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  • Bokassa, Jean-Bédel (president of Central African Republic)

    Jean-Bédel Bokassa, African military leader who was president of the Central African Republic (1966–76) and self-styled emperor of the Central African Empire (1976–79). The son of a village headman, Bokassa attended local mission schools before joining the French army in 1939. He distinguished

  • Boké (Guinea)

    Boké, town and port located in western Guinea. It lies along the Nu?ez River, near the Atlantic coast. The country’s most important bauxite-producing area lies north of Sangarédi, 50 miles (80 km) east-northeast of Boké, where an international consortium began to exploit bauxite in 1973. Once a

  • Boke Huon de Bordeuxe, The (translation by Berners)

    John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners: …translation of the French romance The Boke Huon de Bordeuxe, which introduces Oberon, king of the fairies, into English literature, is almost as successful as his translation of Froissart. Near the end of his life, he translated into English prose two of the newly fashionable courtesy books: The Castell of…

  • Boke Named the Governour, The (work by Elyot)

    Sir Thomas Elyot: In 1531 he published The Boke Named the Governour, dedicated to the king, and that autumn went as the king’s envoy to the court of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V.

  • Boke of St. Albans, The (English book)

    Saint Albans: One of his books, The Boke of St. Albans, contains the earliest example of colour printing in England. Printing and other light industries such as electrical engineering and the manufacture of musical instruments are still important, but services (including tourism) now constitute much of the local economic activity.

  • Boke or Counseill Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate, or Sweatyng Sicknesse, A (work by Caius)

    sweating sickness: His account, A Boke or Counseill Against the Disease Commonly Called the Sweate, or Sweatyng Sicknesse (1552), is the main historical source of knowledge of the extraordinary disease.

  • Bokenam, Osbern (English author)

    Osbern Bokenam, English poet and friar best known as the author of a verse collection entitled Legends of Holy Women. Little is known of Bokenam’s life. He traveled often to Italy, living for several years in Venice and later making pilgrimages to Rome and other cities. He made his home, however,

  • Bokenham, Osbern (English author)

    Osbern Bokenam, English poet and friar best known as the author of a verse collection entitled Legends of Holy Women. Little is known of Bokenam’s life. He traveled often to Italy, living for several years in Venice and later making pilgrimages to Rome and other cities. He made his home, however,

  • Bokeyqan-ul?, Aliqan Nūrmuhambet (Kazak author)

    Kazakhstan: Cultural life: Baytūrsyn-ul?, along with Aliqan Nūrmuhambet Bokeyqan-ul?, Mir Jaqib Duwlat-ul?, and, later, Maghjan Jumabay-ul?, represented the cream of Kazakh modernism in literature, publishing, and cultural politics in the reformist decades before Sovietization set in after 1920. All these figures disappeared into Soviet prisons and never returned, as a result…

  • Bokhara (oblast, Uzbekistan)

    Buxoro, oblast (province), central Uzbekistan. The oblast was constituted in 1938, but in 1982 much of its territory in the north and east was transferred to a newly formed Navoi oblast. Buxoro oblast mainly comprises the Kimirekkum Desert, with the lower reaches of the Zeravshan River in the

  • Bokhara (Uzbekistan)

    Bukhara, city, south-central Uzbekistan, located about 140 miles (225 km) west of Samarkand. The city lies on the Shakhrud Canal in the delta of the Zeravshan River, at the centre of Bukhara oasis. Founded not later than the 1st century ce (and possibly as early as the 3rd or 4th century bce),

  • Bokhara rug

    Bukhara rug, name erroneously given to floor coverings made by various Turkmen tribes. The city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan, became prominent as a seat of Islamic scholarship in the early medieval period. During the first half of the 20th century its name was applied to rugs of various Turkmen tribes,

  • Bokher, Elye (Italian grammarian)

    Elijah Bokher Levita, German-born Jewish grammarian whose writings and teaching furthered the study of Hebrew in European Christendom at a time of widespread hostility toward the Jews. Levita went to Italy early in life and in 1504 settled at Padua. There he wrote a manual of Hebrew (1508) that was

  • Bokkeveld Series (rock formation, Africa)

    Africa: The Paleozoic Era: …they also occur in the Bokkeveld Series of South Africa. Fossilized plants that include Archaeosigillaria (ancient club mosses) may be traced in formations of the earlier Devonian Period in the Sahara and in South Africa (Witteberg Series).

  • bokkoi (primate)

    macaque: Species: Another close relative is the bokkoi (M. pagensis), found only on the Mentawai Islands of Indonesia.

  • Bokl?v, Jan (Swedish ski jumper)

    ski jumping: …the mid-1980s, however, Swedish jumper Jan Bokl?v demonstrated a new technique that provided even more lift: the V style. This position is achieved by pointing the tips of the skis outward in opposite directions to create a V shape. After initially being ridiculed for his nontraditional style, Bokl?v was later…

  • Bokm?l (Norwegian language)

    Bokm?l, a literary form of Norwegian developed by the gradual reform of written Danish in conformity to Norwegian usage. Bokm?l means in Norwegian “book language” and Riksm?l approximately “official language” (meaning literally, “language of the

  • Bokna Fjord (fjord, Norway)

    Bokna Fjord, inlet of the North Sea in southwestern Norway. At its mouth, between the southern tip of Karm Island and the northern tip of the Tungenes Peninsula, it is 12 miles (20 km) wide. Bokna Fjord proper extends inland for about 28 miles (45 km). Its principal branches include Skjold Fjord

  • Boko Haram (Nigerian Islamic group)

    Boko Haram, (Hausa: “Westernization Is Sacrilege”) Islamic sectarian movement, founded in 2002 by Muhammed Yusuf in northeastern Nigeria, that since 2009 has carried out assassinations and large-scale acts of violence in that country. The group’s initial proclaimed intent was to uproot the

  • bokolanfini (textile)

    African art: Bambara (Bamana): …is a textile known as bokolanfini. This cloth, embellished with designs painted in earth, absorbs the nyama released during girls’ initiation excision and is also worn for marriage and burial. Traditionally, bokolanfini patterns served as cues to broader reflections on life; contemporary textiles are created in Bamako and elsewhere solely…

  • Bokros, Lajos (Hungarian government official)

    Hungary: Economic and social change: Lajos Bokros, finance minister for Horn, attempted a turnaround with an austerity package (since known as the Bokros package) that called for the dismantling of the last vestiges of Hungary’s expensive cradle-to-grave socialist policies. He devalued the currency, reduced social benefits, and accelerated the sale…

  • Boksburg (South Africa)

    Boksburg, town and diversified industrial and mining centre, Gauteng province, South Africa, 5 miles (8 km) east of Johannesburg. Established in 1887 as the administrative centre of the East Rand with the discovery of gold and coal in the area, it has become one of the most important gold-producing

  • bokuseki (calligraphy)

    Bokuseki, (Japanese: “ink trace”, ) calligraphic style of the Buddhist sects known as Zen in Japan and Ch’an in China. This calligraphic form sprang directly from the transplantation during the 12th and 13th centuries of Ch’an Buddhism to Japan, in which country it became known as Zen. Bokuseki

  • Bol, Ferdinand (Dutch painter)

    Sir Godfrey Kneller, Baronet: Ferdinand Bol, one of Rembrandt’s pupils, before going to Italy in 1672. His Elijah of that year gives evidence of a style close to Bol’s. In Italy he began to paint portraits and modified his style. Arriving in England in 1674 or 1675, he soon…

  • Bol, Manute (Sudanese basketball player and political activist)

    Manute Bol, Sudanese basketball player and political activist (born Oct. 16, 1962, southern Sudan—died June 19, 2010, Charlottesville, Va.), used his tremendous height—variously identified as 2.31 m (7 ft 7 in) or 2.29 m (7 ft 6 in)—to great effect as one of the National Basketball Association’s

  • bola (weapon)

    Bola, (Spanish: “balls”; from boleadoras), South American Indian weapon, primarily used for hunting, consisting of stone balls, usually in a group of three, attached to long, slender ropes. In hunting rhea, guanaco, and other animals in open country, the bola is whirled like a sling, then thrown p

  • Bolama (region, Guinea-Bissau)

    Bolama, region made up of the Bijagós Islands in western Guinea-Bissau. The archipelago extends southwestward into the Atlantic Ocean and contains Bolama Island, which is located in the northeastern part of the region and is separated from Quinará region by a channel. Farther southwest, the islands

  • Bolama (Guinea-Bissau)

    Bolama, port town located on the northeast side of Bolama Island, Guinea-Bissau. Bolama Island and town lie between mainland Guinea and the Bijagós Islands. The town served as the capital of Portuguese Guinea until 1941, when it was replaced by Bissau. In the late 1860s the island was claimed by

  • Bolān Pass (valley, Pakistan)

    Bolān Pass, important natural gateway through the Central Brāhui Range in Balochistān province, Pakistan, connecting Sibi with Quetta by road and railway. For centuries it has been a route for traders, invaders, and nomadic tribes between India and higher Asia. It comprises a series of long,

  • Boland Amendment (United States legislation)

    Boland Amendment, series of acts that were passed by the U.S. Congress as a means of preventing the aggressive attempts by Pres. Ronald Reagan’s administration to interfere with the state of affairs of Nicaragua. Shortly after taking office on January 20, 1981, Reagan decided that he would do

  • Boland, Eavan (Irish poet and literary critic)

    Eavan Boland, Irish poet and literary critic whose expressive verse explored familiar domestic themes and examined both the isolation and the beauty of being a woman, wife, and mother. Boland was educated in Dublin, London, and New York City, moving as a result of her father’s itinerant career as a

  • Boland, Eavan Aisling (Irish poet and literary critic)

    Eavan Boland, Irish poet and literary critic whose expressive verse explored familiar domestic themes and examined both the isolation and the beauty of being a woman, wife, and mother. Boland was educated in Dublin, London, and New York City, moving as a result of her father’s itinerant career as a

  • Boland, Edward (United States politicial)

    Boland Amendment: Edward P. Boland from Massachusetts, prohibited the CIA, the Department of Defense, and other government agencies or entities that were involved in intelligence from using any funds whatsoever “for the purpose of overthrowing the government of Nicaragua or providing a military exchange between Nicaragua and…

  • Bolangir (India)

    Balangir, town, western Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. It is situated in a basin surrounded by gently rolling terrain on a stream that flows to the Mahanadi River to the east. Balangir was formerly the capital of the princely state of Patna. It is a marketplace for agricultural products

  • Bola?o ávalos, Roberto (Chilean author)

    Roberto Bola?o, Chilean author who was one of the leading South American literary figures at the turn of the 21st century. Bola?o’s family moved throughout Chile at the behest of his truck-driver father until 1968, when they settled in Mexico City. A voracious reader who was also dyslexic, Bola?o

  • Bola?o, Roberto (Chilean author)

    Roberto Bola?o, Chilean author who was one of the leading South American literary figures at the turn of the 21st century. Bola?o’s family moved throughout Chile at the behest of his truck-driver father until 1968, when they settled in Mexico City. A voracious reader who was also dyslexic, Bola?o

  • Bola?os Geyer, Enrique (president of Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Nicaragua from 1990 to 2006: …time to PLC presidential candidate Enrique Bola?os Geyer. Soon after Bola?os’s inauguration in January 2002, he called for a “New Era” and for Alemán to be stripped of his immunity so that he could be prosecuted for allegedly having stolen some $100 million. The National Assembly narrowly voted to revoke…

  • Bolanos, Mount (mountain, Guam)

    Guam: Land: …Lamlam is another major hill, Mount Bolanos (1,240 feet [378 metres]).

  • bolas (weapon)

    Bola, (Spanish: “balls”; from boleadoras), South American Indian weapon, primarily used for hunting, consisting of stone balls, usually in a group of three, attached to long, slender ropes. In hunting rhea, guanaco, and other animals in open country, the bola is whirled like a sling, then thrown p

  • bolas spider (arachnid)

    chemoreception: Sex-attractant pheromones: Late-stage immature and adult female bolas spiders in the genus Mastophora are known to produce some of the same components of the sex-attractant pheromone produced by females of some noctuid moths. The spider is active at night and hangs from a horizontal silk line. It produces a vertical thread, which…

  • Bolcom, William (American composer)

    William Bolcom, American composer, pianist, and teacher whose compositions encompass many idioms, from popular cabaret songs to more-traditional classical scores. Bolcom graduated from the University of Washington in 1958 and studied composition with Darius Milhaud at Mills College (1958–61) and

  • Bolcom, William Elden (American composer)

    William Bolcom, American composer, pianist, and teacher whose compositions encompass many idioms, from popular cabaret songs to more-traditional classical scores. Bolcom graduated from the University of Washington in 1958 and studied composition with Darius Milhaud at Mills College (1958–61) and

  • Bold Ego (racehorse)

    Pleasant Colony: Bold Ego, second favourite at 7–2 odds, took command at the start and dictated a moderate pace. Pleasant Colony remained in the middle of the track, passing horses until the top of the stretch. He then stormed down the track, caught up to and passed…

  • Bold Ones, The (American television series)

    Television in the United States: The new cultural landscape: …The Mod Squad (ABC, 1968–73), The Bold Ones (NBC, 1969–73), and The Young Lawyers (ABC, 1970–71) injected timely social issues into traditional genres featuring doctors, lawyers, and the police. In another development, 60 Minutes (CBS, begun 1968) fashioned the modern newsmagazine into a prime-time feature.

  • Bold Venture (racehorse)

    Assault: Breeding and early years: His sire was Bold Venture, winner of the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness in 1936, and his great-grandam was a full sister of Man o’ War. It is remarkable that Assault was ever born. His dam, as a foal on the ranch, was so sickly and unpromising that…

  • Bolden, Buddy (American musician)

    Buddy Bolden, cornetist and one of the founding fathers of jazz. Many jazz musicians, including Jelly Roll Morton and the great trumpeter Louis Armstrong, acclaimed him as one of the most powerful musicians ever to play jazz. Little is known about the details of Bolden’s career, but it is

  • Bolden, Charles (American astronaut)

    Charles Bolden, American astronaut who served as the first African American administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 2009 to 2017. Bolden received a bachelor’s degree in electrical science from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1968. He was

  • Bolden, Charles (American musician)

    Buddy Bolden, cornetist and one of the founding fathers of jazz. Many jazz musicians, including Jelly Roll Morton and the great trumpeter Louis Armstrong, acclaimed him as one of the most powerful musicians ever to play jazz. Little is known about the details of Bolden’s career, but it is

  • Bolden, Charles Frank, Jr. (American astronaut)

    Charles Bolden, American astronaut who served as the first African American administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from 2009 to 2017. Bolden received a bachelor’s degree in electrical science from the U.S. Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1968. He was

  • Boldin, Valery (Soviet politician)

    collapse of the Soviet Union: The coup against Gorbachev: …were his chief of staff, Valery Boldin; Oleg Baklanov, first deputy chairman of the U.S.S.R. defense council; Oleg Shenin, secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU); and Gen. Valentin Varennikov, chief of the Soviet Army’s ground forces. They were accompanied by KGB Gen.…

  • boldog ember, A (work by Móricz)

    Zsigmond Móricz: …“Gold in the Mire”), and A boldog ember (1935; “The Happy Man”), which portray individualist peasant characters against the collective life of a village. Kivilágos kivirradtig (1924; “Until the Small Hours of Morning”) and Rokonok (1930; “Relatives”) deal with the life of the decaying provincial nobility. In Móricz’s world, marriage…

  • Boldogasszony (patron saint of Hungary)

    Boldogasszony, the Hungarian equivalent of the Beata Virgo (Latin: “Blessed Virgin”), referring to the Virgin Mary as the patron saint of the Hungarian nation. Originally, Boldogasszony was probably one of the main deities of pagan Magyar mythology. The name was transferred to the Virgin Mary on

  • Boldrewood, Rolf (Australian writer)

    Rolf Boldrewood, romantic novelist best known for his Robbery Under Arms (1888) and A Miner’s Right (1890), both exciting and realistic portrayals of pioneer life in Australia. Taken to Australia as a small child, Boldrewood was educated there and then operated a large farm in Victoria for some

  • Boldt case (law case)

    Native American: Termination: Of the many cases filed, United States v. Washington (1974) had perhaps the most famous and far-reaching decision. More commonly referred to as the Boldt case, after the federal judge, George Boldt, who wrote the decision, this case established that treaty agreements entitled certain Northwest Coast and Plateau tribes to…

  • Boldwood, William (fictional character)

    William Boldwood, fictional character, a farmer whose passionate love for Bathsheba Everdene is his undoing in the novel Far from the Madding Crowd (1874) by Thomas

  • bole (tree)

    papermaking: Wood: Pulped forest tree trunks (boles) are by far the predominant source of papermaking fibre. The bole of a tree consists essentially of fibres with a minimum of nonfibrous elements, such as pith and parenchyma cells.

  • Bolebrook of Sussex, Baron (English politician and soldier)

    George Sackville-Germain, 1st Viscount Sackville, English soldier and politician. He was dismissed from the British army for his failure to obey orders in the Battle of Minden (1759) during the Seven Years’ War. As colonial secretary he was partly responsible for the British defeat at Saratoga

  • boleo (dance step)

    Latin American dance: The Southern Cone: >boleos. The previous close embrace of the dance relaxed so that couples could accommodate the new steps and leg gestures. Musical accompaniment included the guitar, piano, violin, bandoneón (a square-built button accordion), and voice. The tango singer and film star Carlos Gardel became the heartthrob…

  • Bolero (film by Ruggles [1934])

    Wesley Ruggles: The sound era: Also popular was Bolero (1934), an effective teaming of George Raft and Lombard as professional dancers.

  • Boléro (work by Ravel)

    Boléro, one-movement orchestral work composed by Maurice Ravel and known for beginning softly and ending, according to the composer’s instructions, as loudly as possible. Commissioned by the Russian dancer Ida Rubinstein, Boléro was first performed at the Paris Opéra on November 22, 1928, with a

  • bolero (dance)

    Bolero, lively Spanish dance in 34 time with a strongly marked rhythm. The dancers, either singly or as couples, execute brilliant and intricate steps to the rhythmic accompaniment of their castanets. Distinctive features are the paseo (“walk”), bien parado (“sudden stop”), and various beating

  • Bolero (United States military strategy)

    World War II: Allied strategy and controversies, 1940–42: …“Super-Gymnast” in favour of “Bolero,” namely the concentration of forces in Great Britain for a landing in Europe (perhaps at Brest or at Cherbourg) in the autumn; then “Roundup,” an invasion of France by 30 U.S. and 18 British divisions, could follow in April 1943. The British agreed but…

  • Boles, Charles E. (American robber)

    Black Bart, California hooded robber believed to have held up some 28 stagecoaches from 1875 to 1883. Twice he left verse for the occasion, signed “Black Bart,” the more famous being: “I’ve labored long and hard for bread/ For honor and for riches/ But on my corns too long you’ve tred/ You fine

  • Boles, John (American actor)

    John M. Stahl: …the world of publishing, with John Boles as a clerk who leaves his wife and children for an editor he hopes might publish his writings; Bette Davis appeared as one of the daughters. Next was Strictly Dishonorable (1931), an adaptation of the Preston Sturges stage comedy, with Paul Lukas and…

  • Boleslav I (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav I, P?emyslid prince of Bohemia from 929, who established the basis of the medieval Czech state. After instigating the murder of his elder brother, Prince Wenceslas I (St. Wenceslas), Boleslav became ruler of Bohemia. He made Prague the effective administrative centre of his domain,

  • Boleslav II (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav II, prince of Bohemia (967 [or 973]–999), the son and successor of Boleslav I. He successfully continued his father’s work by further consolidating the supremacy of the Czechs over the other Bohemian tribes and by founding monasteries, nunneries, and capitular churches. Boleslav II secured

  • Boleslav III (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav III, prince of Bohemia 999 to 1002 and again in 1003, the eldest son and successor of Boleslav II. His incompetence bred troubles in Bohemia, and he was forced to flee in 1002 first to Germany and then to Poland. He made a brief return in 1003 with Polish help, murdered his enemies, and

  • Boleslav Kruty (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav I, P?emyslid prince of Bohemia from 929, who established the basis of the medieval Czech state. After instigating the murder of his elder brother, Prince Wenceslas I (St. Wenceslas), Boleslav became ruler of Bohemia. He made Prague the effective administrative centre of his domain,

  • Boleslav Pobo?ny (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav II, prince of Bohemia (967 [or 973]–999), the son and successor of Boleslav I. He successfully continued his father’s work by further consolidating the supremacy of the Czechs over the other Bohemian tribes and by founding monasteries, nunneries, and capitular churches. Boleslav II secured

  • Boleslav Ry?avy (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav III, prince of Bohemia 999 to 1002 and again in 1003, the eldest son and successor of Boleslav II. His incompetence bred troubles in Bohemia, and he was forced to flee in 1002 first to Germany and then to Poland. He made a brief return in 1003 with Polish help, murdered his enemies, and

  • Boleslav Slepy (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav III, prince of Bohemia 999 to 1002 and again in 1003, the eldest son and successor of Boleslav II. His incompetence bred troubles in Bohemia, and he was forced to flee in 1002 first to Germany and then to Poland. He made a brief return in 1003 with Polish help, murdered his enemies, and

  • Boleslav the Blind (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav III, prince of Bohemia 999 to 1002 and again in 1003, the eldest son and successor of Boleslav II. His incompetence bred troubles in Bohemia, and he was forced to flee in 1002 first to Germany and then to Poland. He made a brief return in 1003 with Polish help, murdered his enemies, and

  • Boleslav the Cruel (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav I, P?emyslid prince of Bohemia from 929, who established the basis of the medieval Czech state. After instigating the murder of his elder brother, Prince Wenceslas I (St. Wenceslas), Boleslav became ruler of Bohemia. He made Prague the effective administrative centre of his domain,

  • Boleslav the Pious (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav II, prince of Bohemia (967 [or 973]–999), the son and successor of Boleslav I. He successfully continued his father’s work by further consolidating the supremacy of the Czechs over the other Bohemian tribes and by founding monasteries, nunneries, and capitular churches. Boleslav II secured

  • Boleslav the Red (prince of Bohemia)

    Boleslav III, prince of Bohemia 999 to 1002 and again in 1003, the eldest son and successor of Boleslav II. His incompetence bred troubles in Bohemia, and he was forced to flee in 1002 first to Germany and then to Poland. He made a brief return in 1003 with Polish help, murdered his enemies, and

  • Boleslavski, Richard (Polish-born director)

    Richard Boleslavsky, motion-picture and stage director who introduced the Stanislavsky method of acting to the United States. He directed such popular American films of the 1930s as Rasputin and the Empress (1932), Les Misérables (1935), and Theodora Goes Wild (1936). Boleslavsky first acted

  • Boleslavsky, Richard (Polish-born director)

    Richard Boleslavsky, motion-picture and stage director who introduced the Stanislavsky method of acting to the United States. He directed such popular American films of the 1930s as Rasputin and the Empress (1932), Les Misérables (1935), and Theodora Goes Wild (1936). Boleslavsky first acted

  • Boles?aw Chrobry (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw I, duke (from 992) and then (from 1024) first king of Poland, who expanded his country’s territory to include Pomerania, Lusatia, and, for a time, the Bohemian princely lands. He made Poland a major European state and also created a Polish church independent of German control. The son of M

  • Boles?aw I (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw I, duke (from 992) and then (from 1024) first king of Poland, who expanded his country’s territory to include Pomerania, Lusatia, and, for a time, the Bohemian princely lands. He made Poland a major European state and also created a Polish church independent of German control. The son of M

  • Boles?aw II (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw II, duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland. Boles?aw assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Boles?aw was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped

  • Boles?aw III (prince of Poland)

    Boles?aw III, prince of Poland who introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the eldest son received the major part of the royal inheritance. He converted the people of Pomerania to Christianity. Son of W?adys?aw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia, Boles?aw III and

  • Boles?aw Krzywousty (prince of Poland)

    Boles?aw III, prince of Poland who introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the eldest son received the major part of the royal inheritance. He converted the people of Pomerania to Christianity. Son of W?adys?aw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia, Boles?aw III and

  • Boles?aw Lesman (Polish poet)

    Boles?aw Le?mian, lyric poet who was among the first to adapt Symbolism and Expressionism to Polish verse. Born into a Jewish family, Le?mian was educated in Kiev, Ukraine, where he studied law. He spent several years in France. During most of his later life he functioned as a minor public official

  • Boles?aw ?mia?y (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw II, duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland. Boles?aw assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Boles?aw was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped

  • Boles?aw Szczodry (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw II, duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland. Boles?aw assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Boles?aw was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped

  • Boles?aw the Bold (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw II, duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland. Boles?aw assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Boles?aw was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped

  • Boles?aw the Brave (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw I, duke (from 992) and then (from 1024) first king of Poland, who expanded his country’s territory to include Pomerania, Lusatia, and, for a time, the Bohemian princely lands. He made Poland a major European state and also created a Polish church independent of German control. The son of M

  • Boles?aw the Generous (king of Poland)

    Boles?aw II, duke (1058–76) and later king (1076–79) of Poland. Boles?aw assumed the rule of Poland on the death of his father, Casimir I the Restorer, in 1058. During the struggle between the German kings and the papacy, Boles?aw was able to restore the international position of Poland. He helped

  • Boles?aw the Wry-mouthed (prince of Poland)

    Boles?aw III, prince of Poland who introduced into his country the senioriate system, by which the eldest son received the major part of the royal inheritance. He converted the people of Pomerania to Christianity. Son of W?adys?aw I Herman, ruler of Poland, and Judith of Bohemia, Boles?aw III and

  • Boles?awita, Bogdan (Polish writer)

    Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Polish novelist, poet, literary critic, dramatist, historian, and journalist who was the dominant prose writer of Poland’s Romantic period. Kraszewski attended the University of Wilno (now V. Kapsukas State University), was imprisoned in 1830 on a charge of conspiracy

  • Boles?awski, Richard (Polish-born director)

    Richard Boleslavsky, motion-picture and stage director who introduced the Stanislavsky method of acting to the United States. He directed such popular American films of the 1930s as Rasputin and the Empress (1932), Les Misérables (1935), and Theodora Goes Wild (1936). Boleslavsky first acted

  • Boletaceae (family of fungi)

    Boletaceae, a family of fungi of the order Boletales (phylum Basidiomycota, kingdom Fungi), in which the fruiting structures bear pores rather than gills (as in the Agaricales). Some edible mushrooms are included in the family’s more than 250 cosmopolitan species. They usually can be found in the

  • Boletales (fungus order)

    Boletales, a diverse order of fungi in the class Agaricomycetes (phylum Basidiomycota, kingdom Fungi) that includes some boletes, earthballs, puffballs, and false truffles. Most members are saprobic, primarily found on the wood of fallen trees or in the soil at the base of trees. Examples of genera

  • boletic acid (chemical compound)

    Fumaric acid, organic compound related to maleic acid

  • Boletus (fungus genus)

    Boletaceae: …50 species of the genus Boletus are edible. The undersurfaces range from red to brown in colour. The cepe (B. edulis) is found in woods and groves of trees during July and August. The 50 species of Suillus form mycorrhizal associations (nutritional “partnerships”) between the filaments of the fungus and…

  • Boletus edulis (fungus)

    Boletaceae: The cepe (B. edulis) is found in woods and groves of trees during July and August. The 50 species of Suillus form mycorrhizal associations (nutritional “partnerships”) between the filaments of the fungus and the roots of certain trees.

  • Boleyn, Anne (queen of England)

    Anne Boleyn, second wife of King Henry VIII of England and mother of Queen Elizabeth I. The events surrounding the annulment of Henry’s marriage to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, and his marriage to Anne led him to break with the Roman Catholic Church and brought about the English

  • Boleyn, Anne (fictional character)

    Henry VIII: …becomes enamoured of the beautiful Anne Bullen (Boleyn) and, concerned over his lack of a male heir, expresses doubts about the validity of his marriage to Katharine, his brother’s widow. Separately, Anne, though reluctant to supplant the queen, accepts the king’s proposal. Wolsey tries to extend his power over the…

  • Bolgar (Russia)

    Bolgary, ancient city and capital of the medieval state of Bolgariya Volga-Kama. The ruins of medieval Bolgary are near the present village of Bolgary, Tatarstan republic, in western Russia. Archaeological excavations on the site of the city began in 1870. The earliest settlement on the site of

  • Bolgar Turkic language (language)

    Turkic languages: Linguistic history: …early on, Common Turkic and Bolgar Turkic. The language of the Proto-Bolgars, reportedly similar to the Khazar language, belonged to the latter type. Its only modern representative is Chuvash, which originated in Volga Bolgarian and exhibits archaic features. Bolgar Turkic and Common Turkic differ in regular phonetic representations such as…

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