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  • body colour (painting technique)

    Gouache, painting technique in which a gum or an opaque white pigment is added to watercolours to produce opacity. In watercolour the tiny particles of pigment become enmeshed in the fibre of the paper; in gouache the colour lies on the surface of the paper, forming a continuous layer, or coating.

  • body decoration

    dress: Native Americans: Facial and body hair was often plucked out with tweezers, and both face and hair were painted. Red pigment was frequently used to paint the body. Both sexes tattooed their bodies, sometimes all over, and some continue this tradition today; bright red and black were the colours…

  • Body Double (film by De Palma [1984])

    Brian De Palma: The 1980s and ’90s: The director then made Body Double (1984), about a young actor (Craig Wasson) who thinks he has witnessed a murder through his telescope—yet another of De Palma’s homages to Hitchcock’s Rear Window. The film received largely negative reviews—especially for a sequence in which a woman is killed with a…

  • body dysmorphic disorder (pathology)

    mental disorder: Eating disorders: …can also be manifested as body dysmorphic disorder, in which an individual magnifies the negative aspects of a perceived flaw to such a degree that the person shuns social settings or embarks compulsively upon a series of appearance-augmenting procedures, such as dermatological treatments and plastic surgery, in an attempt to…

  • body heat

    Body heat, thermal energy that is a by-product of metabolism in higher animals, especially noticeable in birds and mammals, which exhibit a close control of their body temperature in the face of environmental fluctuation. Birds and mammals can conserve body heat by fluffing up feathers or erecting

  • Body Heat (film by Kasdan [1981])

    Body Heat, American crime film, released in 1981, that is one of the most significant examples of “neo-noir”—a term often used to describe movies that rework the motifs, themes, or visual effects of the golden age of film noir. Its plot bears a strong resemblance to that of one of the greatest noir

  • body image

    anorexia nervosa: Causes and risk factors: …contribute to a negative subjective body image, a lack of awareness of internal feelings (including hunger and emotions), a family history of eating disturbances, social influence, and psychological factors. Psychological factors can include a range of influences, such as an anxious temperament, perfectionistic or obsessive tendencies, a history of trauma,…

  • Body in Question, The (work by Miller)

    Jonathan Miller: In 1978 Miller wrote The Body in Question, a 13-part series on the history of medicine and of attitudes toward the human body, for the British Broadcasting Company; it also became a best-selling book. He continued his association with opera and theatre, not neglecting his interest in medicine. In…

  • body louse (insect)

    human louse: humanus humanus, the body louse, or cootie.

  • body mass (physiology)

    human nutrition: Body mass, body fat, and body water: The human body consists of materials similar to those found in foods; however, the relative proportions differ, according to genetic dictates as well as to the unique life experience of the individual. The body of a healthy lean…

  • body mass index (medicine)

    Body mass index (BMI), an estimate of total body fat. The BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres: weight height2 = BMI. This number, which is central to determining whether an individual is clinically defined as obese, parallels fatness but is not a

  • Body Mix (work by Marclay)

    Christian Marclay: In his Body Mix series (1991–92), a sly comment on the commodification of popular music, various album covers on which human bodies are displayed are stitched together to form mutant figures. The influence of Marcel Duchamp was particularly evident in Marclay’s whimsically transfigured musical instruments, such as…

  • body modifications and mutilations

    Body modifications and mutilations, intentional permanent or semipermanent alterations of the living human body for reasons such as ritual, folk medicine, aesthetics, or corporal punishment. In general, voluntary changes are considered to be modifications, and involuntary changes are considered

  • body of Christ (theology)

    Mystical body of Christ, in Roman Catholicism, a mystical union of all Christians into a spiritual body with Jesus Christ as their head. The concept is rooted in the New Testament and possibly reflects Christianity’s roots in Judaism; St. Paul’s letters to the Corinthians and Romans both use the

  • body of Christ, mystical (theology)

    Mystical body of Christ, in Roman Catholicism, a mystical union of all Christians into a spiritual body with Jesus Christ as their head. The concept is rooted in the New Testament and possibly reflects Christianity’s roots in Judaism; St. Paul’s letters to the Corinthians and Romans both use the

  • Body of Liberties, The (work by Ward)

    Nathaniel Ward: …of Massachusetts, where he wrote The Body of Liberties (1641), a code of law for use in Massachusetts that combined parts of English common law with the Mosaic law, and The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America (1647), a vigorously written pamphlet defending the status quo and attacking, among other…

  • Body of Lies (film by Scott [2008])

    Ridley Scott: … (2005), American Gangster (2007), and Body of Lies (2008). He later helmed the action adventure Robin Hood (2010), which starred Crowe and Cate Blanchett; Prometheus (2012), a sci-fi thriller that revisited the eerie world of Alien; and The Counselor (2013), a crime drama scripted by Cormac McCarthy

  • Body of Work, A (album by Anka)

    Paul Anka: Anka’s album A Body of Work (1998) included newly composed and remade songs, performed as solos or as duets with such artists as Céline Dion and Patti LaBelle. With the albums Rock Swings (2005) and Classic Songs: My Way (2007), Anka reimagined hit songs originally performed by…

  • body painting

    dress: Male display: … a society is, the more body paint, tattoos, or scarification is employed to denote the warriors and the chiefs, with each rank having its individual pattern. In addition, in many societies, only after an individual has reached a certain age or satisfied some other requirements is he allowed to wear…

  • body plan (biology)

    biology, philosophy of: Form and function: …what Gould referred to as Baupl?ne (German: “body plans”).

  • body plate (anatomy)

    crocodile: Form and function: …covered with large, rectangular horny plates arranged regularly in longitudinal and transverse rows. Most of the dorsal plates have a longitudinal ridge, or keel. Under these plates lie bony structures called osteoderms of about the same size. This configuration occurs in all but one species; in the estuarine crocodile, the…

  • body politic (political science)

    Body politic, in Western political thought, an ancient metaphor by which a state, society, or church and its institutions are conceived of as a biological (usually human) body. As it is usually applied, the metaphor implies hierarchical leadership and a division of labour, and it carries a strong

  • body shape (physiology)

    Somatotype, human body shape and physique type. The term somatotype is used in the system of classification of human physical types developed by U.S. psychologist W.H. Sheldon. In Sheldon’s system, human beings can be classified as to body build in terms of three extreme body types: endomorphic, or

  • Body Shop International PLC, The (British company)

    marketing: Marketing’s contribution to individuals and society: …pioneers of societal marketing are The Body Shop International PLC, based in England, and Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc., which produces ice cream and is based in the U.S. state of Vermont. Body Shop’s cosmetics and personal hygiene products, based on natural ingredients, are sold in recycled packaging. The products…

  • body size (biology)

    animal: Evolution of ecological roles: …permitted an increase in body size, which gave rise to successive levels of predators. Quite early in the rapid diversification of animal life, protective hard shells appeared, a defense against predators but later also a means of enabling animals to expand outward from the seas. The intertidal areas, with partial…

  • Body Snatcher (novel by Onetti)

    Juan Carlos Onetti: The novel Juntacadáveres (1964; Body Snatcher) deals with Larsen’s earlier career as a brothel keeper and his concomitant loss of innocence.

  • Body Snatcher, The (film by Wise [1945])

    Robert Wise: Films of the mid- to late 1940s: …during the Franco-German War, and The Body Snatcher (1945), a superior short-schedule, low-budget B-film based on a Robert Louis Stevenson story about a doctor (Henry Daniell) who hires a grave robber (Boris Karloff) to supply him with cadavers for his experiments. Like most of Wise’s films in the genre, that…

  • body snatching

    Body snatching, the illicit removal of corpses from graves or morgues during the 18th and 19th centuries. Cadavers thus obtained were typically sold to medical schools for use in the study of anatomy. In his The Devil’s Dictionary, the acerbic lexicographer Ambrose Bierce defined a body snatcher as

  • body squeeze (pathology)

    Skin squeeze, effect on the skin of exposure to a pressure less than that of the surrounding environmental pressure. Skin squeeze is most prevalent among pilots and underwater divers working in pressurized suits. In both professions the participants encounter unusual pressures. In deep-sea diving,

  • body temperature (biology)

    dinosaur: Body temperature: Beyond eating, digestion, assimilation, reproduction, and nesting, many other processes and activities went into making the dinosaur a successful biological machine. Breathing, fluid balance, temperature regulation, and other such capabilities are also required. Dinosaurian body temperature regulation, or lack thereof, has been a…

  • body tube (microscope part)

    microscope: Mechanical components: The microscope body tube separates the objective and the eyepiece and assures continuous alignment of the optics. It is a standardized length, anthropometrically related to the distance between the height of a bench or tabletop (on which the microscope stands) and the position of the seated observer’s…

  • body type (physiology)

    Somatotype, human body shape and physique type. The term somatotype is used in the system of classification of human physical types developed by U.S. psychologist W.H. Sheldon. In Sheldon’s system, human beings can be classified as to body build in terms of three extreme body types: endomorphic, or

  • body wasting (pathology)

    cancer: Effects of tumours on the individual: …such as body wasting (cachexia) and a variety of clinical manifestations known as paraneoplastic syndromes. Both local and systemic effects are described in this section.

  • body wave (seismology)

    seismic wave: …elastic waves; two, known as body waves, travel within the Earth, whereas the other two, called surface waves, travel along its surface. Seismographs record the amplitude and frequency of seismic waves and yield information about the Earth and its subsurface structure. Artificially generated seismic waves recorded during seismic surveys are…

  • body weight (physiology)

    anorexia nervosa: …individual to maintain a normal body weight. A person with anorexia nervosa typically weighs no more than 85 percent of the expected weight for the person’s age, height, and sex, and in some cases much less. In addition, people with anorexia nervosa have a distorted evaluation of their own weight…

  • Bódy, Gábor (Hungarian director)

    Gábor Bódy, Hungarian film and video director. His often controversial ideas and methods of filmmaking met with critical success in Hungary and abroad. In 1971 Bódy took a degree in philosophy from E?tv?s Loránd University in Budapest; the title of his thesis was “A film jelentése” (“The Meaning of

  • body, human

    Human body, the physical substance of the human organism, composed of living cells and extracellular materials and organized into tissues, organs, and systems. Human anatomy and physiology are treated in many different articles. For detailed discussions of specific tissues, organs, and systems, see

  • body-centred cubic structure (crystalline form)

    steel: The base metal: iron: In the body-centred cubic (bcc) arrangement, there is an additional iron atom in the centre of each cube. In the face-centred cubic (fcc) arrangement, there is one additional iron atom at the centre of each of the six faces of the unit cube. It is significant that…

  • body-mind dualism (philosophy)

    Mind–body dualism, in philosophy, any theory that mind and body are distinct kinds of substances or natures. This position implies that mind and body not only differ in meaning but refer to different kinds of entities. Thus, a dualist would oppose any theory that identifies mind with the brain,

  • body-popping (dance)

    dance: Tribal dance: …in the break-dancing and “body-popping” craze that swept the United States and Britain in the 1980s. While the dancers clearly were not members of a tribe in any strict sense, they were often members of a distinct group or crew that had its own style and identity. These crews…

  • body-wave magnitude scale (seismology)

    Richter scale: Modified Richter scales: …Richter scale, they developed the body-wave magnitude scale (mb, which calculates the magnitude of primary, or P, and secondary, or S, seismic waves traveling within Earth) and the surface-wave magnitude scale (MS, which calculates the magnitude of Love and Rayleigh waves traveling along Earth’s surface). Although both scales continued to…

  • bodybuilding (sport)

    Bodybuilding, a regimen of exercises designed to enhance the human body’s muscular development and promote general health and fitness. As a competitive activity, bodybuilding aims to display in artistic fashion pronounced muscle mass, symmetry, and definition for overall aesthetic effect. Barbells,

  • Bodyguard, The (film by Jackson [1992])

    Kevin Costner: Whitney Houston in the romance The Bodyguard (1992). Subsequent acting credits in the 1990s included Clint Eastwood’s drama A Perfect World (1993); the postapocalyptic Waterworld (1995) and The Postman (1997), the latter of which he also directed; and the sports-themed Tin Cup (1996) and For Love of the Game (1999).

  • Bodyguards and Assassins (film by Chan [2009])

    Li Yuchun: …the 2009 Hong Kong-produced film Bodyguards and Assassins (Shiyueh weicheng). In it she plays a young kung fu expert who, in 1906, helps protect revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen from would-be assassins sent by the Chinese imperial government. Li’s performance earned her two nominations (for best supporting actress and best new…

  • bodyline bowling (cricket)

    cricket: Test matches: …of the use of “bodyline” bowling tactics, in which the ball was bowled close to or at the batsman. This scheme was devised by the English captain, D.R. Jardine, and involved fast short-pitched deliveries bowled to the batsman’s body so that the batter would be hit on the upper…

  • bodyweight (physiology)

    anorexia nervosa: …individual to maintain a normal body weight. A person with anorexia nervosa typically weighs no more than 85 percent of the expected weight for the person’s age, height, and sex, and in some cases much less. In addition, people with anorexia nervosa have a distorted evaluation of their own weight…

  • Boé (Guinea-Bissau)

    Boé, town located on the Corubal River in southeastern Guinea-Bissau. It was the site of the declaration of independence put forth in 1973 by the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde; PAIGC). The mayor of Bissau city,

  • Bo?, Fran?ois De le (German physician)

    Franciscus Sylvius, physician, physiologist, anatomist, and chemist who is considered the founder of the 17th-century iatrochemical school of medicine, which held that all phenomena of life and disease are based on chemical action. His studies helped shift medical emphasis from mystical speculation

  • Bo?, Franz De le (German physician)

    Franciscus Sylvius, physician, physiologist, anatomist, and chemist who is considered the founder of the 17th-century iatrochemical school of medicine, which held that all phenomena of life and disease are based on chemical action. His studies helped shift medical emphasis from mystical speculation

  • Boé, Jacques (French poet)

    Jacques Jasmin, French dialect poet who achieved popular fame for his touching verse portraits of humble people and places. His father was a poor tailor, and Jasmin himself spent most of his life as a barber and wigmaker in his native part of southern France. His first collection of poems,

  • Boece, Hector (Scottish historian)

    Hector Boece, historian and humanist, author of an important Latin history of Scotland. Boece was educated at Dundee and the University of Paris, where he was appointed regent (professor) of philosophy and became a friend of Desiderius Erasmus. He was chief adviser to William Elphinstone, bishop of

  • Boeckh, August (German scholar)

    classical scholarship: The new German humanism: In Berlin August Boeckh (1785–1867) did important work on Greek poetry, particularly Pindar, but also established on a firm footing the study of Greek private and public economy and the systematic collection of Greek inscriptions. K.O. Müller (1797–1840), the author of an important history of Greek literature,…

  • Boegoebergdam (dam, South Africa)

    Boegoebergdam, concrete irrigation dam, on the middle Orange River, Northern Cape province, South Africa. The Orange River flows through a hard quartzite outcrop at the dam site. Built in 1931, the Boegoebergdam irrigates about 42,000 acres (17,000 hectares) for about 150 miles (240 km) on both

  • Boehm system (musical instrument design)

    clarinet: The Boehm system, patented by Hyacinthe E. Klosé and Buffet (Paris, 1844) and still standard in most countries, incorporates much of Boehm’s 1832 flute fingering system, bringing many technical advantages. It is distinguished from the other system by the ring at the back for the thumb…

  • Boehm, Carl (Austrian actor)

    Peeping Tom: …cameraman Mark Lewis (played by Carl Boehm) is a disturbed young man who kills women and films their dying moments. As a boy he had been psychologically abused by his father (Michael Powell), who experimented on him to monitor his reaction to fear. Mark’s attempts to have a relationship with…

  • Boehm, Edward Marshall (American potter)

    pottery: Pottery factories: …in England, and those of Edward Marshall Boehm, at Trenton, New Jersey, established a new development in decorative porcelain. Characteristic of that kind of work are the American birds of Doughty issued in limited editions by the Worcester Company. They are especially remarkable for technical advances in preparing the article…

  • Boehm, Theobald (German woodwind maker)

    Theobald Boehm, German flutist, composer for the flute, and flute maker whose key mechanism and fingering system were widely adopted by later makers. The son of a goldsmith, Boehm studied flute and became a Munich court musician in 1818. In 1828 he opened a factory in which in 1832 he developed the

  • Boehmeria (plant)

    Ramie, any of several fibre-yielding plants of the genus Boehmeria, belonging to the nettle family (Urticaceae), and their fibre, one of the bast fibre (q.v.) group. Boehmeria nivea, native to China, is the species usually cultivated for fibre, although B. nivea variety tenacissima, native to

  • Boehmeria nivea (plant)

    ramie: Boehmeria nivea, native to China, is the species usually cultivated for fibre, although B. nivea variety tenacissima, native to Malaysia and frequently called rhea, is also a fibre source.

  • Boehmeria nivea tenacissima (plant)

    ramie: …to Malaysia and frequently called rhea, is also a fibre source.

  • Boehmeria nivea variety tenacissima (plant)

    ramie: …to Malaysia and frequently called rhea, is also a fibre source.

  • boehmite (mineral)

    Boehmite, white and relatively soft basic aluminum oxide [AlO(OH)] that is a common mineral in bauxite, in which it forms disseminated grains or pealike masses. It is especially abundant in European bauxites, sometimes as the main constituent; bauxites from the Western Hemisphere commonly contain

  • Boehner, John (American politician)

    John Boehner, American Republican politician who represented Ohio in the U.S. House of Representatives (1991–2015). During his tenure, he served as majority leader (2006), minority leader (2007–11), and speaker of the House (2011–15). Boehner grew up in a large Roman Catholic family (he had 11

  • Boehner, John Andrew (American politician)

    John Boehner, American Republican politician who represented Ohio in the U.S. House of Representatives (1991–2015). During his tenure, he served as majority leader (2006), minority leader (2007–11), and speaker of the House (2011–15). Boehner grew up in a large Roman Catholic family (he had 11

  • Boeing 247 (airplane)

    aerospace engineering: Aeronautical engineering: …accepted until 1933, when the Boeing 247-D entered service. The twin-engine design of the latter established the foundation of modern air transport.

  • Boeing 247-D (airplane)

    aerospace engineering: Aeronautical engineering: …accepted until 1933, when the Boeing 247-D entered service. The twin-engine design of the latter established the foundation of modern air transport.

  • Boeing 367-80 (jetliner)

    Boeing 707: The 367-80, often called the Dash 80, had swept wings and, powered by four underslung 10,000-pound-thrust turbojet engines, could reach a top speed of 600 miles (966 km) per hour. It was first flown in a demonstration flight on July 15, 1954, and the U.S. Air…

  • Boeing 707 (jetliner)

    Boeing 707, the first successful commercial passenger jetliner. The mid- to long-range narrow-body four-engine aircraft with a swept-wing design was developed and manufactured by the Boeing Company. It made its first flight on December 20, 1957, and entered commercial service on October 26, 1958.

  • Boeing 727 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …707 was followed by the 727 trijet and 737 twinjet, which entered service in 1964 and 1968, respectively. The 737 was developed into a modern family of planes, and by the end of the 20th century it had become the world’s best-selling commercial aircraft. The high development costs of the…

  • Boeing 737 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …by the 727 trijet and 737 twinjet, which entered service in 1964 and 1968, respectively. The 737 was developed into a modern family of planes, and by the end of the 20th century it had become the world’s best-selling commercial aircraft. The high development costs of the 747 “Jumbo Jet,”…

  • Boeing 747 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …high development costs of the 747 “Jumbo Jet,” the world’s first wide-body jetliner, almost forced Boeing into bankruptcy, but, when the 400-seat aircraft went into service in 1970, it allowed airlines to offer affordable long-range air travel for the general public and gave Boeing a monopoly position in this market…

  • Boeing 747-200B (jetliner)

    Air Force One: …have been in service: identical Boeing 747-200B jumbo jets bearing the tail numbers 28000 and 29000 and the Air Force designation VC-25A.

  • Boeing 757 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …followed by its twin-engine, single-aisle 757 the next year. By featuring a common flight deck for the two aircraft, pilots who trained and qualified on one plane could also fly the other, thus reducing cost and increasing productivity for carriers. This concept of commonality also applied to more than 40…

  • Boeing 767 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …first flew its twin-engine, wide-body Boeing 767, followed by its twin-engine, single-aisle 757 the next year. By featuring a common flight deck for the two aircraft, pilots who trained and qualified on one plane could also fly the other, thus reducing cost and increasing productivity for carriers. This concept of…

  • Boeing 777 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …next jetliner, the twin-engine, wide-body 777, Boeing involved several key airlines in the development process in order to ensure that market needs and customer preferences were satisfied. Advances in computers and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software allowed Boeing to develop the 777 entirely on computers without having to build…

  • Boeing 787 (jetliner)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …began taking orders for the 787 Dreamliner, a mid-range jet with speeds (Mach 0.85) that would match the fastest wide-body long-range planes but with vastly improved fuel efficiency, thanks to new high-bypass turbofan engines built by Pratt & Whitney and Rolls-Royce and a radically innovative body design. Roughly half of…

  • Boeing Aircraft Company (American company)

    Boeing Company, American aerospace company—the world’s largest—that is the foremost manufacturer of commercial jet transports. It is also a leading producer of military aircraft, helicopters, space vehicles, and missiles, a standing significantly enhanced with the company’s acquisition of the

  • Boeing B-17 bomber (aircraft)

    B-17, U.S. heavy bomber used during World War II. The B-17 was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company in response to a 1934 Army Air Corps specification that called for a four-engined bomber at a time when two engines were the norm. The bomber was intended from the outset to attack strategic

  • Boeing B-47 bomber (aircraft)

    bomber: B-47 Stratojet, the British Valiant, Vulcan, and Victor, and the Soviet Tu-16 Badger threatened to annihilate major cities with atomic or thermonuclear bombs in the event of war in Europe.

  • Boeing B-52 (aircraft)

    B-52, U.S. long-range heavy bomber, designed by the Boeing Company in 1948, first flown in 1952, and first delivered for military service in 1955. Though originally intended to be an atomic-bomb carrier capable of reaching the Soviet Union, it has proved adaptable to a number of missions, and

  • Boeing B-9 bomber (aircraft)

    military aircraft: Bombers: …Boeing Aircraft Company produced the B-9 bomber. Anticipating all-metal fighters, the B-9 was the first operational combat aircraft with all-metal cantilever monoplane design, semiretractable undercarriage, and variable-pitch propellers. Two 600-horsepower engines gave it a speed of 188 miles (302 km) per hour, representing a 50 percent improvement over the biplane…

  • Boeing Company (American company)

    Boeing Company, American aerospace company—the world’s largest—that is the foremost manufacturer of commercial jet transports. It is also a leading producer of military aircraft, helicopters, space vehicles, and missiles, a standing significantly enhanced with the company’s acquisition of the

  • Boeing CST-100 Starliner (spacecraft)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …finish the development of its CST-100 spacecraft to carry crews to the ISS. Since the discontinuation of its space shuttle program in 2011, NASA has relied on Russian transports to take astronauts to the ISS.

  • Boeing Helicopters (American company)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: In 1960 Boeing purchased Vertol Corporation, then the world’s largest independent manufacturer of helicopters. As Boeing Helicopters, the unit focused on tandem-rotor helicopters and was responsible for the development of the CH-47 Chinook and CH-46 Sea Knight military transport helicopters (first flown in 1961 and 1962, respectively). Boeing’s work…

  • Boeing Rocketdyne (American company)

    Boeing Company: Rockwell International Corporation: The company’s Rocketdyne division (established as part of North American Aviation in 1955) developed the rocket engines used in many U.S. space programs, including those for the three stages of the Saturn V rocket and the main engines of the shuttle orbiter.

  • Boeing Stratoliner (aircraft)

    history of flight: From airmail to airlines in the United States: Boeing’s Stratoliner, a pathbreaking transport that featured a pressurized cabin, entered service in 1940. Pressurization enabled airliners to fly above adverse weather, permitting transports to maintain dependable schedules and giving passengers a more comfortable trip. Moreover, at higher altitudes, airliners actually experienced less atmospheric friction, or…

  • Boeing, William E. (American businessman)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …when the American timber merchant William E. Boeing founded Aero Products Company shortly after he and U.S. Navy officer Conrad Westervelt developed a single-engine, two-seat seaplane, the B&W. Renamed Boeing Airplane Company in 1917, the enterprise built “flying boats” for the Navy during World War I, and in the 1920s…

  • Boeke, Cornelis Kees (Dutch educator and author)

    Kees Boeke, Dutch educator, Quaker, and pacifist, who was the author of the children’s book Cosmic View (1957). Boeke grew up in Alkmaar, Neth., where his father was director of the local secondary school. While a student in civil engineering at the Delft University of Technology, he became a

  • Boeke, Kees (Dutch educator and author)

    Kees Boeke, Dutch educator, Quaker, and pacifist, who was the author of the children’s book Cosmic View (1957). Boeke grew up in Alkmaar, Neth., where his father was director of the local secondary school. While a student in civil engineering at the Delft University of Technology, he became a

  • Boelte, Maria (German-American educator)

    Maria Kraus-Boelté, German American educator, one of the early exponents of kindergarten, who trained many teachers for that specialization. Maria Boelté was of a prominent family and was privately educated. As a young woman she became interested in the work of Friedrich Froebel in the education of

  • Boémia, Martinho de (Portuguese geographer and navigator)

    Martin Behaim, navigator and geographer whose Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe is the earliest globe extant. Behaim first visited Portugal about 1480 as a merchant in the Flemish trade and, claiming to have been a pupil of the astronomer Johann Müller (Regiomontanus) at Nürnberg, became an adviser on

  • BOEMRE (United States agency)

    Deepwater Horizon oil spill: Aftermath and impact: …Joint Investigation Team of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) and the U.S. Coast Guard emphasized BP’s ultimate responsibility for the disaster. (BOEMRE had supplanted the Minerals Management Agency, which had regulated drilling before the spill, in June 2010.) The report noted that, although the defective…

  • B?ng T?nlé Sab (reservoir, Cambodia)

    Tonle Sap, natural floodplain reservoir, central Cambodia. The lake is drained during the dry season by the Sab River (T?nlé Sab) across the Véal P?c plain southeastward to the Mekong River. Called by the French Grand Lac (“Great Lake”), the lake is fed by numerous erratic tributaries and also by

  • Boeotia (district, Greece)

    Boeotia, district of ancient Greece with a distinctive military, artistic, and political history. It corresponds somewhat to the modern perifereiakí enótita (regional unit) of Boeotia, Central Greece (Modern Greek: Stereá Elláda) periféreia (region), northern Greece. The regional unit extends

  • Boeotian League (ancient Greece)

    Boeotian League, league that first developed as an alliance of sovereign states in Boeotia, a district in east-central Greece, about 550 bc, under the leadership of Thebes. After the defeat of the Greeks at Thermopylae, Thebes and most of Boeotia sided with the Persians during the Persian

  • Boer (breed of goat)

    Boer, South African breed of goat, the most productive meat goat in the world. Millions of Boer goats are raised across southern Africa as well as in Australia and New Zealand, the United States and Canada, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere. They are prized for their size, rapid weight gain,

  • Boer (people)

    Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. In 1652 the Dutch East India Company charged Jan

  • Boer Great Trek (South African history)

    Great Trek, the emigration of some 12,000 to 14,000 Boers from Cape Colony in South Africa between 1835 and the early 1840s, in rebellion against the policies of the British government and in search of fresh pasturelands. The Great Trek is regarded by Afrikaners as a central event of their

  • Boer War (British-South African history)

    South African War, war fought from October 11, 1899, to May 31, 1902, between Great Britain and the two Boer (Afrikaner) republics—the South African Republic (Transvaal) and the Orange Free State—resulting in British victory. Although it was the largest and most costly war in which the British

  • Boeren Beschermings Vereeniging (South African history)

    Afrikaner Bond: …amalgamated with Jan Hendrik Hofmeyr’s Boeren Beschermings Vereeniging (“Farmer’s Protection Association”). Du Toit attempted to create a pan-Afrikaner nationalist Bond with affiliated branches outside the Cape, but this effort foundered, and the unity of Afrikaners in the late 1890s owed more to British imperial intervention in Southern Africa than to…

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