher, Maxime (American mathematician)

    Maxime B?cher, American mathematician and educator whose teachings and writings influenced many mathematical researchers. B?cher graduated from Harvard University in 1888 and received his doctorate from the University of G?ttingen in 1891. Within months of acquiring his Ph.D., B?cher was asked to

  • Bochner, Salomon (American mathematician)

    Salomon Bochner, Galician-born American mathematician who made profound contributions to harmonic analysis, probability theory, differential geometry, and other areas of mathematics. Fearful of a Russian invasion in 1914, Bochner’s family moved to Berlin, Germany. Bochner attended the University of

  • Bocholt (Germany)

    Bocholt, city, North Rhine-Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany, on the Aa, a stream near the Dutch border, just north of Wesel. Chartered in 1222 by the bishop of Münster, Bocholt derives its name from Buchenholz, the “beech wood” of its surroundings. Historic buildings include the

  • Bochum (Germany)

    Bochum, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), northwestern Germany. It lies in the heart of the industrial Ruhr district, between the cities of Essen (west) and Dortmund (east). Chartered in 1298 and 1321, it passed to the duchy of Cleves (Kleve) in 1461 and to Brandenburg in the early 17th

  • Bochy, Bruce (American baseball player and manager)

    San Diego Padres: …team hired former Padres player Bruce Bochy to manage the squad. Bochy would go on to lead the team for a club-record 12 seasons, and his positive impact on the team was almost immediate: the Padres rocketed to a division title in 1996 behind the play of NL Most Valuable…

  • bock beer (alcoholic beverage)

    beer: Types of beer: Bock is an even stronger, heavier Munich-type beer that is brewed in winter for consumption in the spring. M?rzbier (“March beer”) is a lighter brew produced in the spring. While all German lagers are made with malted barley, a special brew called weiss beer (Weissbier;…

  • Bock, Fedor von (German military officer)

    Fedor von Bock, German army officer and field marshal (from 1940), who participated in the German occupation of Austria and the invasions of Poland, France, and Russia during World War II. Educated at the Potsdam military school, Bock was assigned to an infantry guards regiment in 1897 and advanced

  • Bock, Hieronymus (German scientist)

    Hieronymus Bock, German priest, physician, and botanist who helped lead the transition from the philological scholasticism of medieval botany to the modern science based on observation and description from nature. Little is known of Bock’s life and career. He worked from 1523 to 1533 in Zweibrücken

  • Bock, Hieronymus Tragus (German scientist)

    Hieronymus Bock, German priest, physician, and botanist who helped lead the transition from the philological scholasticism of medieval botany to the modern science based on observation and description from nature. Little is known of Bock’s life and career. He worked from 1523 to 1533 in Zweibrücken

  • Bock, Jerrold Lewis (American composer)

    Jerry Bock, American composer. He studied at the University of Wisconsin and then collaborated with Larry Holofcener on songs for television’s Your Show of Shows and the musical Mr. Wonderful (1956). With the composer-lyricist Sheldon Harnick he had his greatest successes: Fiorello! (1959, Pulitzer

  • Bock, Jerry (American composer)

    Jerry Bock, American composer. He studied at the University of Wisconsin and then collaborated with Larry Holofcener on songs for television’s Your Show of Shows and the musical Mr. Wonderful (1956). With the composer-lyricist Sheldon Harnick he had his greatest successes: Fiorello! (1959, Pulitzer

  • Bock, the (promontory, Luxembourg)

    Luxembourg: …a rocky promontory called the Bock (Bouc) forms a natural defensive position where the Romans and later the Franks built a fort, around which the medieval town developed. The purchase of this castle in 963 ce by Siegfried, count of Ardennes, marked the beginning of Luxembourg as an independent entity.…

  • Bock, Walter (German chemist)

    rubber: The rise of synthetic rubber: Farben by Walter Bock and Eduard Tschunkur, who synthesized a rubbery copolymer of styrene and butadiene in 1929, using an emulsion process. The Germans referred to this rubber as Buna S; the British called it SBR, or styrene-butadiene rubber. Because styrene and butadiene can be made from…

  • B?cklin, Arnold (Swiss painter)

    Arnold B?cklin, painter whose moody landscapes and sinister allegories greatly influenced late 19th-century German artists and presaged the symbolism of the 20th-century Metaphysical and Surrealist artists. Although he studied and worked throughout much of northern Europe—Düsseldorf, Antwerp,

  • B?ckmann, Wilhelm (German architect)

    Japanese architecture: The modern period: …German architects Hermann Ende and Wilhelm B?ckmann were active in Japan from the late 1880s. Their expertise in the construction of government ministry buildings was applied to the growing complex of such structures in the Kasumigaseki area of Tokyo. The now much-altered Ministry of Justice building (1895) is a major…

  • Bockscar (United States aircraft)

    B-29: Enola Gay and Bockscar were used in the atomic attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. When production ended in 1946, 3,970 B-29s had been built, many of which were subsequently converted to tankers for in-flight refueling.

  • Bocskay, István (prince of Transylvania)

    István Bocskay, prince of Transylvania, who defended Hungarian interests when Hungary was divided into Ottoman and Habsburg spheres of influence. Brought up at the court of the Báthorys, Bocskay won the confidence of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, whom he advised to form an alliance

  • Bocskay, Stephan (prince of Transylvania)

    István Bocskay, prince of Transylvania, who defended Hungarian interests when Hungary was divided into Ottoman and Habsburg spheres of influence. Brought up at the court of the Báthorys, Bocskay won the confidence of Sigismund Báthory, prince of Transylvania, whom he advised to form an alliance

  • Bocuse, Paul (French chef)

    Paul Bocuse, French chef and restaurateur known for introducing and championing a lighter style of cooking. Scion of a long line of restaurateurs, Bocuse apprenticed under several prominent chefs before taking over the family’s failing hotel-restaurant in Collonges, near Lyon, in 1959. Before long

  • BOD (biology)

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), the amount of dissolved oxygen used by microorganisms in the biological process of metabolizing organic matter in water. The more organic matter there is (e.g., in sewage and polluted bodies of water), the greater the BOD; and the greater the BOD, the lower the

  • Bod (autonomous region, China)

    Tibet, historic region and autonomous region of China that is often called “the roof of the world.” It occupies a vast area of plateaus and mountains in Central Asia, including Mount Everest (Qomolangma [or Zhumulangma] Feng; Tibetan: Chomolungma). It is bordered by the Chinese provinces of Qinghai

  • Bod, Péter (Hungarian clergyman, historian and author)

    Péter Bod, Hungarian Protestant clergyman, historian, and author who wrote the first work of literary history in Hungarian. Bod came from an impoverished noble family. Upon completing his studies in Hungary, he received a scholarship to the University of Leiden in the Netherlands. On his return to

  • Bodas de sangre (play by García Lorca)

    Blood Wedding, folk tragedy in three acts by Federico García Lorca, published and produced in 1933 as Bodas de sangre. Blood Wedding is the first play in Lorca’s dramatic trilogy; the other two plays are Yerma and The House of Bernarda Alba. The protagonists of Blood Wedding are ordinary women

  • Bodawpaya (king of Myanmar)

    Bodawpaya, king of Myanmar, sixth monarch of the Alaungpaya, or Konbaung, dynasty, in whose reign (1782–1819) the long conflict began with the British. A son of Alaungpaya (reigned 1752–60), the founder of the dynasty, Bodawpaya came to power after deposing and executing his grandnephew Maung

  • Bode Museum (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    art market: German museums: …British ancestral treasures was the Kaiser-Friedrich Museum of Berlin. The museum’s painting collection was based not on royal heirlooms but rather on the recently formed and very remarkable collection of early Italian pictures amassed by Edward Solly. An English timber merchant, grain speculator, and art collector, Solly sold some 3,000…

  • Bode’s law (astronomy)

    Bode’s law, empirical rule giving the approximate distances of planets from the Sun. It was first announced in 1766 by the German astronomer Johann Daniel Titius but was popularized only from 1772 by his countryman Johann Elert Bode. Once suspected to have some significance regarding the formation

  • Bode, Arnold (German architect, artist, and curator)

    Documenta: The festival’s first artistic director, Arnold Bode, staged the exhibit at the ruins of the Museum Fridericianum in order to present a symbolic rising from the ashes of World War II.

  • Bode, Boyd H. (American philosopher)

    Boyd H. Bode, American educational philosopher noted for his pragmatic approach. Bode was raised in farm communities in Iowa and South Dakota and educated at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor (A.B., 1897) and at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. (Ph.D., 1900). He taught philosophy at the

  • Bode, Boyd Henry (American philosopher)

    Boyd H. Bode, American educational philosopher noted for his pragmatic approach. Bode was raised in farm communities in Iowa and South Dakota and educated at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor (A.B., 1897) and at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. (Ph.D., 1900). He taught philosophy at the

  • Bode, Johann Elert (German astronomer)

    Johann Elert Bode, German astronomer best known for his popularization of Bode’s law, or the Titius-Bode rule, an empirical mathematical expression for the relative mean distances between the Sun and its planets. Bode founded in 1774 the well-known Astronomisches Jahrbuch (“Astronomic Yearbook”),

  • Bode, Wilhelm von (German art critic)

    Wilhelm von Bode, art critic and museum director who helped bring Berlin’s museums to a position of worldwide eminence. Having studied art, Bode became an assistant at the Berlin Museum in 1872. In 1906 he was named general director of all the royal Prussian museums, a post he held until his

  • Bodega, La (work by Blasco Ibá?ez)

    Vicente Blasco Ibá?ez: …such as La bodega (1906; The Fruit of the Vine, 1919), are held to have suffered from a heavy ideological treatment of serious social problems. More popular novels, Sangre y arena (1909; Blood and Sand, 1922); La maja desnuda (1906; Woman Triumphant); his best known, Los cuatro jinetes del Apocalipsis;…

  • bodegón (Spanish painting)

    Western painting: Spain and Portugal: His early bodegones (scenes of daily life with strong elements of still life in the composition) were painted in Seville and belong to the Spanish realist tradition, but at court he saw the Titians collected by Philip II and also Rubens’ paintings. After he visited Italy in…

  • Bodeguita del Medio (restaurant, Havana, Cuba)

    Havana: Cultural life: The most popular is Bodeguita del Medio, once a hangout of Ernest Hemingway. La Floridita, also renowned for its Hemingway associations, claims to be the “birthplace of the daiquiri.” In the kitchens of Habanero families, rice, black beans, and bananas are common staples. Although numerous food products are available…

  • Bodel, Jean (French writer)

    Jehan Bodel, jongleur, epic poet, author of fabliaux, and dramatist, whose Le Jeu de Saint Nicolas (“Play of St. Nicholas”) is the first miracle play in French. Bodel probably held public office in Arras and certainly belonged to one of its puys, or literary confraternities. He planned to go on the

  • Bodel, Jehan (French writer)

    Jehan Bodel, jongleur, epic poet, author of fabliaux, and dramatist, whose Le Jeu de Saint Nicolas (“Play of St. Nicholas”) is the first miracle play in French. Bodel probably held public office in Arras and certainly belonged to one of its puys, or literary confraternities. He planned to go on the

  • Bodemeister (racehorse)
  • Bodencus (river, Italy)

    Po River, longest river in Italy, rising in the Monte Viso group of the Cottian Alps on Italy’s western frontier and emptying into the Adriatic Sea in the east after a course of 405 miles (652 km). Its drainage basin covers 27,062 square miles (70,091 square km), forming Italy’s widest and most f

  • Bodenheim, Maxwell (American poet)

    Maxwell Bodenheim, poet who contributed to the development of the Modernist movement in American poetry but is best remembered for his long career as a personality in literary bohemia. Largely self-educated, Bodenheim appeared in Chicago around 1913, during the period of the Chicago Renaissance. He

  • Bodenheimer, Maxwell (American poet)

    Maxwell Bodenheim, poet who contributed to the development of the Modernist movement in American poetry but is best remembered for his long career as a personality in literary bohemia. Largely self-educated, Bodenheim appeared in Chicago around 1913, during the period of the Chicago Renaissance. He

  • Bodensee (lake, Europe)

    Lake Constance, lake bordering Switzerland, Germany, and Austria and occupying an old glacier basin at an elevation of 1,299 feet (396 m). It has an area of 209 square miles (541 square km) and is about 40 miles (65 km) long and up to 8 miles (13 km) wide, with an average depth of 295 feet (90 m)

  • Bodenstedt, Friedrich Martin von (German writer and translator)

    Friedrich Martin von Bodenstedt, German writer, translator, and critic whose poetry had great popularity during his lifetime. As a young man Bodenstedt obtained an appointment as head of a school in Tiflis (now Tbilisi, Georgia), where he made a study of Persian literature. His Die Lieder des Mirza

  • bodger (craftsman)

    furniture industry: The art of chairmaking: These bodgers, as they were called, made only the turned parts and delivered them to chairmaking firms for assembling. They had no overhead expenses, no power costs, and the only lighting they needed in winter was an oil lamp or candles. They were long able to…

  • Bodh Gaya (India)

    Bodh Gaya, town, southwestern Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated west of the Phalgu River, a tributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River. Bodh Gaya contains one of the holiest of Buddhist sites: the location where, under the sacred pipal, or Bo tree, Gautama Buddha (Prince Siddhartha)

  • Bodh Gaya, Temple of (temple, Bodh Gaya, India)

    Mahabodhi Temple, one of the holiest sites of Buddhism, marking the spot of the Buddha’s Enlightenment (Bodhi). It is located in Bodh Gaya (in central Bihar state, northeastern India) on the banks of the Niranjana River. The Mahabodhi Temple is one of the oldest brick temples in India. The original

  • Bodhāyana (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Fragments from the Mandukya-karika until Shankara: … referred to the vrittis by Bodhayana and Upavarsha (the two may indeed be the same person). There are, however, pre-Shankara monistic interpreters of the scriptures, three of whom are important: Bhartrihari, Mandana (both mentioned earlier), and Gaudapada. Shankara referred to Gaudapada as the teacher of his own teacher Govinda, complimented…

  • bodhi (Buddhism)

    Bodhi, (Sanskrit and Pāli: “awakening,” “enlightenment”), in Buddhism, the final Enlightenment, which puts an end to the cycle of transmigration and leads to Nirvā?a, or spiritual release; the experience is comparable to the Satori of Zen Buddhism in Japan. The accomplishment of this “awakening”

  • Bodhi (people)

    India: The Andhras and their successors: The Bodhis ruled briefly in the northwestern Deccan. The Brihatphalayanas came to power at the end of the 3rd century in the Masulipatam area. In these regions the Satavahana pattern of administration continued; many of the rulers had matronymics (names derived from that of the mother…

  • Bodhi tree (sacred tree, Bodh Gaya, India)

    Bodhi tree, according to Buddhist tradition, the specific sacred fig (Ficus religiosa) under which the Buddha sat when he attained Enlightenment (Bodhi) at Bodh Gaya in Bihar, India. The Mahabodhi Temple, which marks the place of the Buddha’s Enlightenment, features a descendant of the original

  • bodhicittot-pada (Buddhism)

    Mahayana: Bodhisattva: …aspire to achieve awakening (bodhicittot-pada) and thereby become a bodhisattva. For Mahayana Buddhism, awakening consists in understanding the true nature of reality. While non-Mahayana doctrine emphasizes the absence of the self in persons, Mahayana thought extends this idea to all things. The radical extension of the common Buddhist doctrine…

  • Bodhidharma (Buddhist monk)

    Bodhidharma, Buddhist monk who, according to tradition, is credited with establishing the Zen branch of Mahayana Buddhism. The accounts of Bodhidharma’s life are largely legendary, and historical sources are practically nonexistent. Two very brief contemporary accounts disagree on his age (one

  • bodhisatta (Buddhist ideal)

    Bodhisattva, in Buddhism, one who seeks awakening (bodhi)—hence, an individual on the path to becoming a buddha. In early Indian Buddhism and in some later traditions—including Theravada, at present the major form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and other parts of Southeast Asia—the term bodhisattva was

  • bodhisattva (Buddhist ideal)

    Bodhisattva, in Buddhism, one who seeks awakening (bodhi)—hence, an individual on the path to becoming a buddha. In early Indian Buddhism and in some later traditions—including Theravada, at present the major form of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and other parts of Southeast Asia—the term bodhisattva was

  • bodhisattvayāna (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: Tiantai/Tendai: …salvation for themselves alone; and bodhisattvayana, the way of those (the bodhisattvas) who, on the point of attaining salvation, give it up to work for the salvation of all other beings. All are forms of the one way, the buddhayana, and the aim for all is to become a buddha.

  • Bodhnath (shrine, Nepal)

    Kathmandu: …the great white dome of Bodhnath, a Buddhist shrine revered by Tibetan Buddhists. The surrounding Kathmandu Valley, noted for its vast historic and cultural importance, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1979. Vulnerable to urban sprawl, it was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger in…

  • Bodianus rufus (fish)

    hogfish: The spotfin hogfish and the Spanish hogfish belong to the genus Bodianus and occupy the same geographic range as L. maximus. The Spanish hogfish attains a length of 61 cm and, when young, are known to clean other fishes of external parasites.

  • Bodic languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibetic languages: The Tibetic (also called the Bodic, from Bod, the Tibetan name for Tibet) division comprises the Bodish-Himalayish, Kirantish, and Mirish language groups.

  • Bodichon, Barbara Leigh Smith (British activist)

    Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon, English leader in the movement for the education and political rights of women who was instrumental in founding Girton College, Cambridge. In 1857 Barbara Smith married an eminent French physician, Eugène Bodichon, continuing, however, to lead the movements that she

  • Bodie Island (island, North Carolina, United States)

    Cape Hatteras National Seashore: …scenic coastal area situated on Bodie, Hatteras, and Ocracoke islands along the Outer Banks, eastern North Carolina, U.S. The park, the country’s first national seashore, was authorized in 1937 and established in 1953. It has a total area of 47 square miles (122 square km). The three narrow barrier islands…

  • Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’ (work by Butler)

    Judith Butler: …Identity (1990), and its sequel, Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’ (1993), Butler built upon the familiar cultural-theoretic assumption that gender is socially constructed (the result of socialization, broadly conceived) rather than innate and that conventional notions of gender and sexuality serve to perpetuate the traditional domination…

  • bodiless ware (Chinese pottery)

    Eggshell porcelain, Chinese porcelain characterized by an excessively thin body under the glaze. It often had decoration engraved on it before firing that, like a watermark in paper, was visible only when held to the light; such decoration is called anhua, meaning literally “secret language.”

  • Bodin, Jean (French political philosopher)

    Jean Bodin, French political philosopher whose exposition of the principles of stable government was widely influential in Europe at a time when medieval systems were giving way to centralized states. He is widely credited with introducing the concept of sovereignty into legal and political

  • Bodin, Simone Michelene (French fashion model)

    Bettina Graziani, (“Bettina”; Simone Michelene Bodin), French fashion model (born May 8, 1925, Normandy, France—died March 2, 2015, Paris, France), acquired the tagline “the most photographed woman in France” as she epitomized the modern post-World War II Frenchwoman on magazine covers and

  • Bodincus (river, Italy)

    Po River, longest river in Italy, rising in the Monte Viso group of the Cottian Alps on Italy’s western frontier and emptying into the Adriatic Sea in the east after a course of 405 miles (652 km). Its drainage basin covers 27,062 square miles (70,091 square km), forming Italy’s widest and most f

  • Bodish languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Classification: …present their subdivisions (such as Bodish, Himalayish, Kirantish, Burmish, Kachinish, and Kukish) should be considered as the classificatory peaks around which other Sino-Tibetan languages group themselves as members or more or less distant relatives. Certainly the stage has not yet been reached in which definite boundaries can be laid down…

  • Bodish-Himalayish languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibetic languages: …for Tibet) division comprises the Bodish-Himalayish, Kirantish, and Mirish language groups.

  • Bodleian Library (library, University of Oxford, England, United Kingdom)

    Bodleian Library, library of the University of Oxford, one of the oldest and most important nonlending reference libraries in Great Britain. A legal deposit library entitled to free copies of all books printed in Great Britain, the Bodleian is particularly rich in Oriental manuscripts and

  • Bodleian Library Homer (manuscript)

    calligraphy: Origins to the 8th century ce: …period,” see below) or the Bodleian Library Homer can stand comparison with any later vellum manuscript from outside Egypt. Book texts are written in separately made capitals (often called uncials, but in Greek paleography, except for the time-hallowed class of biblical uncials, the term is better avoided) in columns of…

  • Bodley, George F. (British architect)

    Western architecture: From the 19th to the early 20th century: Other notable Gothicists were George F. Bodley, who often employed the artist William Morris and his associates, including the painters Ford Madox Brown and Sir Edward Burne-Jones, to decorate his churches; and Philip Speakman Webb, who had himself been a pupil with Morris in the office of Street and…

  • Bodley, Sir Thomas (English noble)

    Bodleian Library: …the library was restored by Sir Thomas Bodley (a collector of medieval manuscripts) and reopened in 1602. Bodley added new buildings, surrounding university buildings were taken over, and additions were made at various times up to the 19th century. A new building, connected with the old buildings by an underground…

  • Bodmer Papyri

    biblical literature: Papyri: The papyri of p72, Papyri Bodmer VII and VIII, are also from the 3rd century. VII contains a manuscript of Jude in a mixed text, and VIII contains I and II Peter. In I Peter the Greek was written by a scribe whose native language was Coptic; there are many…

  • Bodmer, Johann Georg (Swiss inventor)

    Johann Georg Bodmer, Swiss mechanic and prolific inventor of machine tools and textile-making machinery. Information on Bodmer’s life is scanty, but it is known that he lived in Switzerland, England, France, and Austria. Because many of his ideas were in advance of their time, his manufacturing

  • Bodmer, Johann Jakob (Swiss historian and writer)

    Johann Jakob Bodmer, Swiss historian, professor, and critical writer who contributed to the development of an original German literature in Switzerland. Bodmer taught Helvetian history at the Zürich grammar school from 1725 until 1775 and from 1737 was a member of the Grosser Rat (cantonal

  • Bodmer, Karl (Swiss artist)

    Maximilian, prince zu Wied-Neuwied: …with him the Swiss artist Karl Bodmer to record the landscapes and peoples they encountered. They traveled from Boston westward along the Ohio River to St. Louis, Missouri, from where they traveled by steamboat up the Missouri River through what are now Missouri, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Montana.…

  • Bodmer, Martin (Swiss collector)

    biblical literature: Papyri: …the other Bodmer papyri, which Martin Bodmer, a Swiss private collector, acquired from Egypt, were published 1956–61. They are in the private Bodmer library at Cologny, near Geneva. P48 is a late-3rd-century text of Acts now in a library in Florence. It contains Acts 23:11–17, 23–29 and illustrates a Greek…

  • Bodmin (England, United Kingdom)

    Bodmin, town (parish), Cornwall unitary authority, southwestern England. The town lies on the edge of Bodmin Moor, a barren heathland covering an area of 80 square miles (207 square km). In the 1990s the crown courts moved from Bodmin to Truro, which effectively made Truro the county town (seat) of

  • Bodmin Moor (moor, England, United Kingdom)

    Bodmin: …lies on the edge of Bodmin Moor, a barren heathland covering an area of 80 square miles (207 square km). In the 1990s the crown courts moved from Bodmin to Truro, which effectively made Truro the county town (seat) of Cornwall. Bodmin, however, officially retains that status.

  • Bodnath (Nepal)

    Central Asian arts: Architecture: …stūpa like the one at Bodnath is the low base from which it rises and its crowning dome-shape. The small stūpa was generally set in the courtyard of a Buddhist monastery. The extant monasteries, none of which dates earlier than the 14th century, are consistent in their plans and structures.…

  • Bodo (protozoan)

    protomonad: The Bodo group includes forms with two to four flagella. The Trypanosoma species are elongated blood parasites found in man and many animals. The members of the vertebrate parasite genus Leishmania also cause disease.

  • Bod? (Norway)

    Bod?, town and port, north-central Norway. It is located at the end of a peninsula projecting into the Norwegian Sea, at the entrance to Salt Fjord. Bod? was founded by Trondheim merchants and chartered in 1816. A commercial-fishing centre specializing in cod drying, it also has ship repair yards

  • Bodo (anthropological and archaeological site, Ethiopia)

    Bodo, site of paleoanthropological excavation in the Awash River valley of Ethiopia known for the 1976 discovery of a 600,000-year-old cranium that is intermediate in shape between Homo erectus and H. sapiens; many authorities classify it as a separate species called H. heidelbergensis. Bodo has

  • Bodo (people)

    Bodo, group of peoples speaking Tibeto-Burman languages in the northeastern Indian states of Assam and Meghalaya and in Bangladesh. The Bodo are the largest minority group in Assam and are concentrated in the northern areas of the Brahmaputra River valley. Most of them are settled farmers, though

  • Bod? Affair (Scandinavian-British history)

    Bod? Affair, (1818–21), a diplomatic scandal involving Sweden-Norway (then a dual monarchy) and Great Britain. The affair arose over the illegal trading activities of an English company in the Norwegian port of Bod?, where Norwegian officials in 1818 seized a large cargo belonging to the company

  • Bodo cranium (hominin fossil)

    Bodo: The Bodo cranium resembles specimens attributed to H. erectus in having prominent browridges, a massive face, and thick cranial bones. Its brain size, however, is larger than most H. erectus specimens and is within the range of H. sapiens. There are several other modern traits as…

  • Bodo language

    Bodo language, a language of the Tibeto-Burman branch of Sino-Tibetan languages having several dialects. Bodo is spoken in the northeastern Indian states of Assam and Meghalaya and in Bangladesh. It is related to Dimasa, Tripura, and Lalunga languages, and it is written in Latin, Devanagari, and

  • Bodo-Garo languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Baric languages: The Baric, or Bodo-Garo, division consists of a number of languages spoken in Assam and falls into a Bodo branch (not to be confused with Bodic-Tibetic, and Bodish, a subdivision of Tibetic) and a Garo branch.

  • Bodoni (typeface)

    Giambattista Bodoni: The typeface that retained the Bodoni name appeared in 1790. Of the many books that he produced during this period, the best known is his Manuale tipografico (1788; “Inventory of Types”), a folio collection of 291 roman and italic typefaces, along with samples of Russian, Greek, and other types. A…

  • Bodoni, Giambattista (Italian printer)

    Giambattista Bodoni, Italian printer who designed several modern typefaces, one of which bears his name and is in common use today. The son of a printer, Bodoni left home as a boy to go to Rome, where he served an apprenticeship at the press of the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, the

  • Bodrogk?z (region, Hungary)

    Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén: The Bodrogk?z region, a flatland in the east, is the county’s most arable area, and peas and lentils are grown there. The Tokaj district is renowned for its dry or semisweet szamorodni (“as it comes”) and sweet aszú wines, made from Furmint and Hárslevel? grapes. The…

  • Bodrum (Turkey)

    Bodrum, town, southwestern Turkey. It lies at the northern end of the Gulf of Kerme (ancient Ceramic Gulf) of the Aegean Sea, opposite the Greek island of Cos. It was built on the ruins of ancient Halicarnassus by the Hospitallers, a Crusading order, who occupied the site in 1402. Their spectacular

  • Bodryci (people)

    Obodrite, member of a people of the Polab group, the northwesternmost of the Slavs in medieval Europe. The Obodrites (sometimes called the Bodryci, from bodry, “brave”) inhabited the lowland country between the lower Elbe River and the Baltic Sea, the area north and northeast of Hamburg in what is

  • body (vehicle)

    automobile: Body: Automotive body designs are frequently categorized according to the number of doors, the arrangement of seats, and the roof structure. Automobile roofs are conventionally supported by pillars on each side of the body. Convertible models with retractable fabric tops rely on the pillar at…

  • Body and Soul (work by Hawkins)

    Coleman Hawkins: …1939 by recording the hit “Body and Soul,” an outpouring of irregular, double-timed melodies that became one of the most imitated of all jazz solos.

  • Body and Soul (recording by Winehouse and Bennett)

    Amy Winehouse: …duet with Tony Bennett, “Body and Soul,” was released posthumously in 2011, and the song ultimately won a Grammy Award for best pop performance by a duo or group. It was followed later that year by Lioness: Hidden Treasures, a collection that included previously unreleased original songs, covers, and…

  • Body and Soul (film by Rossen [1947])

    Body and Soul, American dramatic film, released in 1947, that highlighted the seedy underbelly of the boxing industry. Many consider it one of the best films about the sport, especially noted for its realistic fight scenes. Although Body and Soul is not ostensibly a crime film, gangsters figure

  • body armour (protective clothing)

    Armour, protective clothing with the ability to deflect or absorb the impact of projectiles or other weapons that may be used against its wearer. Until modern times, armour worn by combatants in warfare was laboriously fashioned and frequently elaborately wrought, reflecting the personal importance

  • body art

    Carolee Schneemann: …is considered the progenitor of body art.

  • Body Awareness (play by Baker)

    Annie Baker: Baker’s debut Off-Broadway play, Body Awareness, was performed in 2008, and it brought her national recognition. The work was set in small-town Vermont, and it concerns a troubled lesbian couple, a son with Asperger syndrome, and a male photographer of nudes as their houseguest.

  • body build (physiology)

    Somatotype, human body shape and physique type. The term somatotype is used in the system of classification of human physical types developed by U.S. psychologist W.H. Sheldon. In Sheldon’s system, human beings can be classified as to body build in terms of three extreme body types: endomorphic, or

  • body cavity (anatomy)

    human body: Basic form and development: …are the right and left body cavities. In the dorsal part of the body they are temporary; in the ventral part they become permanent, forming the two pleural cavities, which house the lungs; the peritoneal cavity, which contains the abdominal organs; and the pericardial cavity, which encloses the heart. The…

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