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  • Briggs v. Elliott (law case)

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: …of Education of Topeka (1951), Briggs v. Elliott (1951), and Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (1952), U.S. district courts in Kansas, South Carolina, and Virginia, respectively, ruled on the basis of Plessy that the plaintiffs had not been deprived of equal protection because the schools they…

  • Briggs, Charles A. (American minister)

    Christian fundamentalism: The late 19th to the mid-20th century: …most famous such trial involved Charles A. Briggs (1841–1913), a minister of the Presbyterian Church who had denounced the idea of verbal inspiration in an address at the Union Theological Seminary in New York City in 1891. Briggs was convicted of heresy and suspended from the ministry in 1893. In…

  • Briggs, Cyril (American activist)

    African Blood Brotherhood: …in 1919 by black leftist Cyril Briggs. Based in Harlem, the ABB had a large West Indian following that included many Caribbean-born political radicals. Briggs had hoped to offer an alternative to the populism of Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA), but the ABB’s membership never approached the numbers…

  • Briggs, Emily Pomona Edson (American journalist)

    Emily Pomona Edson Briggs, American journalist, one of the first women to acquire a national reputation in the field. Emily Edson grew up in Burton, Ohio, and, from 1840, near Chicago, attending local schools. She taught briefly and, about 1854, married John R. Briggs. In 1861, when her husband

  • Briggs, Henry (English mathematician)

    Henry Briggs, English mathematician who invented the common, or Briggsian, logarithm. His writings were mainly responsible for the widespread acceptance of logarithms throughout Europe. His innovation was instrumental in easing the burden of mathematicians, astronomers, and other scientists who

  • Briggs, Isabel Diana (British writer)

    Isabel Colegate, British author of novels about life among the upper classes in England during the 20th century. At the age of 19 Colegate began working as an assistant to literary agent Anthony Blond. When Blond became a publisher, one of the first books he brought was Colgate’s first novel, The

  • Briggs, Marilyn Ann (American actress)

    Marilyn Chambers, (Marilyn Ann Briggs), American adult-film actress (born April 22, 1952, Providence, R.I.—found dead April 12, 2009, near Santa Clarita, Calif.), cultivated an image as a fresh-faced blonde and adorned (with a sweet-faced baby) the boxes of Ivory Snow laundry soap, the slogan of

  • Briggs, Robert W. (American scientist)

    cloning: Early cloning experiments: …in 1952 by American scientists Robert W. Briggs and Thomas J. King, who used DNA from embryonic cells of the frog Rana pipiens to generate cloned tadpoles. In 1958 British biologist John Bertrand Gurdon successfully carried out nuclear transfer using DNA from adult intestinal cells of African clawed frogs (Xenopus…

  • Briggsian logarithm (mathematics)

    logarithm: …with base 10) are called common, or Briggsian, logarithms and are written simply log n.

  • Brigham City (Utah, United States)

    Brigham City, city, seat of Box Elder county, near Bear River Bay of Great Salt Lake, northern Utah, U.S., at the foot of the Wasatch Range, 21 miles (34 km) north of Ogden. Settled in 1851 by Mormons, most of whom were immigrants from Denmark, it was named in 1877 for the Mormon leader Brigham

  • Brigham Young Academy (university, Provo, Utah, United States)

    Brigham Young University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Provo, Utah, U.S. The university is supported by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) and has branch campuses in Laie, Hawaii, and Rexburg, Idaho. It is composed of eight colleges, the J. Willard

  • Brigham Young University (university, Provo, Utah, United States)

    Brigham Young University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Provo, Utah, U.S. The university is supported by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) and has branch campuses in Laie, Hawaii, and Rexburg, Idaho. It is composed of eight colleges, the J. Willard

  • Brigham, Amariah (American doctor and administrator)

    Amariah Brigham, American doctor and administrator who, as one of the leaders of the asylum movement in the 19th century, advocated for humane treatment of the mentally ill. Brigham, who was orphaned at age 11, studied with several doctors before opening a medical practice when he was 21. The

  • Brigham, Charles (American architect)

    Western architecture: United States: Sturgis and Charles Brigham, architects of the Museum of Fine Arts on Copley Square (1876; closed 1909) and the church of the Advent (1878), both in Boston, attempted to give to this tough, uneasy Gothic style something of monumental grandeur in their competition design of 1872 for…

  • Brighella (Italian theatre)

    Brighella, stock character of the Italian commedia dell’arte; a roguish, quick-witted, opportunistic, and sometimes lascivious and cruel figure. Originally one of the comic servants, or zanni, of the commedia, Brighella was a jack-of-all-trades whose loyalty as a soldier, hangman’s varlet,

  • Brighid (Celtic deity)

    Brigit, in Celtic religion, ancient goddess of the poetic arts, crafts, prophecy, and divination; she was the equivalent of the Roman goddess Minerva (Greek Athena). In Ireland this Brigit was one of three goddesses of the same name, daughters of the Dagda, the great god of that country. Her two

  • Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind (work by Edelman)

    Gerald Maurice Edelman: …a scientific audience and in Bright Air, Brilliant Fire: On the Matter of the Mind (1992) for laypersons. He also wrote Wider than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness (2004) and Second Nature: Brain Science and Human Knowledge (2006).

  • bright coal (coal classification)

    coal: Banded and nonbanded coals: Banded coals include bright coal, which contains more than 80 percent vitrinite, and splint coal, which contains more than 30 percent opaque matter. The nonbanded varieties include boghead coal, which has a high percentage of algal remains, and cannel coal, which has a high percentage of spores in…

  • Bright disease

    Bright disease, inflammation of the structures in the kidney that produce urine: the glomeruli and the nephrons. The glomeruli are small round clusters of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) that are surrounded by a double-walled capsule, called Bowman’s capsule. Bowman’s capsule in turn

  • Bright Eyes (American author and activist)

    Susette La Flesche, Native American writer, lecturer, and activist in the cause of American Indian rights. La Flesche was the daughter of an Omaha chief who was the son of a French trader and an Omaha woman. The father was familiar with both cultures, and though he lived as an Indian he sent his

  • Bright Eyes (film by Butler [1934])

    David Butler: After directing her in Bright Eyes (1934), for which he also cowrote the story, he helped guide her to stardom with The Little Colonel (1935), The Littlest Rebel (1935), and Captain January (1936). The hugely successful comedies helped establish Temple as Hollywood’s top box-office attraction. Butler’s later movies for…

  • bright field microscopy (technique)

    microbiology: Light microscopy: …microscopy are available, such as:

  • Bright Leaf (film by Curtiz [1950])

    Patricia Neal: …whom she also costarred in Bright Leaf (1950). Neal revealed in her autobiography, As I Am (1988), that Cooper had been the great love of her life; however, their affair ended shortly after their working collaboration. Neal married the popular author Roald Dahl in 1953, a union that lasted until…

  • Bright Lights, Big City (film by Bridges [1988])

    James Bridges: …he helmed his last film, Bright Lights, Big City, an intelligent but curiously flat adaptation of the Jay McInerney best seller about the club-and-cocaine scene in 1980s New York City. Two years later Clint Eastwood directed White Hunter, Black Heart, which was based on a script cowritten by Bridges. Diagnosed…

  • bright nebula (astronomy)

    nebula: Classes of nebulae: Bright nebulae are comparatively dense clouds of gas within the diffuse interstellar medium. They have several subclasses: (1) reflection nebulae, (2) H II regions, (3) diffuse ionized gas, (4) planetary nebulae, and (5) supernova remnants.

  • Bright Star (musical by Martin and Brickell)

    Steve Martin: …latter album inspired the musical Bright Star, which premiered in 2014 and made its Broadway debut two years later. The duo cowrote the score, and Martin penned the book for the sentimental play about two connected love stories in North Carolina during the 1920s and ’40s. It received five Tony…

  • Bright Star (film by Campion [2009])

    Jane Campion: …2009 Campion earned accolades for Bright Star, which chronicles the romance between poet John Keats and Fanny Brawne. She later cowrote and codirected the eerie TV series Top of the Lake (2013, 2017), which centres on a female detective.

  • Bright Stream, The (dance)

    Alexei Ratmansky: …2002); the Bolshoi Ballet (The Bright Stream, 2003); and the San Francisco Ballet (The Carnival of the Animals, 2003). The positive reception of The Bright Stream earned him in 2004 an appointment as artistic director of the Bolshoi Ballet, which had been struggling since the dissolution of the Soviet…

  • Bright Victory (film by Robson [1951])

    Mark Robson: Films of the 1950s: …You, and the critically acclaimed Bright Victory (both 1951) featured Arthur Kennedy as a blinded soldier adjusting to civilian life. In 1953 Robson directed Return to Paradise, an adaptation of a James Michener novel, with Gary Cooper as a drifter. The following year the director made a rare foray into…

  • Bright Young Things (film by Fry [2003])

    Stephen Fry: …directorial debut in 2003 with Bright Young Things, an adaptation of British writer Evelyn Waugh’s Vile Bodies (1930), a novel centred on the reckless frivolity of a group of English socialites in the wake of World War I. Fry made his Broadway debut in 2013 playing Malvolio in Shakespeare’s Twelfth…

  • Bright’s disease

    Bright disease, inflammation of the structures in the kidney that produce urine: the glomeruli and the nephrons. The glomeruli are small round clusters of capillaries (microscopic blood vessels) that are surrounded by a double-walled capsule, called Bowman’s capsule. Bowman’s capsule in turn

  • Bright, John (British politician)

    John Bright, British reform politician and orator active in the early Victorian campaigns for free trade and lower grain prices (he was a co-founder of the Anti-Corn Law League), as well as campaigns for parliamentary reform. Bright was the eldest surviving son of Jacob Bright, a self-made

  • Bright, Joy (United States naval officer)

    Joy Bright Hancock, U.S. military officer, one of the first women to hold a regular commission in the U.S. Navy. Joy Bright enlisted in the Naval Reserve after graduating from the Pierce School of Business Administration in Philadelphia in 1918. From 1919 she worked as a civilian for the U.S. Navy

  • Bright, Richard (British physician)

    Richard Bright, British physician who was the first to describe the clinical manifestations of the kidney disorder known as Bright’s disease, or nephritis. Bright graduated in medicine from the University of Edinburgh in 1813. After working in hospitals on the Continent and in London, he became an

  • Bright, Sir Charles Tilston (British engineer)

    Sir Charles Tilston Bright, British engineer who superintended the laying of the first Atlantic telegraph cable. In 1852 he became an engineer for the Magnetic Telegraph Company, for which he laid thousands of miles of underground telegraph lines in England as well as the first undersea cable

  • Bright, Timothy (English stenographer)

    shorthand: History and development of shorthand: Somewhat influenced by Tiro’s system, Timothy Bright designed an English system in 1588 that consisted of straight lines, circles, and half circles. (Tiro’s method was cursive, based on longhand script.) Bright’s system was called Characterie: an Arte of Shorte, Swifte, and Secrete Writing by Character.

  • Bright, William Rohl (American religious leader)

    William Rohl Bright, American religious leader (born Oct. 19, 1921, Coweta, Okla.—died July 19, 2003, Orlando, Fla.), founded Campus Crusade for Christ in 1951 and transformed it from a college-based organization into the world’s largest Christian ministry. A former self-described “happy pagan,” h

  • bright-cut (metalwork)

    Bright-cut, type of decorative engraving used on metal objects, especially those made of silver. The decorative designs are created by making a series of short cuts into the metal, using a polished engraving tool that causes the exposed surfaces to reflect light and give an impression of

  • bright-line spectrum (physics)

    spectroscopy: Historical survey: They are called brightline, or emission, spectra.

  • bright-line viewfinder (photography)

    viewfinder: …viewfinder most commonly used, the bright-line viewfinder, is essentially an inverted Galilean telescope system with an optically projected rectangle outlining the frame area. The viewed image is neither inverted nor reversed.

  • Brighter Sun, A (work by Selvon)

    Samuel Selvon: His first novel, A Brighter Sun (1952), describes East Indians and Creoles in Trinidad, their prejudices and mutual distrusts, and the effect of this animosity on a young man. It was the first time that an East Indian author had written with such quiet authority and simple charm…

  • brightline spectrum (physics)

    spectroscopy: Historical survey: They are called brightline, or emission, spectra.

  • Brightman, Edgar Sheffield (American philosopher and educator)

    Edgar Sheffield Brightman, U.S. philosopher, educator (Wesleyan University; Boston University), and former director of the National Council on Religion in Higher Education, noted for his empirical argument for theism based on idealism and consciousness. His writings emphasize the personalist

  • Brightman, Sarah (British singer)

    Andrea Bocelli: …(“Time to Say Goodbye”) with Sarah Brightman, and both versions became hits. Bocelli’s popularity in the United States grew in 1997 with the release of Romanza—which collected songs from his previous albums and eventually sold more than 15 million copies worldwide—and with repeated PBS airings of his live show Romanza…

  • brightness (astronomy)

    meteor and meteoroid: Basic features of meteors: …the sky, it varies in brightness, appears to emit sparks or flares, and sometimes leaves a luminous train that lingers after its flight has ended. Unusually luminous meteors are termed fireballs or bolides (the latter term is often applied to those meteoroids observed to explode in the sky). When meteor…

  • brightness (light)

    Brightness, in physics, the subjective visual sensation related to the intensity of light emanating from a surface or from a point source (see luminous

  • brightness control (television)

    television: Controls: …of the image); (4) a brightness control, which adjusts the average amount of current taken by the picture tube from the high-voltage power supply, thus varying the overall brightness of the picture; (5) a horizontal-hold control, which adjusts the horizontal deflection generator so that it conforms exactly to the control…

  • brightness temperature (astronomy)

    star: Stellar temperatures: …extinction) is known, the so-called brightness temperature can be found.

  • Brighton (Colorado, United States)

    Brighton, city, seat (1902) of Adams county (and lying partially within Weld county), north-central Colorado, U.S., on the South Platte River. Originally a rest stop on a fur-trading trail between Fort Bent and Fort Laramie, Wyoming, the town developed (in the late 1860s) at the junction of the

  • Brighton (England, United Kingdom)

    Brighton, town and urban area (from 2011 built-up area), unitary authority of Brighton and Hove, historic county of Sussex, southeastern England. It is a seaside resort on the English Channel, 51 miles (82 km) south of central London. Brighton spreads over the steep chalk slopes of the South Downs

  • Brighton and Hove (unitary authority, England, United Kingdom)

    Brighton and Hove, unitary authority, geographic county of East Sussex, historic county of Sussex, southeastern England. It is located on the English Channel 51 miles (82 km) south of London, with which it is closely linked by rail and superhighway. The unitary authority, which is the largest in

  • Brighton bombing (Northern Ireland history)

    the Troubles: The Sunningdale Agreement, hunger strikes, Bobby Sands, and the Brighton bombing: A glimmer of hope was offered by the Sunningdale Agreement , named for the English city in which it was negotiated in 1973. That agreement led to the creation of a new Northern Ireland Assembly, with proportional representation for all parties, and to…

  • Brighton Rock (film by Boulting [1947])

    Richard Attenborough: …of a sociopathic thug in Brighton Rock (1947); a soldier in the comedy Private’s Progress (1956) and its sequel, I’m All Right Jack (1959); and a squadron leader engineering a breakout from a German POW camp in The Great Escape (1963). Attenborough won Golden Globe Awards for best supporting actor…

  • Brighton Rock (novel by Greene)

    Brighton Rock, novel of sin and redemption by Graham Greene, published in 1938 and filmed in 1947 and 2010. The two main characters in Greene’s gripping reflection on the nature of evil are the amateur detective Ida and the murderous Pinkie, a teenager and Roman Catholic who chooses hell over

  • Brigid of Ireland, Saint (Irish saint)

    St. Brigid of Ireland, ; feast day February 1), virgin and abbess of Kildare, one of the patron saints of Ireland. Little is known of her life but from legend, myth, and folklore. According to these, she was born of a noble father and a slave mother and was sold along with her mother to a Druid,

  • Brigid of Kildare, Saint (Irish saint)

    St. Brigid of Ireland, ; feast day February 1), virgin and abbess of Kildare, one of the patron saints of Ireland. Little is known of her life but from legend, myth, and folklore. According to these, she was born of a noble father and a slave mother and was sold along with her mother to a Druid,

  • Brigid of Sweden, Saint (Swedish saint)

    St. Bridget of Sweden, ; canonized October 8, 1391; feast day July 23, formerly October 8), patron saint of Sweden, founder of the Bridgittines (Order of the Most Holy Savior), and a mystic whose revelations were influential during the Middle Ages. In 1999 Pope John Paul II named her one of the

  • Brigit (Celtic deity)

    Brigit, in Celtic religion, ancient goddess of the poetic arts, crafts, prophecy, and divination; she was the equivalent of the Roman goddess Minerva (Greek Athena). In Ireland this Brigit was one of three goddesses of the same name, daughters of the Dagda, the great god of that country. Her two

  • Brigit of Ireland, Saint (Irish saint)

    St. Brigid of Ireland, ; feast day February 1), virgin and abbess of Kildare, one of the patron saints of Ireland. Little is known of her life but from legend, myth, and folklore. According to these, she was born of a noble father and a slave mother and was sold along with her mother to a Druid,

  • Brigittine Order (Roman Catholicism)

    Bridgettine, a religious order of cloistered nuns founded by St. Bridget of Sweden in 1344 and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370. Bridget believed that she was called by Christ to found a strictly disciplined religious order that would contribute to the reform of monastic life. She went to Rome to

  • Brihadaranyaka (Indian religious work)

    Hinduism: The Upanishads: …are the two oldest, the Brihadaranyaka (“Great Forest Text”; c. 10th–5th century bce) and the Chandogya (pertaining to the Chandogas, priests who intone hymns at sacrifices), both of which are compilations that record the traditions of sages (rishis) of the period—notably Yajnavalkya, who was a pioneer of new religious ideas.

  • Brihaddeshi (work by Māa?a)

    South Asian arts: Further development of the grama-ragas: …text on Indian music, the Brihaddeshi, written by the theorist Matanga about the 10th century ce, the grama-ragas are said to derive from the jatis. In some respects at least, the grama-ragas resemble not the jatis but their parent scales. The author of the Brihaddeshi claims to be the first…

  • Brihadratha (Mauryan emperor)

    India: Ashoka and his successors: … the last of the Mauryas, Brihadratha, was assassinated by his Brahman commander in chief, Pushyamitra, who founded the Shunga dynasty.

  • Brihaspati (Hindu deity)

    Brihaspati, (Sanskrit: “Lord of Sacred Speech”) in Vedic mythology, the preceptor of the gods, the master of sacred wisdom, charms, hymns, and rites, and the sage counselor of Indra in his war against the titans, or asuras. As such, Brihaspati is the heavenly prototype of the class of Brahmans and,

  • Brihati (work by Prabhākara)

    Indian philosophy: Principal texts and relation to Shabara: …the author of the commentary Brihati (“The Large Commentary”), on Shabara’s bhashya. On many essential matters, Prabhakara differs radically from the views of Kumarila. Prabhakara’s Brihati has been commented upon by Shalikanatha in his Rijuvimala (“The Straight and Free from Blemishes”), whereas the same author’s Prakaranapanchika (“Commentary of Five Topics”)…

  • Brihatphalayana (people)

    India: The Andhras and their successors: The Brihatphalayanas came to power at the end of the 3rd century in the Masulipatam area. In these regions the Satavahana pattern of administration continued; many of the rulers had matronymics (names derived from that of the mother or a maternal ancestor); many of the royal…

  • Brij Bhasa language

    Braj Bhasha language, language descended from Shauraseni Prakrit and commonly viewed as a western dialect of Hindi. It is spoken by some 575,000 people, primarily in India. Its purest forms are spoken in the cities of Mathura, Agra, Etah, and Aligarh. Most speakers of Braj Bhasha worship the Hindu

  • Brija el-Jadida, el- (Morocco)

    El Jadida, Atlantic port city, north-central Morocco, lying about 55 miles (90 km) southwest of Casablanca. The settlement developed after 1502 around a Portuguese fort and, as Mazagan, became the centre of Portuguese settlement and their last stronghold (1769) against the Filālī (Alaouite)

  • Brijnagar (India)

    Jhalawar, town, far southeastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated on an upland plateau just west of the Kali Sindh River, a tributary of the Chambal River, about 40 miles (64 km) southeast of Kota. The old town of Jhalrapatan (Patan) was founded as a cantonment (military

  • brik (food)
  • Brikama (The Gambia)

    Brikama, town, western Gambia, on the road from Banjul (formerly Bathurst) to Mansa Konko. An agricultural trade centre (peanuts [groundnuts], palm oil, and kernels) among the Muslim Malinke (Mandingo) and Dyola (Diola or Jola) peoples, it is also the focus for the country’s incipient forest

  • Brikettage (clay mold)

    Halle: 1000 bc), Brikettage, clay molds used for making salt bricks, were developed—a distinctive feature of the Halle Culture. About 400 bc the Halle Culture came to an end, to be succeeded by the later Jasdorf Culture, which lasted until the Roman period.

  • Brilessos (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • Brilettos (mountains, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus, mountain range enclosing the Attic plain on its northeast but within the nomós (department) of Attica (Modern Greek: Attikí), in Greece. The chief summit, about 10 miles (16 km) northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble

  • Briley, John (American writer and producer)
  • brill (fish)

    flounder: …blue spots and rings; the brill (Scophthalmus rhombus), a relatively large commercial European species, reaching a length of 75 cm (29 inches); and the dusky flounder (Syacium papillosum), a tropical western Atlantic species. Flounders in those families typically have eyes and colouring on the left side. See also flatfish.

  • Brill Building, The (building, New York City, New York, United States)

    The Brill Building: Assembly-Line Pop: Located at 1619 Broadway in New York City, the Brill Building was the hub of professionally written rock and roll. As the 1960s equivalent of Tin Pan Alley, it reemphasized a specialized division of labour in which professional songwriters worked closely with producers and artists-and-repertoire…

  • Brill, Paul (Flemish artist)

    Paul Brill, Flemish artist who was perhaps the most popular painter of landscapes in Rome in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His early forest landscapes derive in style partly from Mannerism, but after 1600 he disciplined and simplified his compositions under the influence of the German

  • Brill, Paulus (Flemish artist)

    Paul Brill, Flemish artist who was perhaps the most popular painter of landscapes in Rome in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His early forest landscapes derive in style partly from Mannerism, but after 1600 he disciplined and simplified his compositions under the influence of the German

  • Brill, Yvonne (Canadian-born American aerospace engineerrocket scientist)

    Yvonne Brill, (Yvonne Madelaine Claeys), Canadian-born American rocket scientist (born Dec. 30, 1924, St. Vital, Man.—died March 27, 2013, Princeton, N.J.), pioneered the electrothermal hydrazine thruster—a more fuel-efficient rocket thruster designed to keep communications satellites from slipping

  • Brill-Zinsser disease

    typhus: Epidemic typhus: …complication of epidemic typhus is Brill-Zinsser disease, or recrudescent typhus, in which mild symptoms of epidemic louse-borne typhus reappear after a latent period, sometimes of many years, in persons who at one time had contracted epidemic typhus. The disease was first noted when cases of typhus occurred in communities that…

  • Brillat-Savarin, Anthelme (French author)

    Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer, politician, and author of a celebrated work on gastronomy, Physiologie du go?t (“The Physiology of Taste”). He followed the family profession of law. A deputy of the third estate at the States-General of 1789, he was forced to flee the country during the

  • Brillat-Savarin, Jean-Anthelme (French author)

    Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, French lawyer, politician, and author of a celebrated work on gastronomy, Physiologie du go?t (“The Physiology of Taste”). He followed the family profession of law. A deputy of the third estate at the States-General of 1789, he was forced to flee the country during the

  • brilliance (acoustics)

    acoustics: Acoustic criteria: “Warmth” and “brilliance” refer to the reverberation time at low frequencies relative to that at higher frequencies. Above about 500 hertz, the reverberation time should be the same for all frequencies. But at low frequencies an increase in the reverberation time creates a warm sound, while, if…

  • brilliant cut (gem cut)

    Brilliant cut, method of faceting a diamond to take best advantage of the optical properties of the stone and produce a finished gem with the maximum fire and brilliancy. It is the most popular style of faceting for diamonds. A brilliant-cut stone is round in plan view and has 58 facets, 33 of

  • brilliant green (drug and dye)

    Brilliant green, a triphenylmethane dye of the malachite-green series (see malachite green) used in dilute solution as a topical antiseptic. Brilliant green is effective against gram-positive microorganisms. It has also been used to dye silk and wool. It occurs as small, shiny, golden crystals

  • Brillouin function (physics)

    magnetism: Paramagnetism: … and is given by the Brillouin function, which depends only on the ratio (B/T). At low magnetic fields, the magnetization is linearly proportional to the field and reaches its maximum saturation value when the magnetic energy is much greater than the thermal energy. Figure 15 shows the dependence of the…

  • Brillouin, Léon (French physicist)

    Maxwell's demon: About 1950 the French physicist Léon Brillouin exorcised the demon by demonstrating that the decrease in entropy resulting from the demon’s actions would be exceeded by the increase in entropy in choosing between the fast and slow molecules.

  • Brimmer, Andrew (American economist)

    Andrew Brimmer, American economist who became the first African American governor of the Federal Reserve Board (1966–74). He was a renowned expert on monetary policy, international finance, and capital markets. Brimmer was the son of sharecroppers and attended local segregated schools. Upon his

  • Brimmer, Andrew Fulton, Jr. (American economist)

    Andrew Brimmer, American economist who became the first African American governor of the Federal Reserve Board (1966–74). He was a renowned expert on monetary policy, international finance, and capital markets. Brimmer was the son of sharecroppers and attended local segregated schools. Upon his

  • Brimsek, Francis Charles (American ice hockey player)

    Frankie Brimsek, American ice hockey goaltender for the Boston Bruins who gained renown during the first weeks of his 10-year career for a series of shutouts, which earned him the nickname "Mr. Zero"; he was an All-Star eight times and in 1966 was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame (b. Sept. 26,

  • Brimsek, Frank (American ice hockey player)

    Frankie Brimsek, American ice hockey goaltender for the Boston Bruins who gained renown during the first weeks of his 10-year career for a series of shutouts, which earned him the nickname "Mr. Zero"; he was an All-Star eight times and in 1966 was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame (b. Sept. 26,

  • Brimsek, Frankie (American ice hockey player)

    Frankie Brimsek, American ice hockey goaltender for the Boston Bruins who gained renown during the first weeks of his 10-year career for a series of shutouts, which earned him the nickname "Mr. Zero"; he was an All-Star eight times and in 1966 was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame (b. Sept. 26,

  • brimstone (chemical element)

    Sulfur (S), nonmetallic chemical element belonging to the oxygen group (Group 16 [VIa] of the periodic table), one of the most reactive of the elements. Pure sulfur is a tasteless, odourless, brittle solid that is pale yellow in colour, a poor conductor of electricity, and insoluble in water. It

  • Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park (park, Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    Basseterre: Brimstone Hill Fortress National Park (a British fortress built by slave labour in the 17th–18th century), designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1999, is 10 miles (16 km) northwest of the town. Pop. (2001 prelim.) 13,220.

  • Brin, Sergey (American entrepreneur)

    Sergey Brin, American computer scientist and entrepreneur who created, along with Larry Page, the online search engine Google, one of the most successful sites on the Internet. Brin’s family moved from Moscow to the United States in 1979. After receiving degrees (1993) in computer science and

  • Br?ncu?i, Constantin (Romanian-French sculptor)

    Constantin Brancusi, pioneer of modern abstract sculpture whose works in bronze and marble are characterized by a restrained, elegant use of pure form and exquisite finishing. A passionate wood-carver, he produced numerous wood sculptures, often with a folk flavour, and he frequently carved

  • Brind’Amour, Rod (Canadian hockey player)

    Carolina Hurricanes: …Eric Staal and team captain Rod Brind’Amour, the Hurricanes posted the best record in franchise history during the 2005–06 season and capped off the year with a dramatic seven-game victory over the Edmonton Oilers in the Stanley Cup finals. The Hurricanes advanced to the conference finals in 2008–09, but then…

  • Brindaban (India)

    Vrindavan, town in western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is situated on the west bank of the Yamuna River, just north of Mathura. The town is the sacred centre of the Hindu deity Krishna and those who worship him. It is especially important to the Gaudiya sect of Vaishnavism and is a

  • Brindabella Range (mountain range, Australia)

    Australian Capital Territory: Relief: …follows the watershed of the Brindabella Range, a northern extension of the Snowy Mountains. The territory’s southern and western parts are mountainous, reaching a maximum height of 6,279 feet (1,914 metres) at Bimberi Peak. In the northeastern section there are broad valleys between rounded hills. While much of the generally…

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