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  • balm (several herbs of the mint family)

    Balm, any of several aromatic herbs of the mint family, grown for their fragrant leaves. The best-known balm plant is Melissa officinalis, also called balm gentle or lemon balm, which is cultivated in temperate climates and used as a scent in perfumery, as a flavouring in such foods as salads,

  • balm (herb species)
  • balm fir (tree)

    Canada balsam: …greenish liquid exuded by the balsam fir of North America, Abies balsamea. It is actually a turpentine, belonging to the class of oleoresins (natural products consisting of a resin dissolved in an essential oil), and not a balsam.

  • balm gentle (herb species)
  • Balm in Gilead (work by Wilson)

    Lanford Wilson: Balm in Gilead (1965), Wilson’s first full-length play, is set in a crowded world of hustlers and junkies. The Rimers of Eldritch (1967) examines life in a small town.

  • balm of Gilead (herb)

    balm: Balm of Gilead, or balm of Mecca, is the myrrhlike resin from Commiphora gileadensis of the Arabian Peninsula. The balsam fir (Abies balsamea) is sometimes called balm fir, or balm of Gilead fir, and the balm of Gilead poplar (Populus X jackii) is related to…

  • balm of Gilead poplar (tree)

    poplar: Common species: The buds of the balm of Gilead poplar (P. ×jackii), which is similar, are used to make an ointment. The western balsam poplar, also called black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), grows some 60 metres (195 feet) tall and is one of the largest deciduous trees of northwestern North America.

  • Balmaceda, José Manuel (president of Chile)

    José Manuel Balmaceda, liberal reformer and president of Chile (1886–91) whose conflict with his legislature precipitated a civil war in 1891. Balmaceda was elected to the Chilean congress from the Liberal Party in 1870. While serving in the cabinet of President Domingo Santa María (1881–86), he

  • Balmain, Pierre (French couturier)

    Pierre Balmain, French couturier who in 1945 founded a fashion house that made his name a byword for elegance. His clients included the Duchess of Windsor, the Queen of Belgium, and many of the leading film stars of the 1950s, as well as the experimental writer Gertrude Stein and her companion,

  • Balmain, Pierre-Alexandre-Claudius (French couturier)

    Pierre Balmain, French couturier who in 1945 founded a fashion house that made his name a byword for elegance. His clients included the Duchess of Windsor, the Queen of Belgium, and many of the leading film stars of the 1950s, as well as the experimental writer Gertrude Stein and her companion,

  • Balmat, Jacques (French mountaineer)

    mountaineering: History: …Michel-Gabriel Paccard, and his porter, Jacques Balmat. A year later de Saussure himself climbed to the summit of Mont Blanc. After 1850 groups of British climbers with Swiss, Italian, or French guides scaled one after another of the high peaks of Switzerland. A landmark climb in the growth of the…

  • Balmer series (physics)

    atom: Bohr’s shell model: The model also explains the Balmer formula for the spectral lines of hydrogen. The light energy is the difference in energies between the two orbits in the Bohr formula. Using Einstein’s formula to deduce the frequency of the light, Bohr not only explained the form of the Balmer formula but…

  • Balmer, Johann Jakob (Swiss mathematician)

    Johann Jakob Balmer, Swiss mathematician who discovered a formula basic to the development of atomic theory and the field of atomic spectroscopy. A secondary-school teacher in Basel from 1859 until his death, Balmer also lectured (1865–90) on geometry at the University of Basel. In 1885 he

  • Balmer-alpha line (spectroscopy)

    Stark effect: …the characteristic spectral lines, called Balmer lines, of hydrogen were split into a number of symmetrically spaced components, some of which were linearly polarized (vibrating in one plane) with the electric vector parallel to the lines of force, the remainder being polarized perpendicular to the direction of the field except…

  • Balmes, Jaime Luciano (Spanish philosopher)

    Jaime Luciano Balmes, ecclesiastic, political writer, and philosopher whose liberal ideas were strongly opposed by conservative Roman Catholics. Receiving a doctorate in civil and canon law from the University of Cervera, Balmes returned to Vich and taught physics and mathematics. In Madrid he

  • Balmont, Konstantin (Russian poet)

    Russia: The 20th century: included the poets Valery Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, and Zinaida Gippius. The second, more mystically and apocalyptically oriented generation included Aleksandr Blok (perhaps the most talented lyric poet Russia ever produced), the poet and theoretician Vyacheslav Ivanov, and the poet and prose writer

  • Balmoral Castle (castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Balmoral Castle, private residence of the British sovereign, on the right bank of the River Dee, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, at 926 feet (282 metres) above sea level. After its acquisition (1852) by Albert, the prince consort (husband of Queen Victoria), the small castle then on the land was replaced

  • Balnaves, Henry (Scottish politician)

    Henry Balnaves, politician and diplomat who was one of the chief promoters of the Reformation in Scotland. Converted to Protestantism while on the European continent, Balnaves favoured an Anglo-Scottish alliance, ecclesiastical reform, and a vernacular Bible. After returning to Scotland, he held

  • Baloch (people)

    Baloch, group of tribes speaking the Balochi language and estimated at about five million inhabitants in the province of Balochistān in Pakistan and also neighbouring areas of Iran and Afghanistan. In Pakistan the Baloch people are divided into two groups, the Sulaimani and the Makrani, separated

  • Balochi language

    Balochi language, one of the oldest living languages of the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European languages. A West Iranian language, Balochi is spoken by about five million people as a first or second language in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, India, and Baloch diaspora communities. Balochi is

  • Balochi rug

    Baluchi rug, floor covering woven by the Baloch people living in Afghanistan and eastern Iran. The patterns in these rugs are highly varied, many consisting of repeated motifs, diagonally arranged across the field. Some present a maze of intricate latch-hooked forms. Prayer rugs, with a simple

  • Balochistan (region, Iran)

    Baluchistan, traditional region of southeastern Iran, the greater part of which is in Sīstān va Balūchestān ostān (province). With harsh physical and social conditions, the region is among the least developed in Iran. Precipitation, scarce and falling mostly in violent rainstorms, causes floods and

  • Balochistan (province, Pakistan)

    Balochistan, westernmost province of Pakistan. It is bordered by Iran (west), by Afghanistan (northwest), by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces (northeast and east), by Sindh province (southeast), and by the Arabian Sea (south). Although an indigenous population of the region passed through

  • Balochistān Plateau (plateau, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The Balochistan plateau: The vast tableland of Balochistan contains a great variety of physical features. In the northeast a basin centred on the towns of Zhob and Loralai forms a trellis-patterned lobe that is surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges. To the east and southeast…

  • Balochistan Students Union (Pakistani organization)

    Pakistan: Political process: …Front in Sind, and the Balochistan Students Union in Balochistan.

  • Balochistan, University of (university, Quetta, Pakistan)

    Balochistan: The University of Balochistan was established in Quetta in 1970. The Balochi Academy and the Pashto Academy, also in Quetta, promote the preservation of traditional cultures. Area 134,051 square miles (347,190 square km). Pop. (2003 est.) 7,450,000.

  • Balodis, Jānis (Latvian politician)

    Jānis Balodis, army officer and politician who was a principal figure in the foundation and government of independent Latvia. He was commander in chief of the army and navy in Latvia’s war of independence and later was a cabinet member and vice president. Graduated from the military academy at

  • Balon, Jean (French dancer)

    Jean Balon, ballet dancer whose extraordinarily light, elastic leaps reputedly inspired the ballet term “ballon” used to describe a dancer’s ability to ascend without apparent effort and to land smoothly and softly. The ballet term is also thought to derive from the French word ballon (“balloon”).

  • Baloochi rug

    Baluchi rug, floor covering woven by the Baloch people living in Afghanistan and eastern Iran. The patterns in these rugs are highly varied, many consisting of repeated motifs, diagonally arranged across the field. Some present a maze of intricate latch-hooked forms. Prayer rugs, with a simple

  • balopwe (Luba paramount chief title)

    Luba: …by a paramount chief (bulopwe or balopwe), although smaller independent chiefdoms already existed. The Luba empire was fragmented by Belgian colonization between 1880 and 1960, and the breakdown of the empire resulted in the development either of smaller chiefdoms or of small autonomous local lineage groups.

  • Balor (Celtic mythology)

    Balor, in Celtic mythology, chief of the chaotic race of Fomoire—the demonic race that threatened the Irish people until they were subdued in the second great battle of Mag Tuired (Moytura). When Balor was a boy, he looked into a potion being brewed by his father’s Druids, and the fumes caused him

  • Balovedu (people)

    Lovedu, a Bantu-speaking people of Northern province, S.Af. Their immediate neighbours include the Venda and the Tsonga. Agriculture is their major economic activity, with corn (maize), millet, squash, and peanuts (groundnuts) cultivated by hoe. Animal husbandry is a secondary means of food p

  • Balqash (Kazakhstan)

    Balqash, city, east-central Kazakhstan. The city is a landing on the north shore of Lake Balqash (Balkhash). Balqash is a major centre of nonferrous (copper, predominantly, and molybdenum) metallurgy. It came into being in 1937 in connection with the construction of large copper-smelting works for

  • Balqash, Lake (lake, Kazakhstan)

    Lake Balkhash, lake, situated in east-central Kazakhstan. The lake lies in the vast Balqash-Alak?l basin at 1,122 feet (342 m) above sea level and is situated 600 miles (966 km) east of the Aral Sea. It is 376 miles (605 km) long from west to east. Its area varies within significant limits,

  • Balqash-Alak?l basin (region, Kazakhstan)

    Lake Balkhash: …lake lies in the vast Balqash-Alak?l basin at 1,122 feet (342 m) above sea level and is situated 600 miles (966 km) east of the Aral Sea. It is 376 miles (605 km) long from west to east. Its area varies within significant limits, depending on the water balance. In…

  • Balquhidder (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Balquhidder, village, Stirling council area, historic county of Perthshire, Scotland. It lies near the east end of Loch Voil. Balquhidder is famous as the burial place of the outlaw Rob Roy (Robert MacGregor), who died in 1734. His grave and those of some of his family are marked by three ancient

  • Balquhidder, John Murray, Viscount of (Scottish Royalist)

    John Murray, 2nd earl and 1st marquess of Atholl, a leading Scottish Royalist and defender of the Stuarts from the time of the English Civil Wars (1642–51) until after the accession of William and Mary (1689). The son of the 1st earl of Atholl in the Murray line, Atholl was the chief supporter of

  • Balranald (New South Wales, Australia)

    Balranald, town, southern New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the Murrumbidgee River, near its junction with the Murray River. Balranald was settled in 1847 and proclaimed a town in 1851, and it was an important livestock-ferrying point in the 1860s. It was gazetted a municipality in 1882

  • balsa (boat)

    basketry: Uses: …Peru, Ireland, and Mesopotamia: the balsa (boats) of Lake Titicaca, made of reeds and sometimes fitted out with a sail also made of matting; the British coracle, the basketry framework of which is covered with a skin sewn onto the edge; and the gufa of the Tigris, which is round…

  • balsa (tree)

    Balsa, (Ochroma pyramidale), fast-growing tropical tree in the mallow family (Malvaceae), noted for its extremely lightweight and light-coloured wood. Balsa can be found from southern Mexico to Bolivia and is a common plant throughout much of its range. The wood has long been used in many

  • balsam (aromatic resin)

    Balsam, aromatic resinous substance that flows from a plant, either spontaneously or from an incision; it consists of a resin dispersed in benzoic or cinnamic acid esters and is used chiefly in medicinal preparations. Certain of the more aromatic varieties of balsam have been incorporated into

  • balsam apple (plant)

    Wild cucumber, (species Echinocystis lobata), climbing plant of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to eastern North America. The true balsam apple is Momordica balsamina. The wild cucumber has leaves with three to seven sharp lobes; forked, coiled tendrils; six-petaled white flowers; and a

  • balsam family (plant family)

    Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Balsaminaceae, or the touch-me-not family, includes 2 genera and about 1,000 species of fleshy herbs. Hydrocera, with one species, is Indo-Malesian, while Impatiens (touch-me-not genus), with all the other species, grows throughout the family range, which is mostly Old World—mainly Africa (especially Madagascar) to…

  • balsam fir (tree)

    Canada balsam: …greenish liquid exuded by the balsam fir of North America, Abies balsamea. It is actually a turpentine, belonging to the class of oleoresins (natural products consisting of a resin dissolved in an essential oil), and not a balsam.

  • balsam of Peru (resin)

    balsam: Balsam of Peru, a fragrant, thick, deep brown or black fluid used in perfumery, is a true balsam, the product of a lofty leguminous tree, Myroxylon pereirae, growing in a limited area in El Salvador and introduced into Sri Lanka. It is mentioned in pharmacopoeias…

  • balsam of Tolu (resin)

    balsam: Balsam of Tolu (Colombia), a brown balsam thicker than balsam of Peru, is used in perfumery and as a constituent in cough syrups and lozenges. It becomes solid on keeping. It also is a product of equatorial America.

  • balsam poplar (plant)

    Balsam poplar, North American poplar (Populus balsamifera), native from Labrador to Alaska and across the extreme northern U.S. Often cultivated as a shade tree, it has buds thickly coated with an aromatic resin that is used to make cough syrups. It grows best in northwestern

  • Balsam, Artur (American musician)

    Artur Balsam, Polish-born U.S. pianist (born Feb. 8, 1906, Warsaw, Poland, Russian Empire—died Sept. 1, 1994, New York, N.Y.), was an accomplished soloist, accompanist for violin and cello, and chamber musician whose elegant interpretations of Mozart, Beethoven, and Haydn sonatas distinguished h

  • Balsam, Martin (American actor)

    Martin Balsam, U.S. character actor who provided durable support in a wide variety of roles onstage and in such films as Twelve Angry Men, Psycho, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and A Thousand Clowns, for which he won an Academy Award for best supporting actor (b. Nov. 4, 1919--d. Feb. 13,

  • Balsam, Martin Henry (American actor)

    Martin Balsam, U.S. character actor who provided durable support in a wide variety of roles onstage and in such films as Twelve Angry Men, Psycho, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, and A Thousand Clowns, for which he won an Academy Award for best supporting actor (b. Nov. 4, 1919--d. Feb. 13,

  • Balsam, Talia (American actress)

    George Clooney: …his marriage (1989–93) to actress Talia Balsam, Clooney vowed never to remarry, and his various relationships became fodder for the tabloids. In 2014, however, he wed Lebanese English lawyer Amal Alamuddin. The couple had twins, Alexander and Ella, in 2017.

  • Balsaminaceae (plant family)

    Ericales: Balsaminaceae: Balsaminaceae, or the touch-me-not family, includes 2 genera and about 1,000 species of fleshy herbs. Hydrocera, with one species, is Indo-Malesian, while Impatiens (touch-me-not genus), with all the other species, grows throughout the family range, which is mostly Old World—mainly Africa (especially Madagascar) to…

  • Balsamo, Guiseppe (Italian charlatan)

    Alessandro, count di Cagliostro, charlatan, magician, and adventurer who enjoyed enormous success in Parisian high society in the years preceding the French Revolution. Balsamo was the son of poor parents and grew up as an urchin in the streets of Palermo. Escaping from Sicily after a series of

  • Balsamo, Theodore (Byzantine scholar)

    Theodore Balsamon, the principal Byzantine legal scholar of the medieval period and patriarch of Antioch (c. 1185–95). After a long tenure as law chancellor to the patriarch of Constantinople, Balsamon preserved the world’s knowledge of many source documents from early Byzantine political and

  • Balsamon, Theodore (Byzantine scholar)

    Theodore Balsamon, the principal Byzantine legal scholar of the medieval period and patriarch of Antioch (c. 1185–95). After a long tenure as law chancellor to the patriarch of Constantinople, Balsamon preserved the world’s knowledge of many source documents from early Byzantine political and

  • Balsas Depression (region, Mexico)

    Mexico: Physiographic regions: The hot, dry Balsas Depression, which takes its name from the major river draining the region, is immediately south of the Cordillera Neo-Volcánica. The depression is formed of small, irregular basins interrupted by hilly outcrops, which give the area a distinctive physical landscape.

  • Balsas River (river, Mexico)

    Balsas River, river in south-central Mexico, one of that country’s largest rivers. It rises as the Atoyac River at the confluence of the San Martín and Zahuapan rivers in Puebla state and flows southwestward and then westward through the Balsas Depression into Guerrero state, in which it is the

  • Balsas teosinte (plant)

    teosinte: …mays), was derived from the Balsas teosinte (Z. mays parviglumis) of southern Mexico in pre-Columbian times more than 6,000 years ago.

  • Balsas, Río (river, Mexico)

    Balsas River, river in south-central Mexico, one of that country’s largest rivers. It rises as the Atoyac River at the confluence of the San Martín and Zahuapan rivers in Puebla state and flows southwestward and then westward through the Balsas Depression into Guerrero state, in which it is the

  • balshem (Judaism)

    Ba?al shem, in Judaism, title bestowed upon men who reputedly worked wonders and effected cures through secret knowledge of the ineffable names of God. Benjamin ben Zerah (11th century) was one of several Jewish poets to employ the mystical names of God in his works, thereby demonstrating a belief

  • Balssa, Honoré (French author)

    Honoré de Balzac, French literary artist who produced a vast number of novels and short stories collectively called La Comédie humaine (The Human Comedy). He helped to establish the traditional form of the novel and is generally considered to be one of the greatest novelists of all time. Balzac’s

  • Balt (people)

    Balt, member of a people of the Indo-European linguistic family living on the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea. (The name Balt, coined in the 19th century, is derived from the sea; Aestii was the name given these peoples by the Roman historian Tacitus.) In addition to the Lithuanians and the

  • Balta Liman, Convention of

    Egypt: Administrative changes: …Ottoman Empire in 1838 (the Convention of Balta Liman) was technically binding on Egypt, Mu?ammad ?Alī succeeded in evading its application up to and even after the reversal of his fortunes in 1840–41.

  • Balta, José (president of Peru)

    Civilista: …corrupt military regime of President José Balta (served 1868–72). Pardo was elected president in May 1872, taking office that summer after a military coup to block his accession failed.

  • Baltard, Victor (French architect)

    Paris: The Halles: …halls (10 originals, designed by Victor Baltard and built between 1854 and 1866, and two 1936 reproductions) and their neighbourhood were designated for renewal. The renewal projects were delayed for several years, however, by bitter disagreements over how the area should be used. The old market halls were used temporarily…

  • Baltasar (king of Babylonia)

    Belshazzar, coregent of Babylon who was killed at the capture of the city by the Persians. Belshazzar had been known only from the biblical Book of Daniel (chapters 5, 7–8) and from Xenophon’s Cyropaedia until 1854, when references to him were found in Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions. Though he

  • Baltasar and Blimunda (work by Saramago)

    José Saramago: Baltasar and Blimunda). With 18th-century Portugal (during the Inquisition) as a backdrop, it chronicles the efforts of a handicapped war veteran and his lover to flee their situation by using a flying machine powered by human will. Saramago alternates this allegorical fantasy with grimly realistic…

  • Balthasar (king of Babylonia)

    Belshazzar, coregent of Babylon who was killed at the capture of the city by the Persians. Belshazzar had been known only from the biblical Book of Daniel (chapters 5, 7–8) and from Xenophon’s Cyropaedia until 1854, when references to him were found in Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions. Though he

  • Balthasar (legendary figure)

    Balthasar, legendary figure, said to be one of the

  • Balthasar, Hans Urs von (Swiss theologian)

    Hans Urs von Balthasar, Swiss Roman Catholic theologian who rejected the ultraconservatism of the French schismatic archbishop Marcel Lefebvre and the progressive views of the Swiss theologian Hans Küng in favour of a deeply personal spirituality. Balthasar studied philosophy at the Universities of

  • Balthazar (novel by Durrell)

    The Alexandria Quartet: …which consists of Justine (1957), Balthazar (1958), Mountolive (1958), and Clea (1960), is set in Alexandria, Egypt, during the 1940s. Three of the books are written in the first person, Mountolive in the third. The first three volumes describe, from different viewpoints, a series of events in Alexandria before World…

  • Balther of S?ckingen (German monk)

    Saint Fridolin of S?ckingen: …principally from the 10th-century monk Balther of S?ckingen) describe him as a man of noble birth who became an itinerant preacher in Ireland, travelling from town to town, and then crossed over to France. He lived for a while at a monastery at Poitiers and then travelled to the Rhine,…

  • Balthus (French painter)

    Balthus, reclusive French painter who, in the midst of 20th-century avant-gardism, explored the traditional categories of European painting: the landscape, the still life, the subject painting, and the portrait. He is best known for his controversial depictions of adolescent girls. Balthus was born

  • Balti (people)

    Baltistan: Baltistan is chiefly inhabited by Baltis, Muslim tribes of Tibetan origin who eke out a meagre living growing crops (mainly barley and fruits).

  • B?l?i (Moldova)

    B?l?i, city, northern Moldova, on the Raut (Reut) River. It dates to the 15th century. B?l?i is a major railway junction and the centre of the rich agricultural B?l?i Steppe. Most industries are concerned with processing farm produce, notably flour milling, sugar refining, and wine making, but

  • B?l?i steppe (steppe, Moldova)

    Moldova: Relief: …the level plain of the B?l?i steppe (500 to 650 feet [150 to 200 metres] in elevation) and also by uplands averaging twice this elevation, culminating in Vysokaya Hill (1,053 feet [321 metres]). The northern uplands include the strikingly eroded Medobory-Toltry limestone ridges, which border the Prut River.

  • Baltic Coastal Plain (region, Poland)

    Poland: The coastal plain: The Baltic Coastal Plain stretches across northern Poland from Germany to Russia, forming a low-lying region built of various sediments. It is largely occupied by the ancient province of Pomerania (Pomorze), the name of which means “along the sea.” The scarcely indented Baltic coastline was formed…

  • Baltic Entente (mutual-defense pact [1934])

    Baltic Entente, mutual-defense pact signed by Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia on Sept. 12, 1934, that laid the basis for close cooperation among those states, particularly in foreign affairs. Shortly after World War I, efforts were made to conclude a Baltic defense alliance among Finland, Estonia,

  • Baltic Exchange (trade organization)

    ship: The tramp trade: …is carried out in the Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange in London, commonly known as the Baltic Exchange. Other exchanges, especially for special cargoes, are in operation. For example, a large part of the immense world oil transportation business is chartered by brokers based in a number of ports.

  • Baltic Finn (people)

    Finno-Ugric religion: The Finno-Ugric peoples: When the Baltic Finns came to the regions bordering the Baltic Sea is not certain. The latest possible date would be about 1500 bce (the evidence being the Baltic loanwords in proto-Finnic), when the “proto-Finns” still maintained contact with the Mordvins and the Sami. A much earlier…

  • Baltic languages

    Baltic languages, group of Indo-European languages that includes modern Latvian and Lithuanian, spoken on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and the extinct Old Prussian, Yotvingian, Curonian, Selonian, and Semigallian languages. The Baltic languages are more closely related to Slavic, Germanic,

  • Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange (trade organization)

    ship: The tramp trade: …is carried out in the Baltic Mercantile and Shipping Exchange in London, commonly known as the Baltic Exchange. Other exchanges, especially for special cargoes, are in operation. For example, a large part of the immense world oil transportation business is chartered by brokers based in a number of ports.

  • Baltic religion

    Baltic religion, religious beliefs and practices of the Balts, ancient inhabitants of the Baltic region of eastern Europe who spoke languages belonging to the Baltic family of languages. The study of Baltic religion has developed as an offshoot of the study of Baltic languages—Old Prussian,

  • Baltic Sea (sea, Europe)

    Baltic Sea, arm of the North Atlantic Ocean, extending northward from the latitude of southern Denmark almost to the Arctic Circle and separating the Scandinavian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe. The largest expanse of brackish water in the world, the semienclosed and relatively

  • Baltic Shield

    Arctic: Geology: The Baltic (or Scandinavian) Shield, centred on Finland, includes all of northern Scandinavia (except the Norwegian coast) and the northwestern corner of Russia. The two other blocks are smaller. The Angaran Shield is exposed between the Khatanga and Lena rivers in north-central Siberia and the Aldan…

  • Baltic states (region, Europe)

    Baltic states, northeastern region of Europe containing the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The Baltic states are bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea, which gives the region its name, on the east by Russia, on the southeast by

  • Baltic States, history of

    Baltic states: Prehistory to the 18th century: In prehistoric times Finno-Ugric tribes inhabited a long belt stretching across northern Europe from the Urals through northern Scandinavia, reaching south to present-day Latvia. The predecessors of the modern Balts bordered them along a belt to the south, stretching west from a region…

  • Baltic sturgeon (fish)

    sturgeon: Distribution: The common Old World sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) occurs from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean. A very similar, closely related form, considered a separate species (A. oxyrhynchus) by some authorities, occurs along the east coast of North America. The length of these fishes is generally to

  • Baltic War of Liberation (European history)

    Baltic War of Liberation, (1918–20), military conflict in which Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania fended off attacks from both Soviet Russia and Germany. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania had been part of the Russian Empire since the end of the 18th century, but after the Russian Revolution of 1917 they

  • Baltic-Finnic languages

    Uralic languages: Languages of the family: …of languages are found: the Baltic-Finnic, the Permic, and the Ob-Ugric. The largest of these, the Baltic-Finnic group, is composed of Finnish, Estonian, Livonian, Votic, Ingrian, Karelian, and Veps. The Permic group consists of Komi, Permyak, and Udmurt. The Ob-Ugric group

  • Baltic-White Sea Canal (canal, Russia)

    White Sea–Baltic Canal, system of rivers, lakes, and canals in northwestern Russia that connects the White Sea to Lake Onega, where it joins the Volga-Baltic Waterway (q.v.). The White Sea–Baltic Canal is 141 miles (227 km) long, 23 miles (37 km) of which is manmade. It was constructed between 1

  • Baltica (paleocontinent)

    Paleozoic Era: Paleozoic geography: Baltica moved across the paleoequator from southern cool temperate latitudes into northern warm latitudes during the Paleozoic. It collided with and joined Laurentia during the early Devonian Period. The beginnings of such mountainous regions as the Appalachians, Caledonides, and Urals resulted from the Paleozoic collision…

  • Baltics (work by Transtr?mer)

    Tomas Transtr?mer: …the setting for ?stersj?ar (1974; Baltics). His later works include Sanningsbarri?ren (1978; The Truth Barrier), Det vilda torget (1983; The Wild Marketplace), and F?r levande och d?da (1989; For the Living and the Dead).

  • Baltics (region, Europe)

    Baltic states, northeastern region of Europe containing the countries of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea. The Baltic states are bounded on the west and north by the Baltic Sea, which gives the region its name, on the east by Russia, on the southeast by

  • Baltiisk (Russia)

    Baltiysk, city and port, Kaliningrad oblast (province), northwestern Russia. It lies at the entrance to the tip of the narrow peninsula separating Frisches Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. Originally the German East Prussian town of Pillau (1686–1946), Baltiysk is connected by canal to Kaliningrad and

  • Baltijsk (Russia)

    Baltiysk, city and port, Kaliningrad oblast (province), northwestern Russia. It lies at the entrance to the tip of the narrow peninsula separating Frisches Lagoon from the Baltic Sea. Originally the German East Prussian town of Pillau (1686–1946), Baltiysk is connected by canal to Kaliningrad and

  • Baltimore (Maryland, United States)

    Baltimore, city, north-central Maryland, U.S., about 40 miles (65 km) northeast of Washington, D.C. It lies at the head of the Patapsco River estuary, 15 miles (25 km) above Chesapeake Bay. Baltimore is Maryland’s largest city and economic centre and constitutes the northeastern hub of the

  • Baltimore (county, Maryland, United States)

    Baltimore, county, north-central Maryland, U.S. It almost surrounds (but excludes) the city of Baltimore and is bounded by Pennsylvania to the north, the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay to the southeast, and the Patapsco River to the south and southwest. The county contains Patapsco Valley State

  • Baltimore Album (American soft furnishing)

    appliqué: …flowers, sentimental and patriotic designs—of Baltimore Album quilts and other red and green floral appliquéd styles.

  • Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (American railway)

    Baltimore and Ohio Railroad (B&O), first steam-operated railway in the United States to be chartered as a common carrier of freight and passengers (1827). The B&O Railroad Company was established by Baltimore, Maryland, merchants to compete with New York merchants and their newly opened Erie Canal

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