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  • Burghley, William Cecil, 1st Baron (English statesman)

    William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley, principal adviser to England’s Queen Elizabeth I through most of her reign. Cecil was a master of Renaissance statecraft, whose talents as a diplomat, politician, and administrator won him high office and a peerage. By service to the Tudors and marriage to local

  • Bürgi, Jobst (Swiss mathematician)

    Joost Bürgi, mathematician who invented logarithms independently of the Scottish mathematician John Napier. Bürgi served as court watchmaker to Duke Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel from 1579 to 1592 and worked in the royal observatory at Kassel, where he developed geometrical and astronomical

  • Bürgi, Joost (Swiss mathematician)

    Joost Bürgi, mathematician who invented logarithms independently of the Scottish mathematician John Napier. Bürgi served as court watchmaker to Duke Wilhelm IV of Hesse-Kassel from 1579 to 1592 and worked in the royal observatory at Kassel, where he developed geometrical and astronomical

  • Burgin, Nellie Paulina (American actress and singer)

    Polly Bergen, (Nellie Paulina Burgin), American singer, actress, and entrepreneur (born July 14, 1930, Knoxville, Tenn.—died Sept. 20, 2014, Southbury, Conn.), was a spunky entertainer who forged a more than 60-year career, appearing in films, onstage, and on TV, notably in her Emmy Award-winning

  • Burgin, Victor (British artist)

    Western painting: Politics, commerce, and abjection in 1980s art: …work of the British artist Victor Burgin was a key precedent for this tendency. As a conceptualist he had produced a clever piece of pseudo-advertising—a poster (Possession, 1976) that appeared on billboards throughout Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, showing a couple embracing (as in ads for deodorant or jewelry), with the words “What…

  • Bürgisser, Leodegar (Swiss abbot)

    Toggenburg Succession: …and in 1712 the abbot Leodegar Bürgisser’s efforts to reassert his traditional rights over Toggenburg in order to strengthen Swiss Catholicism provoked the leading Protestant confederates, Zürich and Bern, to undertake the Toggenburg (or Second Villmergen) War, in which they quickly defeated the Abbot’s five Catholic supporters, Luzern, Uri, Schwyz,…

  • Burgkmair, Hans, the Elder (German artist)

    Hans Burgkmair, the Elder, painter and woodcut artist, one of the first German artists to show the influence of the Italian Renaissance. The son of a painter, he became a member of the painters’ guild in Strasbourg in 1490 and in Augsburg in 1498. Some 700 woodcuts are ascribed to him, including

  • burglary (crime)

    Burglary, in criminal law, the breaking and entering of the premises of another with an intent to commit a felony within. Burglary is one of the specific crimes included in the general category of theft

  • Burgo family (Anglo-Irish family)

    Burgh Family, a historic Anglo-Irish family associated with Connaught. Its founder was William de Burgo, of a knightly family from eastern England; he and his descendants were granted much of Connaught in the late 12th century, and his grandson Walter was also granted Ulster. Although Walter’s g

  • burgomaster (political official)

    Burgomaster, mayor or chief magistrate of a German town, city, or rural commune. The title is also used in such countries as Belgium (bourgmeistre) and the Netherlands (burgemeester). Most German towns have a burgomaster, but larger cities may have several, one being the chief burgomaster

  • Burgomaster of Stilmonde, The (work by Maeterlinck)

    Maurice Maeterlinck: …Le Bourgmestre de Stilmonde (1917; The Burgomaster of Stilmonde), a patriotic play in which he explores the problems of Flanders under the wartime rule of an unprincipled German officer, briefly enjoyed great success.

  • Burgon, John William (English scholar)

    biblical literature: Literal interpretation: …the 19th-century English biblical scholar John William Burgon:

  • burgoo (stew)

    stew: …tomatoes, okra, and onions; Kentucky’s burgoo is similar, adding beef and potatoes, carrots, turnips, and other vegetables.

  • Burgos (province, Spain)

    Burgos, provincia (province) in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), north-central Spain. It was created in 1833. Burgos province also includes the enclave of Trevi?o, which is administratively part of álava province. Burgos is crossed by the Ebro River in the north and the

  • Burgos (Spain)

    Burgos, city, capital of Burgos provincia (province), in Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northern Spain. It is located on the lower slopes of a castle-crowned hill overlooking the Arlanzón River, about 2,600 feet (800 metres) above sea level. Founded in 884 as an eastern

  • Burgos Seguí, Carmen de (Spanish author)

    Spanish literature: Novecentismo: Among women writers, Carmen de Burgos Seguí (pseudonym Colombine) wrote hundreds of articles, more than 50 short stories, some dozen long novels and numerous short ones, many practical books for women, and socially oriented treatises on subjects such as divorce. An active suffragist and opponent of the death…

  • Burgos, Gaspard (Benedictine monk)

    Pedro Ponce de León: …achieved his first success with Gaspard Burgos, a deaf man who, because of his difficulty with oral communication, had been denied membership in the Benedictine order. Under Ponce’s tutelage, Burgos learned to speak so that he could make his confession. Burgos later wrote a number of books. Ponce taught several…

  • Burgos, José (Filipino priest)

    José Burgos, Roman Catholic priest who advocated the reform of Spanish rule in the Philippines. His execution made him a martyr of the period preceding the Philippine Revolution. Burgos studied at San Juan de Letran College and the University of Santo Tomás in Manila, earning a doctorate of

  • Burgos, Laws of (Spanish code)

    encomienda: …of the system with the Laws of Burgos (1512–13) and the New Law of the Indies (1542) failed in the face of colonial opposition. In fact, a revised form of the repartimiento system was revived after 1550.

  • Burgoyne, John (British general)

    John Burgoyne, British general, best remembered for his defeat by superior American forces in the Saratoga (New York) campaign of 1777, during the American Revolution. After serving with distinction in the Seven Years’ War (1756–63), Burgoyne was elected to the House of Commons in 1761 and again in

  • burgrave (title)

    Burgrave, in medieval Germany, one appointed to command a burg (fortified town) with the rank of count (Graf or comes). Later the title became hereditary and was associated with a

  • Burgraves (French history)

    Victor, 3e duke de Broglie: …conservative group known as the “Burgraves,” he did his best to stem the tide of socialism and to avert the reaction in favour of autocracy. After the coup d’état of Dec. 3, 1851, he was one of the bitterest enemies of Napoleon III’s regime. From 1855 he was a member…

  • Burgraves, Les (work by Hugo)

    French literature: Hugo: The failure of Hugo’s Les Burgraves (1843; “The Commanders”), an overinflated epic melodrama, is commonly seen as the beginning of the end of Romantic theatre.

  • burgravine (title)

    Burgrave, in medieval Germany, one appointed to command a burg (fortified town) with the rank of count (Graf or comes). Later the title became hereditary and was associated with a

  • Burgred (king of Mercia)

    Burgred, king of Mercia (from 852/853) who was driven out by the Danes and went to Rome. In 852 or 853 he called upon Aethelwulf of Wessex to aid him in subduing the North Welsh. The request was granted and the campaign proved successful, the alliance being sealed by the marriage of Burgred to

  • Burgtheater (theatre, Vienna, Austria)

    Vienna: Music and theatre: The Burgtheater, founded in 1776, is one of the most highly regarded German-language theatres in Europe. In addition to several large theatres, Vienna has numerous small theatres, which provide a home for more avant-garde works.

  • Burgundian (people)

    Germanic peoples: …nothing of the Saxons, the Burgundians, and others who became prominent after his time.

  • Burgundian Kreis (European history)

    history of the Low Countries: The Habsburgs: …from the empire as “Burgundian Kreis” (“Circle”) (1548) and in the Pragmatic Sanction (1549), which stated that succession would be regulated in identical fashion in all the regions of the Low Countries that he had included in his empire. The Low Countries were thus prevented from being split up.

  • Burgundian Romanesque style (art)

    Burgundian Romanesque style, architectural and sculptural style (c. 1075–c. 1125) that emerged in the duchy of Burgundy in eastern France and marked some of the highest achievements of Romanesque art (q.v.). The architecture of the Burgundian school arose from the great abbey church at Cluny (the

  • Burgundian school (music)

    Burgundian school, dominant musical style of Europe during most of the 15th century, when the prosperous and powerful dukes of Burgundy, particularly Philip the Good and Charles the Bold, maintained large chapels of musicians, including composers, singers, and instrumentalists. Among the chapel

  • Burgundian War (European history)

    Switzerland: Expansion and position of power: …as a result of the Burgundian War (1474–77), Switzerland became a dynamic European power for half a century. Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, had tried to establish an empire extending from the Netherlands to the Mediterranean and gradually gained control of pawned Austrian territory from Alsace to the Rhine…

  • Burgundio of Pisa (Italian scholar)

    classical scholarship: Greek in the West: …scholars, James of Venice and Burgundio of Pisa, traveled to Constantinople in search of theological and philosophical learning; Burgundio brought back literary as well as theological manuscripts, though he was probably incapable of reading them. The Aristotelian revival of the 13th century led to the production of many translations of…

  • Burgundionum, Lex (Germanic law)

    Gundobad: …two codes of law, the Lex Gundobada, applying to all his subjects, and, somewhat later, the Lex Romana Burgundionum, applying to his Roman subjects.

  • Burgundy (historical region and former région, France)

    Burgundy, historical region and former région of France. As a région, it encompassed the central départements of C?te-d’Or, Sa?ne-et-Loire, Nièvre, and Yonne. In 2016 the Burgundy région was joined with the région of Franche-Comté to form the new administrative entity of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

  • Burgundy Gate (France)

    Belfort, town, capital of the Territoire de Belfort, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, eastern France, on the Savoureuse River, southwest of Mulhouse. Inhabited in Gallo-Roman times, Belfort was first recorded in the 13th century as a possession of the counts of Montbéliard, who granted it a charter

  • Burgundy mixture (chemistry)

    fungicide: Bordeaux mixture and Burgundy mixture, a similar composition, are still widely used to treat orchard trees. Copper compounds and sulfur have been used on plants separately and as combinations, and some are considered suitable for organic farming. Other organic fungicides include neem oil, horticultural oil, and bicarbonates. Synthetic…

  • Burgundy wine

    Burgundy wine, any of numerous wines of the region of Burgundy in east-central France. The region’s vineyards include those of the Chablis district, the C?te de Nuits just south of Dijon, the area around Beaune and Macon, and the Beaujolais district just north of Lyons. Burgundy is a region of

  • Burgundy, house of (Portuguese history)

    Brabant: …rely for aid on the house of Burgundy. In 1390 she ceded her rights to her niece Margaret of Flanders, who was married to Philip II the Bold of Burgundy. When the family line died out in 1430, inheritance passed to Philip III the Good of Burgundy, an event that…

  • Burha (India)

    Balaghat, town, southeastern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. The town lies in a plateau region at the southern base of the Satpura Range, just east of the Wainganga River, and is about 95 miles (155 km) south of Jabalpur. Balaghat formerly consisted of two villages, Burha and Burhi, which

  • Burhān Ad-dīn Ibrāhīm Ibn Mu?ammad Ibn Ibrāhīm (Muslim theologian [1460-1549])

    Al-?alabī, jurist who maintained the traditions of Islāmic jurisprudence in the 16th century. Personal details of his life are obscure, except that after studying in ?alab and Cairo, he spent more than 40 years in Istanbul, the capital of the Ottoman Empire, where he became a preacher in the Mosque

  • Burhān al-Dīn Mu?aqqiq (Muslim mystic)

    Rūmī: Early life and travels: A year later, Burhān al-Dīn Mu?aqqiq, one of Bahā? al-Dīn’s former disciples, arrived in Konya and acquainted Jalāl al-Dīn more deeply with some mystical theories that had developed in Iran. Burhān al-Dīn, who contributed considerably to Jalāl al-Dīn’s spiritual formation, left Konya about 1240. Jalāl al-Dīn is said…

  • Burhān Ni?ām Shah (Ahmadnagar ruler)

    India: Successors to the Bahmanī: …south and by Murta?ā’s brother Burhān, who had the support of the Mughal emperor Akbar, from the north. Burhān defeated the army of Ahmadnagar, recalled the foreign nobles (as the newcomers of Bahmanī times were by then designated) who had been expelled from the kingdom, and assumed the throne in…

  • Burhan, Abdel Fattah al- (Sudanese politician)

    Sudan: Transition: Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who had been leading the military-led transition council, was named president. Abdalla Hamdok, selected by the civilian groups’ alliance, was appointed prime minister, and he formed a cabinet on September 5. Citing the civilian-led government now in place, the AU lifted its…

  • Burhaneddin (Anatolian ruler)

    Eretna Dynasty: …Eretna ruler, was killed, and Burhaneddin, a former vizier, proclaimed himself sultan over Eretna lands.

  • Burhanpur (India)

    Burhanpur, city, southwestern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It lies just north of the Tapti River, about 35 miles (55 km) south of Khandwa. Burhanpur was founded in 1399 by Na?īr Khan, the first independent prince of the Fārūqī dynasty of Khandesh, and it was annexed by the Mughal emperor

  • Burhans, Eliza Wood (American reformer and writer)

    Eliza Wood Burhans Farnham, American reformer and writer, an early advocate of the importance of rehabilitation as a focus of prison internment. Eliza Burhans grew up from age four in the unhappy home of foster parents. At age 15 she came into the care of an uncle, and she briefly attended the

  • burhead (plant)

    Burhead, (genus Echinodorus), genus of some 28 species of annual or perennial herbs of the family Alismataceae, named for their round, bristly fruit. The aquatic plants grow in shallow ponds and swamps in North and South America. They are slender plants that are seldom more than 30 cm (12 inches)

  • Burhi Gandak (river, Asia)

    Gandak River: The Burhi (“Old”) Gandak flows parallel to and east of the Gandak River in an old channel. It joins the Ganges northeast of Munger.

  • Burhinidae (bird)

    Thickknee, any of numerous shorebirds that constitute the family Burhinidae (order Charadriiformes). The bird is named for the thickened intertarsal joint of its long, yellowish or greenish legs; or, alternatively, for its size (about that of a curlew, 35 to 50 centimetres, or 14 to 20 inches) and

  • Burhinus bistriatus (bird)

    thickknee: The double-striped thickknee (B. bistriatus) inhabits the American tropics. Others are the great stone curlew (Esacus recurvirostris), also called stone plover or reef thickknee, of coastal rivers of India; and the beach stone curlew (Orthorhamphus magnirostris) of Australia.

  • Burhinus oedicnemus (bird)

    thickknee: The European stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), called Norfolk plover in England, breeds across southern Europe to India and northern Africa. A tropical African species is known as the water dikkop (B. vermiculatus). The double-striped thickknee (B. bistriatus) inhabits the American tropics. Others are the great stone…

  • Burhoe, Ralph Wendell (American educator)

    Ralph Wendell Burhoe, American educator and writer who was both a theologian and a scientist and spent his career attempting to merge those fields; he founded several organizations toward that end, and in 1980 he was the first American to win the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion (b. June

  • Burhop, Eric Henry Stoneley (Australian-born nuclear physicist)

    Eric Henry Stoneley Burhop, Australian-born nuclear physicist who made important contributions to the study of elementary particle physics, particularly in connection with K-meson and neutrino research. A graduate of the Universities of Melbourne and Cambridge, Burhop worked (1933–35) at the

  • Buri (Norse mythology)

    Aurgelmir: …of a man; this was Buri, who became the grandfather of the great god Odin and his brothers. These gods later killed Aurgelmir, and the flow of his blood drowned all but one frost giant. The three gods put Aurgelmir’s body in the void, Ginnungagap, and fashioned the earth from…

  • Buri, Fritz (German theologian)

    study of religion: Neo-orthodoxy and demythologization: A follower of Bultmann, Fritz Buri, considered Bultmann’s stance to be insufficiently radical, for Bultmann differentiated between the kerygma (the essential proclamation of the early church) and the myths, desiring to retain the former but not the latter. Buri attempted to overcome this distinction. Authentic existence is not, according…

  • burial (death rite)

    Burial, the disposal of human remains by depositing in the earth, a grave, or a tomb, by consigning to the water, or by exposing to the elements or to carrion-consuming animals. Geography, religion, and the social system all influence burial practices. Climate and topography determine whether the

  • burial (geomorphology)

    metamorphic rock: Pressure: …metamorphism are brought about by burial or uplift of the sample. Burial can occur in response either to ongoing deposition of sediments above the sample or tectonic loading brought about, for example, by thrust-faulting or large-scale folding of the region. Uplift, or more properly unroofing, takes place when overlying rocks…

  • Burial at Ornans (painting by Courbet)

    realism: Painting: Such paintings as his Burial at Ornans (1849) and the Stone Breakers (1849), which he had exhibited in the Salon of 1850–51, had already shocked the public and critics by the frank and unadorned factuality with which they depicted humble peasants and labourers. The fact that Courbet did not…

  • Burial at Thebes, The (translation by Heaney)

    English literature: The 21st century: …striking instance of which was The Burial at Thebes (2004), which infused Sophocles’ Antigone with contemporary resonances. Although they had entered into a new millennium, writers seemed to find greater imaginative stimulus in the past than in the present and the future.

  • burial mask

    mask: Funerary and commemorative uses: Funerary masks were frequently used to cover the face of the deceased. Generally their purpose was to represent the features of the deceased, both to honour them and to establish a relationship through the mask with the spirit world. Sometimes they were used to force…

  • burial metamorphism (geology)

    metamorphic rock: Zeolite facies: This is the facies of burial metamorphism.

  • burial mound (archaeology)

    Burial mound, artificial hill of earth and stones built over the remains of the dead. In England the equivalent term is barrow; in Scotland, cairn; and in Europe and elsewhere, tumulus. In western Europe and the British Isles, burial cairns and barrows date primarily from the Neolithic Period (New

  • Burial of St. Lucy, The (painting by Caravaggio)

    Caravaggio: Naples, Malta, Sicily, Naples, Porto Ercole: 1606–10: …1608–09, a large altarpiece of The Burial of St. Lucy for the Basilica di Santa Lucia al Sepolcro in Syracuse; a heartbreakingly desolate Adoration of the Shepherds; and a starkly simplified, almost neo-Byzantine Resurrection of Lazarus.

  • Burial of St. Rose of Lima (painting by Castillo)

    Latin American art: Modernismo (1890–1920): In Burial of St. Rose of Lima (1918), for example, his passionate, disconnected brushstrokes render the kneeling indigenous mother in strong colours in the foreground, while pale, insubstantial smoke from incense rises in the procession behind her.

  • Burial of the Conde de Orgaz (painting by El Greco)

    El Greco: Middle years: The Burial of the Count de Orgaz (1586–88) is universally regarded as El Greco’s masterpiece. The supernatural vision of Gloria (“Heaven”) above and the impressive array of portraits represent all aspects of this extraordinary genius’s art. El Greco clearly distinguished between heaven and earth: above, heaven…

  • burial place

    Iranian art and architecture: Median period: …in date and excavated from burial grounds in the eastern Zagros Mountains. There appear to have been more than 400 of these burial grounds, each comprising about 200 graves, so that the number of ornamental bronze objects reaching museums and private collections must have been very great. The burials appear…

  • burial rite (anthropology)

    African dance: The social context: …designed to be performed during funeral rites, after burial ceremonies, and at anniversaries. Dances may be created for a specific purpose, as in the Igogo dance of the Owo-Yoruba, when young men use stamping movements to pack the earth of the grave into place. In Fulani communities in Cameroon, the…

  • Burials Act (United Kingdom [1880])

    Archibald Campbell Tait: …to his support of the Burials Act (1880), which legalized non-Anglican burial services in Anglican churchyards, and to his dislike for the sternness of the Athanasian Creed’s clauses regarding salvation.

  • Burian, Emil Franti?ek (Czech author and composer)

    Emil Franti?ek Burian, Czech author, composer, playwright, and theatre and film director whose eclectic stage productions drew upon a wide variety of art forms and technologies for their effects. At the age of 19, while still a student, Burian completed the music for the first of his six operas,

  • Burián, István, Baron von (Austrian statesman)

    Austria: World War I: …again entrusted to a Hungarian, István, Count Burián. But Burián failed to keep Italy and Romania out of the war. German attempts to pacify the two states by concessions were unsuccessful because Franz Joseph was unwilling to cede any territory in response to the irredentist demands of the two nations.…

  • Buriat (people)

    Buryat, northernmost of the major Mongol peoples, living south and east of Lake Baikal. By the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) their land was ceded by China to the Russian Empire. The Buryat are related by language, history, habitat, and economic type to the Khalkha Mongols of Outer Mongolia, the

  • Buridan’s ass (philosophy and logic)

    Jean Buridan: …by the celebrated allegory of “Buridan’s ass,” though the animal mentioned in Buridan’s commentary on Aristotle’s De caelo (“On the Heavens”) is actually a dog, not an ass. His discussion centres on the method by which the dog chooses between two equal amounts of food placed before him. Discerning both…

  • Buridan, Jean (French philosopher and scientist)

    Jean Buridan, Aristotelian philosopher, logician, and scientific theorist in optics and mechanics. After studies in philosophy at the University of Paris under the nominalist thinker William of Ockham, Buridan was appointed professor of philosophy there. He served as university rector in 1328 and

  • Buridanus, Joannes (French philosopher and scientist)

    Jean Buridan, Aristotelian philosopher, logician, and scientific theorist in optics and mechanics. After studies in philosophy at the University of Paris under the nominalist thinker William of Ockham, Buridan was appointed professor of philosophy there. He served as university rector in 1328 and

  • Buried Child (play by Shepard)

    Buried Child, three-act tragedy by Sam Shepard, performed in 1978 and published in 1979. The play was awarded the 1979 Pulitzer Prize for drama. Shepard had his first critical and commercial success with this corrosive study of American family life. The play, set on an Illinois farm, centres on the

  • buried ice (geology)

    permafrost: Types of ground ice: Buried ice in permafrost includes buried sea, lake, and river ice and recrystallized snow, as well as buried blocks of glacier ice in permafrost climate.

  • Buried Statues (work by Benítez Rojo)

    Antonio Benítez Rojo: …America, is “Estatuas Sepultadas” (“Buried Statues”), which narrates the isolation of a formerly well-to-do family in an enclosed mansion, where they can barely hear and must intuit the transcendental transformations taking place around them.

  • buried treasure (law)

    Treasure trove, in law, coin, bullion, gold, or silver articles, found hidden in the earth, for which no owner can be discovered. In most of feudal Europe, where the prince was looked on as the ultimate owner of all lands, his claim to the treasure trove became, according to the founder of

  • burin (engraving tool)

    Burin, engraving tool with a metal shaft that is cut or ground diagonally downward to form a diamond-shaped point at the tip. The angle of the point of a particular tool affects the width and depth of the engraved lines. The shaft of the tool is fixed in a flat handle that can be held close to the

  • Burin Peninsula (peninsula, Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada)

    Cambrian Period: Boundaries and subdivisions of the Cambrian System: …at Fortune Head on the Burin Peninsula of southeastern Newfoundland in Canada. It contains a thick and continuous marine succession of mostly shale, siltstone, and sandstone. The stratotype point, representing a moment in time, is in the lower part of the Chapel Island Formation. It coincides with the base of…

  • Buritanika Kokusai Dai Hyakka Jiten (Japanese encyclopaedia)

    Buritanika Kokusai Daihyakka-jiten, first major encyclopaedia of international scope written in the Japanese language. The first volumes of the 28-volume set were released in June 1972, and the last in 1975. The set is organized as follows: 20 volumes of comprehensive articles, 6 volumes that

  • Buritanika Kokusai Daihyakka-jiten (Japanese encyclopaedia)

    Buritanika Kokusai Daihyakka-jiten, first major encyclopaedia of international scope written in the Japanese language. The first volumes of the 28-volume set were released in June 1972, and the last in 1975. The set is organized as follows: 20 volumes of comprehensive articles, 6 volumes that

  • Burj Dubai (skyscraper, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    Burj Khalifa, mixed-use skyscraper in Dubai, U.A.E., that is the world’s tallest building, according to all three of the main criteria by which such buildings are judged (see Researcher’s Note: Heights of Buildings). Burj Khalifa (“Khalifa Tower”), known during construction as Burj Dubai, was

  • Burj Khalifa (skyscraper, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    Burj Khalifa, mixed-use skyscraper in Dubai, U.A.E., that is the world’s tallest building, according to all three of the main criteria by which such buildings are judged (see Researcher’s Note: Heights of Buildings). Burj Khalifa (“Khalifa Tower”), known during construction as Burj Dubai, was

  • Burj Khalīfah (skyscraper, Dubai, United Arab Emirates)

    Burj Khalifa, mixed-use skyscraper in Dubai, U.A.E., that is the world’s tallest building, according to all three of the main criteria by which such buildings are judged (see Researcher’s Note: Heights of Buildings). Burj Khalifa (“Khalifa Tower”), known during construction as Burj Dubai, was

  • Burjī period (Mamlūk history)

    Mamluk: The Mamluk dynasty: …and the latter the “Burjī,” because of the political dominance of the regiments known by these names during the respective times. The contemporary Muslim historians referred to the same divisions as the “Turkish” and “Circassian” periods, in order to call attention to the change in ethnic origin of the…

  • burka (garment)

    Afghanistan: Daily life and social customs: …have continued to wear the chador (or chadri, in Afghanistan), the full body covering mandated by the Taliban. This has been true even of those women of the middle class (most in Kabul) who had shed that garment during the communist era. Some men have shaved or trimmed their beards,…

  • Burke family (Anglo-Irish family)

    Burgh Family, a historic Anglo-Irish family associated with Connaught. Its founder was William de Burgo, of a knightly family from eastern England; he and his descendants were granted much of Connaught in the late 12th century, and his grandson Walter was also granted Ulster. Although Walter’s g

  • Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage (peerage)

    Burke’s Peerage, listing of the peerage (titled aristocracy) of Great Britain and Ireland, first published as Burke’s General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom for MDCCCXXVI by John Burke in London in 1826. This series of family histories, republished

  • Burke’s Peerage (peerage)

    Burke’s Peerage, listing of the peerage (titled aristocracy) of Great Britain and Ireland, first published as Burke’s General and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the United Kingdom for MDCCCXXVI by John Burke in London in 1826. This series of family histories, republished

  • Burke, Arleigh Albert (United States admiral)

    Arleigh Albert Burke, admiral (ret.), U.S. Navy (born Oct. 19, 1901, near Boulder, Colo.—died Jan. 1, 1996, Bethesda, Md.), distinguished himself as one of the finest naval commanders in World War II and reinvigorated the U.S. Navy during the Cold War as chief of naval operations (1955-61). In 1

  • Burke, Billie (American entertainer)

    Florenz Ziegfeld, Jr.: …divorce in 1913, the actress Billie Burke.

  • Burke, Clem (American musician)

    Blondie: …pair—also longtime romantic partners—recruited drummer Clem Burke (byname of Clement Bozewski; b. November 24, 1955, Bayonne, New Jersey), bassist Gary Valentine (byname of Gary Lachman; b. December 24, 1955), and keyboardist Jimmy Destri (byname of James Destri; b. April 13, 1954, Brooklyn). Later members included bassist Nigel Harrison (b. April…

  • Burke, Edmund (British philosopher and statesman)

    Edmund Burke, British statesman, parliamentary orator, and political thinker prominent in public life from 1765 to about 1795 and important in the history of political theory. He championed conservatism in opposition to Jacobinism in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790). Burke, the son of

  • Burke, Edwin (American film director)
  • Burke, Fielding (American author)

    American literature: Critics of society: , such as Fielding Burke’s Call Home the Heart and Grace Lumpkin’s To Make My Bread (both 1932). Other notable proletarian novels included Jack Conroy’s The Disinherited (1933), Robert Cantwell’s The Land of Plenty (1934), and Albert Halper’s Union Square (1933), The Foundry (1934), and

  • Burke, James (British boxer)

    James Burke, British bare-knuckle fighter who was the English heavyweight champion from 1833 to 1839. Burke, who was hearing impaired from infancy, worked on the River Thames as a waterman before beginning his boxing career. He began fighting professionally in 1828. In the 1833 title fight between

  • Burke, James Deaf (British boxer)

    James Burke, British bare-knuckle fighter who was the English heavyweight champion from 1833 to 1839. Burke, who was hearing impaired from infancy, worked on the River Thames as a waterman before beginning his boxing career. He began fighting professionally in 1828. In the 1833 title fight between

  • Burke, John Francis (American surgeon)

    John Francis Burke, American surgeon (born July 22, 1922, Peoria, Ill.—died Nov. 2, 2011, Lexington, Mass.), co-developed (together with MIT engineer Ioannis Yannas) commercially reproducible artificial human skin for the treatment of burn victims. Burke and Yannas’s novel and lifesaving

  • Burke, Johnny (American songwriter)
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