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  • Brorson, Hans Adolf (Danish clergyman and author)

    Hans Adolf Brorson, Danish Pietist clergyman, the outstanding writer of hymns of his day, and translator of German Pietist hymns into Danish. In 1732, while a pastor, Brorson started publishing hymns for his congregation in southern Jutland. His main work, Troens rare klenodie (1739; “The Rare

  • Broschi, Carlo (Italian singer)

    Farinelli, celebrated Italian castrato singer of the 18th century and one of the greatest singers in the history of opera. He adopted the surname of his benefactors, the brothers Farina. He studied in Naples under Nicola Porpora, one of the leading 18th-century opera composers and the outstanding

  • Broseley Blue Dragon pattern (ornamental motif)

    pottery: Porcelain: …have devised for Spode the Broseley Blue Dragon and Willow patterns that are still in use. Like Coalport, the factory was much occupied in copying the work of Sèvres. From 1848 to 1895 they employed a Frenchman, Joseph-Fran?ois-Léon Arnoux, as art director, and under his tutelage French artists were brought…

  • Brosimum alicastrum (plant)

    Breadnut, (Brosimum alicastrum), prolific tree of the family Moraceae and its edible seeds. The plant is found widely in second-growth Central American and Mexican tropical rainforests and is cultivated in many tropical countries. The sweet orange-skinned fruits contain protein-rich seeds that are

  • Brosme brosme (fish)

    Cusk, (Brosme brosme), long-bodied food fish of the cod family, Gadidae, found along the ocean bottom in deep offshore waters on either side of the North Atlantic. The cusk is a small-scaled fish with a large mouth and a barbel on its chin. It has one dorsal and one anal fin, both long and both

  • Brosnan, Pierce (Irish American actor)

    Pierce Brosnan , Irish American actor who was perhaps best known for playing James Bond in a series of films. Brosnan, whose father left home shortly after his birth, was raised by relatives after his mother left to work in England. At age 15 he set out on his own in London to be an actor. He

  • Brosnan, Pierce Brendan (Irish American actor)

    Pierce Brosnan , Irish American actor who was perhaps best known for playing James Bond in a series of films. Brosnan, whose father left home shortly after his birth, was raised by relatives after his mother left to work in England. At age 15 he set out on his own in London to be an actor. He

  • Brossa, Joan (Spanish poet)

    Antoni Tàpies: He also collaborated with poet Joan Brossa on a number of illustrated books.

  • Brossard, Nicole (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: The Quiet Revolution: …explorations was the work of Nicole Brossard (L’Amer; ou, le chapitre effrité [1977; These Our Mothers; or, The Disintegrating Chapter] and Picture Theory [1982; Eng. trans. Picture Theory], both works of theory and fiction). With Le Désert mauve (1987; Mauve Desert), her feminist fiction was made more accessible to the…

  • Brosse, Salomon de (French architect)

    Salomon de Brosse, most influential French architect of the early 17th century, whose works facilitated the development of the classical chateaus designed by the generation that followed him. De Brosse was born into a family of Protestant architects. He trained under his father and then quickly

  • Brosses, Charles de (French scholar)

    study of religion: The late 17th and 18th centuries: The French scholar and politician Charles de Brosses (1709–77) attempted to explain Greek polytheism partly through the fetishism (belief in the magical powers of certain objects) found in West Africa. This approach was pioneering in its comparison of Greek myths with “primitive” ones. The French Abbé Bergier (1718–90) explained primitive…

  • Brossolette, Pierre (French journalist)

    Pierre Brossolette, a leading member of the French Resistance during the German occupation in World War II. A graduate of the école Normale Supérieure and an ardent socialist, Brossolette was an influential journalist who served under Premier Léon Blum as chief political commentator for the state

  • Brostrom, Axel Ludvig (Swedish ship owner)

    Axel Ludvig Brostrom, founder of what was, in its time, the largest shipping group in Sweden. Brostrom is regarded as the father of the modern Swedish mercantile marine. As a young man, Brostrom joined a shipping company, and later he became an owner-captain in the lake shipping trade. In 1870 he

  • Brot der frühen Jahre, Das (work by B?ll)

    Heinrich B?ll: …Brot der frühen Jahre (1955; The Bread of Our Early Years) and in a family of architects in Billard um halb zehn (1959; Billiards at Half-Past Nine), which, with its interior monologues and flashbacks, is his most complex novel. In the popular Ansichten eines Clowns (1963; The Clown), the protagonist…

  • Broten, Neal (American hockey player)

    Dallas Stars: …wing Dino Ciccarelli and centre Neal Broten, Minnesota ran off five more seasons between 1981–82 and 1985–86 in which it qualified for the playoffs but failed to advance further than the conference finals. This streak was followed by seven consecutive losing seasons in which the team nevertheless advanced to the…

  • broth (cookery)

    frozen prepared food: Preparing ingredients: Cream-based sauces begin with stock solutions, which are prepared by boiling raw stock material such as beef, fish, or poultry in water. Boiling is conducted in large kettles that may be operated either open to the atmosphere or under vacuum. Boiling under vacuum, accomplished at temperatures lower than 100°…

  • broth (baking)

    baking: Continuous bread making: …pre-ferment, called the broth or brew. The brew consists of a mixture of water, yeast, sugar, and portions of the flour and other ingredients, fermented for a few hours before being mixed into the dough.

  • brothel (building)

    prostitution: Public brothels were established in large cities throughout Europe. At Toulouse, in France, the profits were shared between the city and the university; in England, bordellos were originally licensed by the bishops of Winchester and subsequently by Parliament.

  • brother (Christian ministry)

    Roman Catholicism: Nuns and brothers: …of holy orders are “brothers.”

  • Brother Adam (British apiarist)

    Brother Adam, (KARL KEHRLE), German-born Benedictine monk and bee breeder (born Aug. 3, 1898, Mittlebiberach, Ger.—died Sept. 1, 1996, Buckfast, South Devon, Eng.), was regarded as an authority on bees for his revolutionary work, most notably the development of the Buckfast bee, a breed that was c

  • Brother Antoninus (American poet)

    William Everson, American Roman Catholic poet whose works record a personal search for religious vision in a violent, corrupt world. Raised by Christian Scientist parents, Everson became an agnostic in his teens; while attending Fresno (California) State College, he read the verse of Robinson

  • Brother Asno (work by Barrios)

    Eduardo Barrios: …and El hermano asno (1922; Brother Asno, 1969), an unusual episode in the life of a mentally disturbed monk who attacks a girl in order to be despised by those who consider him a living saint. Barrios’s most successful work was Gran se?or y rajadiablos (1948; “Grand Gentleman and Big…

  • Brother Devil (work by Auber)

    Daniel-Fran?ois-Esprit Auber: …vein is Fra Diavolo (1830; Brother Devil).

  • Brother from Another Planet, The (film by Sayles [1984])

    John Sayles: …a union in the 1920s; The Brother from Another Planet (1984), a science-fiction comedy that lacerates discrimination; City of Hope (1991); Passion Fish (1992), which earned Sayles an Academy Award nomination for a best original screenplay, as did the intricately crafted cross-cultural murder mystery Lone Star (1996); The Secret of…

  • Brother Jonathan (American symbol)

    Uncle Sam: …during the American Revolution, and Brother Jonathan, a rural American wit who, by surprising displays of native intelligence, always triumphed over his adversaries in plays, stories, cartoons, and verse.

  • Brother Leo (Italian monk)

    St. Francis of Assisi: Francis’s vision and the stigmata of the Crucified: Later, Brother Leo, the confessor and intimate companion of the saint who also left a written testimony of the event, said that in death Francis seemed like one just taken down from the cross.

  • Brother Orchid (film by Bacon [1940])

    Lloyd Bacon: Warner Brothers: Brother Orchid (1940) was a clever postgangster comedy, with Robinson as a reformed racketeer who hides out in a monastery only to discover that he likes the life. Knute Rockne–All American (1940) was one of the era’s best sports biopics, while Honeymoon for Three (1941)…

  • Brother Rat (film by Keighley [1938])

    William Keighley: …other credits from 1938 included Brother Rat, a lively version of the popular play of the same name, with Eddie Albert, Wayne Morris, and Ronald Reagan as three military cadets.

  • Brother to Dragons (poem by Warren)

    Robert Penn Warren: His long narrative poem, Brother to Dragons (1953), dealing with the brutal murder of a slave by two nephews of Thomas Jefferson, is essentially a versified novel, and his poetry generally exhibits many of the concerns of his fiction. His other volumes of poetry include Promises: Poems, 1954–1956; You,…

  • Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? (song by Gorney and Harburg)

    E.Y. Harburg: …as the Depression anthem “Brother, Can You Spare a Dime?” (with Jay Gorney). From 1935 Harburg and Harold Arlen wrote songs for many films, notably The Wizard of Oz (1939). Blacklisted from films for his political views, Harburg returned to Broadway to write musicals, notably Finian’s Rainbow (1947; with…

  • Brother, I’m Dying (memoir by Danticat)

    Edwidge Danticat: Her memoir, Brother, I’m Dying (2007), won the National Book Critics Circle Award.

  • Brotherhood of Saint Luke (German art society)

    Nazarene, one of an association formed by a number of young German painters in 1809 to return to the medieval spirit in art. Reacting particularly against 18th-century Neoclassicism, the brotherhood was the first effective antiacademic movement in European painting. The Nazarenes believed that all

  • Brotherhood of the Linked Ring (English association of photographers)

    Linked Ring, association of English photographers formed in 1892 that was one of the first groups to promote the notion of photography as fine art. Henry Peach Robinson was notable among the founding members. The Linked Ring held annual exhibitions from 1893 to 1909 and called these gatherings

  • Brotherhood of Theologians (Greek Orthodox religious association)

    Zoe, in Eastern Orthodoxy, a semimonastic Greek association patterned on Western religious orders. Founded in 1907 by Eusebius Matthopoulos, Zoe (Greek: “Life”) brought together groups of more than 100 unmarried and highly disciplined members, bound by the monastic vows of poverty, chastity, and

  • Brotherhood, The (film by Ritt [1968])

    Martin Ritt: Films of the 1960s: The Brotherhood (1968), starring Kirk Douglas and Susan Strasberg, preceded Francis Ford Coppola’s Mafia-related classic The Godfather (1972) by several years and covered much of the same territory.

  • Brotherly Love (poetry by Hoffman)

    Daniel Hoffman: His book-length poem Brotherly Love (1981) details the life of Quaker leader William Penn and the founding of Pennsylvania; it formed the basis of composer Ezra Lademan’s oratorio of the same name. Middens of the Tribe, another book-length poem, was published in 1995. In addition to writing poetry,…

  • Brothers and Keepers (work by Wideman)

    John Edgar Wideman: In Brothers and Keepers (1984), his first nonfiction book, he contemplated the role of the black intellectual by studying his relationship with his brother, who was serving a life sentence in prison.

  • Brothers and Sisters (television show)

    Sally Field: …starred in the drama series Brothers & Sisters (2006–11); she earned Emmy Awards (2001 and 2007) for her work on both shows. Field later appeared in the Netflix series Maniac (2018), portraying the mother of a mad scientist. In 2002 Field made her Broadway debut in the first staging of…

  • Brothers and Sisters (novel by Compton-Burnett)

    Dame Ivy Compton-Burnett: …achieved her full stature with Brothers and Sisters (1929), which is about a willful woman who inadvertently marries her half brother. Men and Wives (1931) has at its centre another determined woman, one whose tyranny drives her son to murder her. Murder again appears in More Women Than Men (1933),…

  • Brothers Ashkenazi, The (novel by Singer)

    I.J. Singer: …novel Di brider Ashkenazi (The Brothers Ashkenazi) was published in 1936 and was followed in 1938 by ?aver Na?man (“Comrade Na?man”), a scathing indictment of communism, and then in 1943 by Di mishpo?e ?arnovs?i (The Family Carnovsky).

  • Brothers Grimm, The (film by Gilliam [2005])

    Terry Gilliam: Gilliam’s later films included The Brothers Grimm (2005), starring Matt Damon and Heath Ledger, and the dark fantasy Tideland (2005). He faced yet another challenge during the shooting of The Imaginarium of Dr. Parnassus (2009) when Ledger, one of the film’s lead actors, died of an accidental drug overdose…

  • Brothers Grimsby, The (film by Leterrier [2016])

    Sacha Baron Cohen: …Cohen cowrote and starred in The Brothers Grimsby (2016), a spy comedy in which he played the hapless brother of an assassin (Mark Strong), and he portrayed the villainous Time in Alice Through the Looking Glass (2016). He then debuted the television series Who Is America? in 2018, once again…

  • Brothers Hospitallers (Roman Catholic order)

    Saint John of God: …March 8), founder of the Hospitaller Order of St. John of God (Brothers Hospitallers), a Roman Catholic religious order of nursing brothers. In 1886 Pope Leo XIII declared him patron of hospitals and the sick.

  • Brothers Karamazov, The (film by Brooks [1958])

    Richard Brooks: Heyday: …1958 adaptation of Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s The Brothers Karamazov.

  • Brothers Karamazov, The (novel by Dostoyevsky)

    The Brothers Karamazov, the final novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, first published as Bratya Karamazovy in 1879–80 and generally considered to be his masterpiece. It is the story of Fyodor Karamazov and his sons Alyosha, Dmitry, and Ivan. It is also a story of patricide, into the sordid unfolding of

  • Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mt. Carmel, Order of (religious order)

    Carmelite: …Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel; White Friars; O.Carm.) is engaged primarily in preaching and teaching. The Discalced Carmelite Fathers (Order of Discalced Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel; O.C.D.) is active in parishes and in foreign missions, having become primarily a pastoral and devotional order. Both branches…

  • Brothers of the Christian Schools (Roman Catholicism)

    Christian Brother: …Brothers of Christian Schools (F.S.C.) was founded by St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle at Reims, France, in 1684 for the education of boys, especially of poor families; the congregation is now established on all continents. Besides teaching in elementary, secondary, and teacher-training schools, the brothers administer and staff colleges;…

  • Brothers of the Christian Schools of Ireland, Congregation of the (Roman Catholicism)

    Christian Brother: The Congregation of the Brothers of the Christian Schools of Ireland (C.F.C.) was founded in 1802 in Waterford, Ire., by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city. Rice established the order to serve the needs of poor Catholic boys in his native land, where the…

  • Brothers of the Sword, Order of the (German organization of knights)

    Order of the Brothers of the Sword, organization of crusading knights that began the successful conquest and Christianization of Livonia (most of modern Latvia and Estonia) between 1202 and 1237. After German merchants from Lübeck and Bremen acquired commercial interests in the lands around the

  • Brothers Party (political party, Sudan)

    Ismā?īl al-Azharī: …the Congress, al-Azharī organized the Ashiggā? (“Brothers”) party; his opposition to the British proposal for self-government in the Sudan brought about his arrest in December 1948.

  • Brothers Rico, The (film by Karlson [1957])

    Phil Karlson: Film noirs: The Brothers Rico (1957), based on a story by Georges Simenon, was another superlative crime drama, with Richard Conte as an accountant trying to protect his gangster brothers who have been targeted for murder. Karlson ended the decade with Gunman’s Walk (1958), a western starring…

  • Brothers, Joyce (American psychologist)

    Joyce Brothers, (Joyce Diane Bauer), American psychologist and media personality (born Oct. 20, 1927, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died May 13, 2013, Fort Lee, N.J.), emerged triumphant (Dec. 6, 1955) as the first woman and only the second contestant to win the top prize on the television game show The $64,000

  • Brothers, The (poem by Wordsworth)

    English literature: Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge: …such as “Michael” and “The Brothers,” by contrast, written for the second volume of Lyrical Ballads (1800), Wordsworth dwelt on the pathos and potentialities of ordinary lives.

  • Brothers, The (play by Cumberland)

    Richard Cumberland: …as a dramatist came with The Brothers (1769), a sentimental comedy whose plot is reminiscent of Henry Fielding’s novel Tom Jones, and he continued to write prolifically. The West Indian (1771) was first produced by the great actor-manager David Garrick and held the stage throughout the 18th century. Despite its…

  • Brothers, War of the (Anatolian history)

    Antiochus Hierax: …invaded Anatolia and began the War of the Brothers (239–236). Antiochus Hierax fared badly until he allied himself to the Galatians (Celts) and two other states that were traditional foes of the Seleucid kingdom. With the aid of these forces, he inflicted a crushing defeat on his brother’s army at…

  • Brott, Alexander (Canadian conductor, composer, and violinist)

    Alexander Brott, Canadian conductor, composer, and violinist (born March 14, 1915, Montreal, Que.—died April 1, 2005, Montreal), championed symphonic music in Canada (especially that of Canadian composers) through his work as a violinist, conductor, composer, and educator. Success as a concert v

  • brotula (fish)

    Brotula, any of about 200 to 220 species of marine fishes placed by some authorities with the cusk eels in the family Ophidiidae, and separated by others as the family Brotulidae. Brotulas are primarily deep-sea fishes, although some inhabit shallow waters and a few (Lucifuga, Stygicola) live in

  • brotulid (fish)

    Brotula, any of about 200 to 220 species of marine fishes placed by some authorities with the cusk eels in the family Ophidiidae, and separated by others as the family Brotulidae. Brotulas are primarily deep-sea fishes, although some inhabit shallow waters and a few (Lucifuga, Stygicola) live in

  • Brotulidae (fish)

    Brotula, any of about 200 to 220 species of marine fishes placed by some authorities with the cusk eels in the family Ophidiidae, and separated by others as the family Brotulidae. Brotulas are primarily deep-sea fishes, although some inhabit shallow waters and a few (Lucifuga, Stygicola) live in

  • Brou Church (church, Bourg-en-Bresse, France)

    Bourg-en-Bresse: The Brou Church is a Late Gothic masterpiece raised by Margaret of Austria in memory of her husband, Philip IV (the Fair) of Savoy, in fulfillment of a vow made by his mother, Margaret of Bourbon. Notre-Dame Church was built mainly in the 16th century (nave,…

  • Broucklyn (borough, New York City, New York, United States)

    Brooklyn, one of the five boroughs of New York City, southwestern Long Island, southeastern New York, U.S., coextensive with Kings county. It is separated from Manhattan by the East River and is bordered by the Upper and Lower New York bays (west), the Atlantic Ocean (south), and the borough of

  • Broudy, Harry S. (American educator)

    Harry S. Broudy, Polish-born American educational philosopher, best known as a spokesman for the classical realist viewpoint. Broudy immigrated to the United States from Poland as a small boy. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University (B.A., 1929), and Harvard (M.A.,

  • Broudy, Harry Samuel (American educator)

    Harry S. Broudy, Polish-born American educational philosopher, best known as a spokesman for the classical realist viewpoint. Broudy immigrated to the United States from Poland as a small boy. He attended the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University (B.A., 1929), and Harvard (M.A.,

  • Brough Clapp, Louise (American tennis player)

    Louise Brough, (Althea Louise Brough; Louise Brough Clapp), American tennis champion (born March 11, 1923, Oklahoma City, Okla.—died Feb. 3, 2014, Vista, Calif.), employed exceptional volleying skills and a devastating topspin serve as she collected 35 Grand Slam titles—29 doubles (8 of them in

  • Brough, Althea Louise (American tennis player)

    Louise Brough, (Althea Louise Brough; Louise Brough Clapp), American tennis champion (born March 11, 1923, Oklahoma City, Okla.—died Feb. 3, 2014, Vista, Calif.), employed exceptional volleying skills and a devastating topspin serve as she collected 35 Grand Slam titles—29 doubles (8 of them in

  • Brough, Louise (American tennis player)

    Louise Brough, (Althea Louise Brough; Louise Brough Clapp), American tennis champion (born March 11, 1923, Oklahoma City, Okla.—died Feb. 3, 2014, Vista, Calif.), employed exceptional volleying skills and a devastating topspin serve as she collected 35 Grand Slam titles—29 doubles (8 of them in

  • Brough, Peter Royce (British ventriloquist)

    Peter Royce Brough, British ventriloquist who, with his cheeky schoolboy dummy, Archie Andrews, delighted millions of radio listeners on Navy Mixture and other programs in the 1940s and later with his own BBC radio program, Educating Archie (1950–60). Brough also successfully managed commercial

  • brougham (vehicle)

    Brougham, four-wheeled, one-horse carriage. As originally designed (c. 1838) by Henry (later Baron) Brougham, a former lord chancellor of England, it had a low coupé body, appearing as if the front were cut away, that enclosed one forward-facing seat for two passengers; a coachman’s seat was

  • Brougham and Vaux, Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron (British politician)

    Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, lawyer, British Whig Party politician, reformer, and lord chancellor of England (1830–34); he was also a noted orator, wit, man of fashion, and an eccentric. Before and during his tenure as lord chancellor he sponsored numerous major legal reforms,

  • Brougham, John (American dramatist and actor)

    John Brougham, Irish-born American author of more than 75 popular 19th-century plays, he was also a theatre manager and an actor who excelled in comic eccentric roles. As a youth Brougham planned to study surgery, but he went to London where a chance acquaintance led to his acting debut (July 1830)

  • Broughton (Illinois, United States)

    Effingham, city, seat (1860) of Effingham county, east-central Illinois, U.S. It lies near the Little Wabash River, about 65 miles (105 km) southeast of Decatur. Settled about 1814 by farmers, the community grew slowly as pioneers moved westward along the Cumberland (National) Road, which had been

  • Broughton de Gyfford, John Cam Hobhouse, Baron (British politician)

    John Cam Hobhouse, Baron Broughton, British politician and literary personage known as the alleged coiner of the phrase “His Majesty’s Opposition” (implying the continued loyalty of a major party when out of power) and as a close friend of Lord Byron. On his advice, Byron’s memoirs were destroyed

  • Broughton, Isabella Delves (British fashion editor)

    Isabella Blow, (Isabella Delves Broughton), British fashion editor (born Nov. 19, 1958, London, Eng.—died May 7, 2007 , Gloucester, Gloucestershire, Eng.), discovered and promoted fashion designers (Alexander McQueen, John Galliano, Jun Takahashi, and Hussein Chalayan) and models (Stella Tennant,

  • Broughton, Jack (British athlete)

    Jack Broughton, third heavyweight boxing champion of England, formulator of the first set of boxing rules, and inventor of mufflers, the precursors of modern boxing gloves. Originally a longshoreman, Broughton gained recognition as champion at an uncertain date after defeating Tom Pipes and Bill

  • Broughton, John (British athlete)

    Jack Broughton, third heavyweight boxing champion of England, formulator of the first set of boxing rules, and inventor of mufflers, the precursors of modern boxing gloves. Originally a longshoreman, Broughton gained recognition as champion at an uncertain date after defeating Tom Pipes and Bill

  • Broughton, John Cam Hobhouse, Baron (British politician)

    John Cam Hobhouse, Baron Broughton, British politician and literary personage known as the alleged coiner of the phrase “His Majesty’s Opposition” (implying the continued loyalty of a major party when out of power) and as a close friend of Lord Byron. On his advice, Byron’s memoirs were destroyed

  • Broughton, William Grant (Australian bishop)

    Anglican Church of Australia: …of Australia was founded, and William Grant Broughton, who went to Australia in 1829, was consecrated as the first bishop. A period of expansion and church building then occurred, and in 1847 Broughton became bishop of Sydney when the dioceses of Melbourne, Adelaide, and Newcastle were established with their own…

  • Brouille, La (play by Vildrac)

    Charles Vildrac: La Brouille (1930; “The Misunderstanding”) traces the quarrel of an idealist and a pragmatist. Other plays include Madame Béliard (1925), Les Pères ennemis (1946; “The Enemy Fathers”), and Les Jouets du Père No?l (1952; “The Toys of Father Christmas”).

  • Brouillon project d’une atteinte aux événemens des rencontres d’une c?ne avec un plan (work by Desargues)

    Girard Desargues: Desargues’s most important work, Brouillon project d’une atteinte aux événements des rencontres d’un c?ne avec un plan (1639; “Rough Draft of Attaining the Outcome of Intersecting a Cone with a Plane”), treats the theory of conic sections in a projective manner. In this very theoretical work Desargues revised parts…

  • Broun, Heywood (American journalist)

    Heywood Broun, American journalist noted for liberal social and political opinions. Broun attended Harvard University from 1906 to 1910 but did not graduate. He began his professional career writing baseball stories in the sports section of the New York Morning Telegraph, moving to the Tribune in

  • Broun, Heywood Campbell (American journalist)

    Heywood Broun, American journalist noted for liberal social and political opinions. Broun attended Harvard University from 1906 to 1910 but did not graduate. He began his professional career writing baseball stories in the sports section of the New York Morning Telegraph, moving to the Tribune in

  • Brouncker, William, 2nd Viscount (British scientist)

    Royal Society: …courtiers Sir Robert Moray and William, 2nd Viscount Brouncker. (Brouncker was to become the Royal Society’s first president.) The initiative had various more or less close precursors, including a group that met in London in 1645, the Oxford “Experimental Philosophy Club” in the 1650s, and correspondence networks such as that…

  • Broussais, Fran?ois-Joseph-Victor (French physician)

    Fran?ois-Joseph-Victor Broussais, French physician whose advocacy of bleeding, leech treatments, and fasting dominated Parisian medical practice early in the 19th century. Following publication of L’Examen des doctrines médicales (1816; “The Examination of Medical Doctrines”), Broussais’ system of

  • Brousse, Paul (French politician)

    France: Opportunist control: …into Guesdists and followers of Paul Brousse—the latter group popularly called Possibilists because of their gradualist temper. In 1890 a third faction broke away, headed by Jean Allemane and limited to simon-pure proletarian members. Alongside these Marxist sects there were the Blanquistes (disciples of Auguste Blanqui [1805–81]), the anarchists (whose…

  • Brousse, Roger (French athlete)

    Harry Mallin: …history when he faced Frenchman Roger Brousse in a quarterfinal round. At the end of the fight, Mallin showed the Belgian referee a number of bite marks on his chest. The referee ignored him and read out the verdict, which awarded the fight to Brousse in a 2–1 decision. Although…

  • Broussonetia papyrifera (plant)

    Paper mulberry, (Broussonetia papyrifera), fast-growing tree of the family Moraceae, native to Asia. The inner bark of the paper mulberry yields a fibre used for papermaking and in Polynesia for the manufacture of a coarse fabric called tapa cloth. The plant tolerates city conditions and is

  • Brout, Robert (Belgian physicist)

    Fran?ois Englert: …a collaboration with Belgian physicist Robert Brout. Englert returned to ULB in 1961, becoming a professor there in 1964. With Brout he was codirector of the theoretical physics group at ULB from 1980 to 1998, when he became a professor emeritus. He also held visiting professorships at Tel Aviv University…

  • Brouwer’s fixed-point theorem (topology)

    Brouwer’s fixed point theorem, in mathematics, a theorem of algebraic topology that was stated and proved in 1912 by the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer. Inspired by earlier work of the French mathematician Henri Poincaré, Brouwer investigated the behaviour of continuous functions (see

  • Brouwer, Adriaen (Flemish painter)

    Adriaen Brouwer, Flemish genre painter and draughtsman who influenced artists in both Flanders and Holland. According to his biographer Arnold Houbraken, Brouwer went to study under Frans Hals in Haarlem about 1621 (he shares nothing of Hals’s style, however, and others have suggested that he

  • Brouwer, Dirk (American astronomer)

    Dirk Brouwer, Dutch-born U.S. astronomer and geophysicist known for his achievements in celestial mechanics, especially for his pioneering application of high-speed digital computers. After leaving the University of Leiden, Brouwer served as a faculty member at Yale University from 1928 until his

  • Brouwer, L. E. J. (Dutch mathematician)

    Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, Dutch mathematician who founded mathematical intuitionism (a doctrine that views the nature of mathematics as mental constructions governed by self-evident laws) and whose work completely transformed topology, the study of the most basic properties of geometric

  • Brouwer, Luitzen Egbertus Jan (Dutch mathematician)

    Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer, Dutch mathematician who founded mathematical intuitionism (a doctrine that views the nature of mathematics as mental constructions governed by self-evident laws) and whose work completely transformed topology, the study of the most basic properties of geometric

  • Brouwerian system (logic)

    formal logic: Alternative systems of modal logic: …LMp to T gives the Brouwerian system (named for the Dutch mathematician L.E.J. Brouwer), here called B for short.

  • Brovarnik, Herbert (American chemist)

    Herbert Charles Brown, one of the leading American chemists of the 20th century. His seminal work on customized reducing agents and organoborane compounds in synthetic organic chemistry had a major impact on both academic and industrial chemical practice and led to his sharing the 1979 Nobel Prize

  • brow tine (tool)

    hand tool: Ax and adz: The brow tine, an antler branch running nearly at right angles to the main stem (beam), was sharpened, giving a small ax with a haft of about 20 cm (8 inches). By sharpening the tine the other way, a tiny adz was created. Some of these…

  • Browder, Earl (American politician)

    Earl Browder, U.S. Communist Party leader for almost 25 years, until his split with official party doctrine after World War II. As a result of his opposition to the entrance of the United States into World War I, Browder was imprisoned in 1919–20. He became a member of the U.S. Communist Party in

  • Browder, Earl Russell (American politician)

    Earl Browder, U.S. Communist Party leader for almost 25 years, until his split with official party doctrine after World War II. As a result of his opposition to the entrance of the United States into World War I, Browder was imprisoned in 1919–20. He became a member of the U.S. Communist Party in

  • Brower, David Ross (American environmentalist)

    David Ross Brower, American environmentalist (born July 1, 1912, Berkeley, Calif.—died Nov. 5, 2000, Berkeley), spent nearly 70 years in his effort to protect wilderness areas in the United States. He was involved with such groups as the Sierra Club, Friends of the Earth, the League of C

  • brown (insect)

    Satyr butterfly, (subfamily Satyrinae), any of a group of delicate butterflies in the family Nymphalidae (order Lepidoptera) that are abundant during summer months in the woods and grasslands of the United States and Europe. The adults are dull brown or grey, while the larvae possess small, forked

  • brown (colour)

    Brown, in physics, low-intensity light with a wavelength of about 600 nanometres in the visible spectrum. In art, brown is a colour between red and yellow and has low saturation. Brown is a basic colour term added to languages after black, white, red, yellow, green, and blue. The word brown derives

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