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  • Bunyan (typeface)

    Eric Gill: …for machine use and renamed Pilgrim in 1953.

  • Bunyan, John (English author)

    John Bunyan, celebrated English minister and preacher, author of The Pilgrim’s Progress (1678), the book that was the most characteristic expression of the Puritan religious outlook. His other works include doctrinal and controversial writings; a spiritual autobiography, Grace Abounding (1666); and

  • Bunyan, Paul (legendary character)

    Paul Bunyan, giant lumberjack, mythical hero of the lumber camps in the United States, a symbol of bigness, strength, and vitality. The tales and anecdotes that form the Paul Bunyan legend are typical of the tradition of frontier tall tales. Paul and his companions, Babe the Blue Ox and Johnny

  • Bunyaviridae (virus group)

    Bunyavirus, any virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviruses have enveloped virions (virus particles) that are about 80–120 nm (1 nm = 10?9 metre) in diameter. The nucleocapsid (consisting of a protein shell, or capsid, and viral nucleic acids) is helical and elongated. The bunyavirus

  • bunyavirus (virus group)

    Bunyavirus, any virus belonging to the family Bunyaviridae. Bunyaviruses have enveloped virions (virus particles) that are about 80–120 nm (1 nm = 10?9 metre) in diameter. The nucleocapsid (consisting of a protein shell, or capsid, and viral nucleic acids) is helical and elongated. The bunyavirus

  • bunyip (mythological creature)

    Bunyip, in Australian Aboriginal folklore, a legendary monster said to inhabit the reedy swamps and lagoons of the interior of Australia. The amphibious animal was variously described as having a round head, an elongated neck, and a body resembling that of an ox, hippopotamus, or manatee; some

  • Bunyoro (people)

    Nyoro, an Interlacustrine Bantu people living just east of Lake Albert (also called Lake Mobutu Sese Seko), west of the Victoria Nile, in west central Uganda. In precolonial times, the Nyoro formed one of the most powerful of a number of kingdoms in the area. Until the 18th century the Bunyoro

  • Bunyoro (historical kingdom, East Africa)

    Bunyoro, East African kingdom that flourished from the 16th to the 19th century west of Lake Victoria, in present-day Uganda. Bunyoro was established by invaders from the north; as cattle keepers, the immigrants constituted a privileged social group that ruled over the Bantu-speaking

  • bunyoro rabbit (mammal)

    rabbit: Diversity and conservation status: The bunyoro rabbit (Poelagus majorita) has a broad range in Central Africa, while the three species of rockhares (genus Pronolagus) are all found in Southern Africa. Each is locally common and inhabits rocky areas associated with grass or woodlands. The riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticularis) is endemic…

  • Bunyoro-Kitara (historical kingdom, East Africa)

    Bunyoro, East African kingdom that flourished from the 16th to the 19th century west of Lake Victoria, in present-day Uganda. Bunyoro was established by invaders from the north; as cattle keepers, the immigrants constituted a privileged social group that ruled over the Bantu-speaking

  • Buol-Schauenstein, Karl Ferdinand, Graf von (foreign minister of Austria)

    Karl Ferdinand, count von Buol-Schauenstein, foreign minister (1852–59) of the Habsburg Austrian Empire, whose policies led to the estrangement of Russia and the disintegration of the conservative Holy Alliance among Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Entering the Austrian diplomatic service in 1816,

  • buon fresco (painting)

    painting: Buon’ fresco: Buon’, or “true,” fresco is the most-durable method of painting murals, since the pigments are completely fused with a damp plaster ground to become an integral part of the wall surface. The stone or brick wall is first prepared with a brown trullisatio…

  • Buon Me Thuot (Vietnam)

    Buon Me Thuot, largest city in the central highlands of southern Vietnam. It lies at an elevation of 1,759 feet (536 metres) at the southern end of the Dac Lac Plateau, 55 miles (89 km) north-northwest of Da Lat. It has teacher-training and vocational schools, hospitals, and a commercial airport.

  • buona figliuola, La (opera by Piccinni)

    Niccolò Piccinni: …years was the opera buffa La buona figliuola, or La cecchina (1760), on a libretto by Goldoni based on Richardson’s novel Pamela. It was written in the new style, later epitomized in the operas of Mozart, that incorporated serious or sentimental subject matter into the flexible musical style of the…

  • Buonanni, Filippo (French writer)

    lacquerwork: Europe: …rules of a treatise by Filippo Buonanni (1722), a great originality was achieved by the informal spacing of bouquets of flowers around gracefully posed figures set against delicate hues of yellow and bluish green.

  • Buonaparte family (French history)

    Bonaparte Family, a family made famous by Napoleon I, emperor of the French (1804–1814/15). The French form Bonaparte was not commonly used, even by Napoleon, until after the spring of 1796. The original name was Buonaparte, which was borne in the early Middle Ages by several distinct families in

  • Buonaparte, Carlo Maria (father of Napoleon)

    Carlo Maria Buonaparte, father of Napoleon I. Buonaparte took a law degree at the University of Pisa and, after the French conquest of Corsica in 1769, became assessor to the royal court for Ajaccio and the neighbouring districts. His restless and dissatisfied nature led him to press or intrigue

  • Buonaparte, Francesco (Corsican immigrant)

    Bonaparte Family: A member of this latter, Francesco Buonaparte, emigrated in the middle of the 16th century to Corsica, where his descendants continued to occupy themselves with the affairs of law and the magistracy.

  • Buonaparte, Giuseppe (king of Spain and Naples)

    Joseph Bonaparte, lawyer, diplomat, soldier, and Napoleon I’s eldest surviving brother, who was successively king of Naples (1806–08) and king of Spain (1808–13). Like his brothers, Joseph embraced the French republican cause and, with the victory of Corsican patriot Pasquale Paoli, was forced to

  • Buonaparte, Letizia (mother of Napoleon)

    Letizia Buonaparte, mother of Napoleon I by Carlo Maria Buonaparte, whom she married in 1764. Simple and frugal in her tastes and devout in thought, she helped to bind her children to the life of Corsica. Although, during her son’s ascendance, she was endowed with immense wealth and distinguished

  • Buonaparte, Luciano (French politician)

    Lucien Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s second surviving brother who, as president of the Council of Five Hundred at Saint-Cloud, was responsible for Napoleon’s election as consul on 19 Brumaire (Nov. 10, 1799). Educated in France, Lucien returned to Corsica in 1789 and became an outspoken speaker in the

  • Buonaparte, Luigi (king of Holland)

    Louis Bonaparte, French soldier and Napoleon I’s third surviving brother. As king of Holland (1806–10) he guarded the welfare of his subjects. His unwillingness to join the Continental System brought him into conflict with the emperor. After attending military school at Chalons, France, Louis

  • Buonaparte, Maria Anna Elisa (sister of Napoleon)

    élisa Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s eldest sister to survive infancy. She was married on May 1, 1797, to Félix Baciocchi, a member of a Corsican noble family. Napoleon gave her the principality of Piombino in March 1805 and the principality of Lucca in the following June and finally, in March 1809, made

  • Buonaparte, Maria Letizia (mother of Napoleon)

    Letizia Buonaparte, mother of Napoleon I by Carlo Maria Buonaparte, whom she married in 1764. Simple and frugal in her tastes and devout in thought, she helped to bind her children to the life of Corsica. Although, during her son’s ascendance, she was endowed with immense wealth and distinguished

  • Buonaparte, Maria Nunziata Carolina (queen of Naples)

    Caroline Bonaparte, queen of Naples (1808–15), Napoleon’s youngest sister and the wife (1800) of Joachim Murat. As a result of her ambitious and intriguing nature, her husband became governor of Paris, marshal of France (1804), grand duke of Berg and of Cleves (1806), lieutenant of the emperor in

  • Buonaparte, Maria Paola (sister of Napoleon)

    Pauline Bonaparte, second sister of Napoleon to survive infancy, the gayest and most beautiful of his sisters. She married Gen. C.V.E. Leclerc (1772–1802), a staff officer of Napoleon, in 1797 and accompanied him to San Domingo. When Leclerc died of yellow fever she returned to Paris. She then

  • Buonaparte, Napoleone (emperor of France)

    Napoleon I, French general, first consul (1799–1804), and emperor of the French (1804–1814/15), one of the most celebrated personages in the history of the West. He revolutionized military organization and training; sponsored the Napoleonic Code, the prototype of later civil-law codes; reorganized

  • Buonaparte, Roland (king of Westphalia)

    Jér?me Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s youngest brother, who became king of Westphalia and marshal of France. It was through Jér?me that the Bonaparte line extended into the United States; his eldest son, Jerome, grew up in Maryland with his American mother. The Bonaparte family had endured poverty and

  • Buonarroti Simoni, Michelangelo di Lodovico (Italian artist)

    Michelangelo, Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Michelangelo was considered the greatest living artist in his lifetime, and ever since then he has been held to be one of the greatest artists of all

  • Buonarroti, Filippo Michele (Italian-born French revolutionary)

    Napoleon I: The Directory: …of Italian “patriots” led by Filippo Buonarroti had to be shelved when Buonarroti was arrested for complicity in Fran?ois-No?l Babeuf’s conspiracy against the Directory. Thereafter, Bonaparte, without discarding the Italian patriots altogether, restricted their freedom of action. He set up a republican regime in Lombardy but kept a close watch…

  • Buonarroti, Philippe (Italian-born French revolutionary)

    Napoleon I: The Directory: …of Italian “patriots” led by Filippo Buonarroti had to be shelved when Buonarroti was arrested for complicity in Fran?ois-No?l Babeuf’s conspiracy against the Directory. Thereafter, Bonaparte, without discarding the Italian patriots altogether, restricted their freedom of action. He set up a republican regime in Lombardy but kept a close watch…

  • Buonaventura, Segna di (Italian painter)

    Duccio: Last years: …followers is known, his nephew Segna di Buonaventura.

  • Buoncompagni, Ugo (pope)

    Gregory XIII, pope from 1572 to 1585, who promulgated the Gregorian calendar and founded a system of seminaries for Roman Catholic priests. Educated at the University of Bologna, he taught jurisprudence there from 1531 to 1539. Because of his expertise in canon law, he was sent by Pope Pius IV in

  • Buono, Angelo, Jr. (American criminal)

    Angelo Buono, Jr., American crime figure (born Oct. 5, 1934, Rochester, N.Y.—died Sept. 22, 2002, Sacramento, Calif.), was convicted in 1983 of the murder of nine women in Los Angeles during a four-month period from 1977 to 1978. He disposed of their naked bodies on area hillsides and thereby e

  • buono, il brutto, il cattivo, Il (film by Leone [1966])

    The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly, Italian western film, released in 1966, that was the third and arguably best installment in director Sergio Leone’s Dollars trilogy, which starred Clint Eastwood as the iconic Man with No Name. The movie is widely regarded as the definitive “spaghetti western.” The

  • Buono, Victor (American actor)

    The Silencers: …dispatched to investigate Tung-Tze (Victor Buono), the mastermind of an international criminal organization known as Big O. Along the way, Helm meets a number of beautiful women, including Gail Hendricks (Stella Stevens), a bumbling agent whose “help” in the case often leads to unintended disasters. Helm infiltrates Tung-Tze’s enormous…

  • Buononcini, Giovanni (Italian composer)

    Giovanni Bononcini, composer, chiefly remembered as Handel’s rival in England. He studied with his father, composer and theoretician Giovanni Maria Bononcini, and later at Bologna. Precocious musical gifts won him his first appointment, as a cellist, in 1687, and he soon became maestro di cappella

  • Buontalenti, Bernardo (Italian stage designer)

    Bernardo Buontalenti, Florentine stage designer and theatre architect. Buontalenti entered the service of the Medici as a youth and remained with them the rest of his life. In the Uffizi Palace, Florence, he built a great court stage, where, during the winter of 1585–86, splendid fetes were

  • buoy (flotation device)

    Buoy, floating object anchored at a definite location to guide or warn mariners, to mark positions of submerged objects, or to moor vessels in lieu of anchoring. Two international buoyage systems are used to mark channels and submerged dangers. In both systems, buoys of standardized colours and

  • buoyancy (physics)

    Archimedes' principle: buoyancy, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes, stating that any body completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of…

  • buoyancy, centre of (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Archimedes’ principle: …a point known as the centre of buoyancy, is the centre of mass of the displaced water. The distributed forces acting on the prism are equivalent to its weight acting downward through C and to the equal weight of the displaced water acting upward through B. In general, therefore, the…

  • Buphagus (bird)

    Oxpecker, either of the two species of the African genus Buphagus, of the family Buphagidae, formerly Sturnidae (order Passeriformes). Both species—the yellow-billed (B. africanus) and the red-billed (B. erythrorhynchus)—are brown birds 20 cm (8 inches) long, with wide bills, stiff tails, and sharp

  • Buphagus africanus (bird)

    oxpecker: Both species—the yellow-billed (B. africanus) and the red-billed (B. erythrorhynchus)—are brown birds 20 cm (8 inches) long, with wide bills, stiff tails, and sharp claws. They cling to cattle and big-game animals to remove ticks, flies, and maggots from their hides; when alarmed, the birds hiss, alerting…

  • Buphagus erythrorhynchus (bird)

    oxpecker: africanus) and the red-billed (B. erythrorhynchus)—are brown birds 20 cm (8 inches) long, with wide bills, stiff tails, and sharp claws. They cling to cattle and big-game animals to remove ticks, flies, and maggots from their hides; when alarmed, the birds hiss, alerting their hosts to possible danger.…

  • Buphaya pagoda (historical Buddhist shrine, Pagan, Myanmar)

    Pagan: The whole of the Buphaya pagoda, for nine centuries a landmark for riverboatmen, tumbled into the Irrawaddy and was carried off by the waters. The village also has a school for lacquer ware, for which the region is noted.

  • Buprestid beetle (insect)

    Metallic wood-boring beetle, (family Buprestidae), any of some 15,000 species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera), mostly distributed in tropical regions, that are among the most brilliantly coloured insects. These beetles are long, narrow, and flat, with a tapering abdomen. The wing covers

  • Buprestidae (insect)

    Metallic wood-boring beetle, (family Buprestidae), any of some 15,000 species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera), mostly distributed in tropical regions, that are among the most brilliantly coloured insects. These beetles are long, narrow, and flat, with a tapering abdomen. The wing covers

  • Buprestoidea (insect superfamily)

    coleopteran: Annotated classification: Superfamily Buprestoidea Antenna short, serrate; abdomen weakly hardened. Family Buprestidae (metallic wood-boring beetles). Brightly coloured, metallic sheen; inhabit various hot, moist forests; about 15,000 species, mostly tropical; examples Agrilus, Sphenoptera, Chrysobothris. Superfamily Byrrhoidea Forecoxae large;

  • bupropion (drug)

    smoking: Bupropion: The first nonnicotine medication to gain approval for smoking cessation was the prescription drug bupropion, which was placed on the market in the United States in 1997 under the name Zyban. (The drug is also marketed as an antidepressant under the name Wellbutrin.) Bupropion…

  • Buqayq (Saudi Arabia)

    Abqaiq, town, eastern Saudi Arabia, about 25 miles (40 km) west of the Persian Gulf. It is situated in the southern end of the Abqaiq oil field, one of the largest and most productive in the kingdom. Abqaiq grew rapidly following the discovery of the oil field in 1940. By 1950 the town was the

  • bur cucumber (plant)

    Bur cucumber, (genus Sicyos), genus of about 60 species of prostrate or climbing vines in the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae). Bur cucumbers often have sticky hairy stems and feature sharply lobed leaves and forked vining tendrils. Clusters of five-petaled unisexual flowers are typically borne at the

  • Būr Fu?ād (Egypt)

    Suez Canal: Communications and towns: …Said, with its east-bank counterpart, Būr Fu?ād; Ismailia (Al-Ismā?īliyyah), on the north shore of Lake Timsah; and Suez, with its west-bank outport, Būr Tawfīq. Water for irrigation and for domestic and industrial use is supplied by the Nile via the Al-Ismā?īliyyah Canal.

  • bur gherkin (plant)

    Gherkin, (Cucumis anguria), annual trailing vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), grown for its edible fruit. The plant is likely native to southern Africa and is grown in warm climates around the world. Gherkin fruits are served raw, cooked, or pickled, though the “gherkins” sold in commercial

  • bur oak (tree)

    Bur oak, (Quercus macrocarpa), North American timber tree belonging to the white oak group of the genus Quercus in the beech family (Fagaceae), distributed primarily throughout the central United States. Often 25 metres (80 feet) tall, the tree may reach 50 metres. Its leaves, about 25 centimetres

  • bur reed (plant)

    reed: Bur reed (Sparganium) and reed mace (Typha) are plants of other families.

  • Būr Sa?īd (Egypt)

    Port Said, port city located in northeastern Egypt, at the northern end of the Suez Canal. It also constitutes the bulk of the urban mu?āfa?ah (governorate) of Būr Sa?īd. Situated largely on man-made land, the city was founded in 1859 on a low sandy strip separating the Mediterranean from Lake

  • Bur Sudan (Sudan)

    Port Sudan, city, principal seaport of Sudan, located on the Red Sea coast 295 miles (475 km) by rail northeast of the Nile River valley at ?A?barah. Built between 1905 and 1909 to replace Sawākin (Suakin)—the historic, coral-choked Arab port—Port Sudan has a petroleum refinery, an international

  • Būr Tawfīq (Egypt)

    Suez Canal: Communications and towns: …Suez, with its west-bank outport, Būr Tawfīq. Water for irrigation and for domestic and industrial use is supplied by the Nile via the Al-Ismā?īliyyah Canal.

  • bur-marigold (plant genus)

    Bidens, cosmopolitan genus of weedy herbs in the family Asteraceae, consisting of about 230 species. Bidens plants are variously known as bur marigold, sticktights, and tickseed sunflowers. They are characterized by fruits with two to four barbed bristles that become attached to animal coats or to

  • Bura Mabang (African language)

    Maban languages: Maba (also called Bura Mabang) is the largest Maban language in terms of number of speakers (more than 250,000). Other members of the group include Karanga, Kibet, Massalat, Masalit (Massalit), Marfa, and Runga. Maban also includes two languages known by the names of their first…

  • buraambur (style of poetry)

    African literature: Somali: …and dealing with war, the buraambur, composed by women, the heello, or balwo, made up of short love poems and popular on the radio, and the hees, popular poetry. Maxamed Cabdulle Xasan (Mohammed Abdullah Hassan) created poetry as a weapon, mainly in the oral tradition. Farah Nuur, Qamaan Bulhan, and…

  • Buraida (Saudi Arabia)

    Buraydah, town, Najd (Central) region, north-central Saudi Arabia. It has long been a commercial rival of ?Unayzah to the south, at one time controlling the export of Arab horses and monopolizing the camel caravan trade of Arabia. Now a principal oasis and agricultural centre, it has extensive

  • Buraimoh, Jimoh (Nigerian artist)

    Mbari Mbayo Club: Jimoh Buraimoh was known for his mosaic compositions made with local beads, potsherds, or stones. Samuel Ojo worked in appliqué with cutout and embroidered fantasy-like figures. Ashiru Olatunde’s aluminum panels are found on Nigerian banks, churches, and bars and in private collections in Europe and…

  • Buraku Kaihō Domei (Japanese organization)

    burakumin: …active organization was formed: the Buraku Kaihō Zenkoku Iinkai (All-Japan Committee for Buraku Liberation), which in 1955 was renamed Buraku Kaihō Dōmei (Buraku Liberation League). Its leftist orientation, however, alienated more conservative burakumin leaders. Thus in 1960 a rival national organization, Dōwakai (Society for Integration), was founded; it came to…

  • Buraku Kaihō Zenkoku Iinkai (Japanese organization)

    burakumin: …active organization was formed: the Buraku Kaihō Zenkoku Iinkai (All-Japan Committee for Buraku Liberation), which in 1955 was renamed Buraku Kaihō Dōmei (Buraku Liberation League). Its leftist orientation, however, alienated more conservative burakumin leaders. Thus in 1960 a rival national organization, Dōwakai (Society for Integration), was founded; it came to…

  • burakumin (Japanese social class)

    Burakumin, (Japanese: “hamlet people”, ) (“pollution abundant”), outcaste, or “untouchable,” Japanese minority, occupying the lowest level of the traditional Japanese social system. The Japanese term eta is highly pejorative, but prejudice has tended even to tarnish the otherwise neutral term

  • Buran (Russian spacecraft)

    Buran, Soviet orbiter similar in design and function to the U.S. space shuttle. Designed by the Energia aerospace bureau, it made a single unmanned, fully automated flight in 1988, only to be grounded shortly thereafter due to cost overruns and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Approval was given

  • Buranello, Il (Italian composer)

    Baldassare Galuppi, Italian composer whose comic operas won him the title “father of the opera buffa.” His nickname derives from his birthplace, Burano. Galuppi was taught by his father, a barber and violinist, and studied under A. Lotti in Venice. After producing two operas in collaboration with

  • buranji (Indian chronicle)

    Assamese language: Prose texts, notably buranjis (historical works), began to appear in the 16th century. In the late 20th century, speakers of Assamese numbered more than 15 million.

  • Burano (Italy)

    Burano, northeastern suburb of Venice, northeastern Italy, comprising four islets in the Laguna Veneta (Venice Lagoon). The settlement is thought to have been founded in the 5th century by refugees from nearby Altino, fleeing in the path of Attila. The 16th-century church of S. Martino has

  • Burano lace (lace)

    Burano lace, needle lace made on the island of Burano, a few miles from Venice in the Venetian lagoon. Burano has a long-established tradition of needle-lace making, though precise historical records are lacking. The fine 18th-century form died out in the early 19th century but was revived in 1872,

  • Buranunu (river, Middle East)

    Euphrates River, river, Middle East. The longest river in southwest Asia, it is 1,740 miles (2,800 km) long, and it is one of the two main constituents of the Tigris-Euphrates river system. The river rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the

  • Burāq (Islamic legend)

    Burāq, in Islāmic tradition, a creature said to have transported the Prophet Mu?ammad to heaven. Described as “a white animal, half-mule, half-donkey, with wings on its sides . . . ,” Burāq was originally introduced into the story of Mu?ammad’s night journey (isrā?) from Mecca to Jerusalem and

  • Burarrawanga, George (Australian Aboriginal musician)

    George Rrurrambu, Australian Aboriginal rock musician (born 1957, Galiwinku, N.Terr., Australia—died June 10, 2007, Galiwinku), was the charismatic front man of the popular Warumpi Band, the first Australian rock group to have a hit song in an indigenous language. Rrurrambu and three other men

  • Buraydah (Saudi Arabia)

    Buraydah, town, Najd (Central) region, north-central Saudi Arabia. It has long been a commercial rival of ?Unayzah to the south, at one time controlling the export of Arab horses and monopolizing the camel caravan trade of Arabia. Now a principal oasis and agricultural centre, it has extensive

  • Buraymī, Al- (oasis, Arabia)

    Saudi Arabia: Foreign affairs: …forces occupied the oasis of Al-Buraymī, which Britain felt belonged to Oman and the emirate of Abu Dhabi (Abū ?abī)—both of which enjoyed British protection. In July 1954 the British and Saudi governments agreed to submit the dispute to an arbitration tribunal. It convened in Geneva in September 1955, but…

  • Burbage, James (British actor)

    Globe Theatre: The second best playhouse: facility, Blackfriars Theatre, that James Burbage (the father of their leading actor, Richard Burbage) had built in 1596 for it inside the city. The elder Burbage had a long history as a theatrical entrepreneur. In 1576 he had built the first successful amphitheatre, known as The Theatre, in a…

  • Burbage, Richard (English actor)

    Richard Burbage, English actor, first player of Shakespeare’s Richard III, Romeo, Henry V, Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, and Lear. The son of the actor and theatre manager and owner James Burbage, Richard had attained wide popularity as an actor by age 20. He was a member of the Earl of Leicester’s

  • Burbank (California, United States)

    Burbank, city, Los Angeles county, California, U.S., in the San Fernando Valley. It was once part of Rancho San Rafael and La Providencia, which were originally formed from land grants made by the Spanish government. The city is named for David Burbank, a Los Angeles dentist who had established a

  • Burbank, Luther (American plant breeder)

    Luther Burbank, American plant breeder whose prodigious production of useful varieties of fruits, flowers, vegetables, and grasses encouraged the development of plant breeding into a modern science. Reared on a farm, Burbank received little more than a high school education, but he was profoundly

  • Burberry (British company)

    Angela Ahrendts: …a number of fashion companies—notably Burberry Group PLC, where she served as CEO (2006–14)—before becoming vice president of retail and online stores (2014–19) at computer giant Apple Inc.

  • Burberry Group PLC (British company)

    Angela Ahrendts: …a number of fashion companies—notably Burberry Group PLC, where she served as CEO (2006–14)—before becoming vice president of retail and online stores (2014–19) at computer giant Apple Inc.

  • Burbidge, Eleanor Margaret (British astronomer)

    Margaret Burbidge, English-born American astronomer who was the first woman to be appointed director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. She made notable contributions to the theory of quasars (quasi-stellar sources), to measurements of the rotation and masses of galaxies, and to the understanding

  • Burbidge, Geoffrey Ronald (British-born American astrophysicist and astronomer)

    Geoffrey Ronald Burbidge, British-born American astrophysicist and astronomer (born Sept. 24, 1925, Chipping Norton, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 2010, La Jolla, Calif.), played a key role in several important developments in astrophysics and cosmology. He coauthored with his wife (astronomer E.

  • Burbidge, Margaret (British astronomer)

    Margaret Burbidge, English-born American astronomer who was the first woman to be appointed director of the Royal Greenwich Observatory. She made notable contributions to the theory of quasars (quasi-stellar sources), to measurements of the rotation and masses of galaxies, and to the understanding

  • burbot (fish)

    Burbot, (Lota lota), elongated fish of the family Lotidae that inhabits cold rivers and lakes of Europe, Asia, and North America. A bottom dweller found in both fresh and brackish waters, it descends as deep as 700 metres (about 2,300 feet). It is a mottled greenish or brown fish and may grow as

  • Burchard (bishop of Worms)

    canon law: Development of canon law in the West: …young cleric, the “Decree of Burchard” (bishop of Worms from 1000 to 1025) became the canon law manual in the cathedral schools and in the curias (administrative bureaucracies) of bishops and abbots in Germany, France, and Italy. Burchard was a promoter of moderate imperial reform. He did not reject the…

  • Burchard (count of Regensburg)

    Austria: Early Babenberg period: …of the Enns is of Burchard, who probably was count (burgrave) of Regensburg. It appears that he lost his office as a result of his championship of Henry II the Quarrelsome, duke of Bavaria. In 976 his successor, Leopold I of the house of Babenberg, was installed in office. Under…

  • Burchard I (count of Zollern)

    Hohenzollern dynasty: Burchard I, the first recorded ancestor of the dynasty, was count of Zollern in the 11th century. In the third and fourth generation from him two lines were formed: that of Zollern-Hohenberg, extinct in all its branches by 1486, and that of the burgraves of…

  • Burchell’s zebra (mammal)

    zebra: quagga burchellii (Burchell’s zebra), and E. quagga quagga (quagga, which is extinct). The mountain zebra is made up of two subspecies: E. zebra hartmannae (Hartmann’s mountain zebra) and E. zebra zebra (Cape Mountain zebra).

  • Burchenal, Elizabeth (American educator)

    folk dance: Elizabeth Burchenal: In 1903 the American educator Elizabeth Burchenal introduced folk dancing as physical education at Teachers College of Columbia University in New York. Later, as athletics inspector for the New York City public schools, she introduced folk dancing into the curriculum. She organized annual…

  • Burchenal, Joseph H. (American oncologist)

    Joseph H. Burchenal, American oncologist, (born Dec. 21, 1912, Milford, Del.—died March 8, 2006, Hanover, N.H.), pioneered the use of drugs, or chemotherapy, for the treatment of cancer. His experiments and clinical trials helped establish several chemical agents as anticancer drugs. One of the f

  • Burchfield, Charles (American painter)

    Charles Burchfield, American painter known initially for his realistic watercolours of the American scene and later for his mystically poetic landscapes. From 1912 to 1916 Burchfield attended the Cleveland School of Art. He returned to his home in Salem, Ohio, where he had an industrial job and in

  • Burchfield, Charles Ephraim (American painter)

    Charles Burchfield, American painter known initially for his realistic watercolours of the American scene and later for his mystically poetic landscapes. From 1912 to 1916 Burchfield attended the Cleveland School of Art. He returned to his home in Salem, Ohio, where he had an industrial job and in

  • Burchfield, R. W. (British scholar and lexicographer)

    R.W. Burchfield, New Zealand-born British scholar and lexicographer (born Jan. 27, 1923, Wanganui, N.Z.—died July 5, 2004, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, Eng.), ushered into print the four-volume Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary (1972–86); he was personally responsible for adding words and p

  • Burchfield, Robert William (British scholar and lexicographer)

    R.W. Burchfield, New Zealand-born British scholar and lexicographer (born Jan. 27, 1923, Wanganui, N.Z.—died July 5, 2004, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, Eng.), ushered into print the four-volume Supplement to the Oxford English Dictionary (1972–86); he was personally responsible for adding words and p

  • Burckhardt, Jacob (Swiss historian)

    Jacob Burckhardt, one of the first great historians of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general. Burckhardt was the son of a Protestant

  • Burckhardt, Jacob Christopher (Swiss historian)

    Jacob Burckhardt, one of the first great historians of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general. Burckhardt was the son of a Protestant

  • Burckhardt, Jakob Christoph (Swiss historian)

    Jacob Burckhardt, one of the first great historians of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general. Burckhardt was the son of a Protestant

  • Burckhardt, Johann Ludwig (Swiss author)

    Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, the first European in modern times to visit the ancient city of Petra and to arrive at the great Egyptian temple at Abu Simbel (or Abū Sunbul). Burckhardt went to England in 1806 and studied in London and at Cambridge University. In 1809, under the auspices of the

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