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  • Basel Conference (European history)

    20th-century international relations: The peace movements: ” The 1912 Basel Conference declared the proletariat “the herald of world peace” and proclaimed “war on war.” Sober observers like George Bernard Shaw and Max Weber doubted that any putative sense of solidarity among workers would outweigh their nationalism, but the French government kept a blacklist of…

  • Basel Group (international finance)

    international payment and exchange: The Basel Group: In 1930 a Bank for International Settlements was established at Basel, Switz.; its main duty was to supervise and organize the transfer of German reparations to the recipient countries. This “transfer problem” had caused much trouble during the 1920s. There may also have…

  • Basel IG (Swiss cartel)

    Novartis AG: …to form a cartel, the Interessengemeinschaft Basel (“Basel Syndicate”), or Basel IG, in order to compete with the German chemical cartel IG Farben. All three companies also established or acquired factories in various European countries and in the United States. In 1929–32 the Basel IG joined with IG Farben and…

  • Basel Mural 1 (painting by Francis)

    Sam Francis: His 20-foot-long Basel Mural 1 (1956–58), with its rich blues, oranges, yellows, and reds and its evocative drips and splatters, seems positively jubilant. In the 1960s, perhaps in response to the minimalism then in full swing, Francis left much of his canvas unpainted, restricting his application of…

  • Basel Program (Zionism)

    Theodor Herzl: The First Zionist Congress: …to be known as the Basel Program, declaring Zionism’s aspiration “to create a publicly guaranteed homeland for the Jewish people” in Palestine. It also set up the Zionist Organization with Herzl as president.

  • Basel Zoological Garden (zoo, Basel, Switzerland)

    Basel Zoological Garden, privately owned zoological garden in Basel, Switz., noted for its outstanding work in the breeding of the Indian rhinoceros and the pygmy hippopotamus. The zoo was founded in 1874 for the purpose of exhibiting local wildlife. (It opened with about 100 mammals and perhaps 4

  • Basel, Confession of (Swiss history)

    Confession of Basel, moderate Protestant Reformation statement of Reformed doctrine composed of 12 articles. It was first drafted by John Oecolampadius, the Reformer of Basel, and was compiled in fuller form in 1532 by his successor at Basel, Oswald Myconius. In 1534 it was adopted by the Basel

  • Basel, Council of (Roman Catholicism)

    Council of Basel, (1431), a general council of the Roman Catholic Church held in Basel, Switzerland. It was called by Pope Martin V a few weeks before his death in 1431 and then was confirmed by Pope Eugenius IV. Meeting at a time when the prestige of the papacy had been weakened by the Western

  • Basel, Peace of (European history)

    Maximilian I: Consolidation of power: …its virtual independence by the Peace of Basel (September 22). At the same time, the French moved back into Italy, in cooperation with Spain, and occupied the imperial fief of Milan.

  • Basel, Treaty of (European history)

    Maximilian I: Consolidation of power: …its virtual independence by the Peace of Basel (September 22). At the same time, the French moved back into Italy, in cooperation with Spain, and occupied the imperial fief of Milan.

  • Basel, University of (university, Basel, Switzerland)

    Jacob Burckhardt: Life: The University of Basel awarded Burckhardt the degree of Ph.D. in absentia, and after his return from Berlin in 1843 he was quickly authorized to give private lectures. Lecture he did, but for two years he had to earn his living as the editor of the…

  • Basel-Landschaft (Halbkanton, Switzerland)

    Basel-Landschaft, Halbkanton (demicanton), northern Switzerland, traversed by the Jura Mountains and drained by the Ergolz and Birs rivers. It was formed in 1833 by the division of Basel canton into two half cantons, or demicantons, and its early history is linked with Basel (q.v.) city. Its

  • Basel-Stadt (Halbkanton, Switzerland)

    Basel-Stadt, Halbkanton (demicanton), northern Switzerland, consisting of the city of Basel (q.v.) and two small villages north of the Rhine. Occupying an area of 14 square miles (37 square km), it was formed in 1833 by the division of Basel canton into two half cantons, or demicantons. Its present

  • baselevel (hydrology)

    Baselevel, in hydrology and geomorphology, limit below which a stream cannot erode. Upon entering a still body of water, a stream’s velocity is checked and thus it loses its eroding power; hence, the approximate level of the surface of the still water body is the stream’s baselevel. If a stream

  • Baseley, Cyril Godfrey (British actor)

    Godfrey Baseley, British radio executive and actor who created the country life radio show "The Archers," the world’s longest-running daily serial, and for more than 20 years served as the program’s script editor (b. Oct. 2, 1904--d. Feb. 2,

  • baseline observation (psychology)

    personality assessment: Behavioral assessment: …type of behavioral assessment called baseline observations is becoming increasingly popular. These are recordings of response frequencies in particular situations before any treatment or intervention has been made. They can be used in several ways. Observations might be made simply to describe a person’s response repertoire at a given time.…

  • Baselitz, Georg (German artist)

    Georg Baselitz, German painter, printmaker, and sculptor who is considered to be a pioneering Neo-Expressionist. Baselitz was part of a wave of German painters from what was in their formative years East Germany who in the late 1970s rejected abstraction for highly expressive paintings with

  • Basella alba (plant)

    nightshade: Malabar nightshade, also known as Malabar spinach, refers to twining herbaceous vines of the genus Basella (family Basellaceae).

  • Basellaceae (plant family)

    Basellaceae, the Madeira-vine family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with 4 genera and 15 to 25 species of herbaceous perennial vines, distributed primarily in the New World tropics. Members of the family have fleshy, untoothed leaves, tuberous rootstocks, and red or white flowers

  • Baselland (Halbkanton, Switzerland)

    Basel-Landschaft, Halbkanton (demicanton), northern Switzerland, traversed by the Jura Mountains and drained by the Ergolz and Birs rivers. It was formed in 1833 by the division of Basel canton into two half cantons, or demicantons, and its early history is linked with Basel (q.v.) city. Its

  • BASEM (British organization)

    British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), organization founded in 1953 by a group of doctors, sports scientists, and those from allied disciplines who were involved in the care of athletes. The group’s main objectives include representing doctors working in the sport and exercise

  • basement (architecture)

    Cellar, room beneath ground level, especially one for storing fruits and vegetables, both raw and canned, on a farm. A typical cellar may be beneath the house or located outdoors, partly underground, with the upper part mounded over with earth to protect from freezing and to maintain fairly

  • basement complex (geology)

    Europe: Tectonic framework: The second is as basement to younger coverings of Phanerozoic sediments (i.e., deposits that have been laid down since the beginning of the Paleozoic). For example, the sediments of the Russian Platform are underlain by Precambrian basement, which extends from the Baltic Shield to the Ural Mountains, and Precambrian…

  • basement membrane (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The capillaries: A thin membrane, called a basement membrane, surrounds these cells and serves to maintain the integrity of the vessel.

  • basement rock (geology)

    Europe: Tectonic framework: The second is as basement to younger coverings of Phanerozoic sediments (i.e., deposits that have been laid down since the beginning of the Paleozoic). For example, the sediments of the Russian Platform are underlain by Precambrian basement, which extends from the Baltic Shield to the Ural Mountains, and Precambrian…

  • Basement Tapes, The (album by Dylan)

    the Band: …then as the double album The Basement Tapes (1975).

  • Basement, The (work by Millett)

    Kate Millett: The Basement (1979) is a factual account of a young woman’s abuse, torture, and murder at the hands of a group of teenagers led by an older woman who had been appointed her protector. Millett’s subsequent books dealt with the political oppression in Iran after…

  • basenji (breed of dog)

    Basenji, ancient breed of hound dog native to central Africa, where it is used to point and retrieve and to drive quarry into a net. It is also known as the barkless dog, but it does produce a variety of sounds other than barks. A graceful animal, it is characterized by an alert expression typified

  • Bases y puntos de partida para la organización política de la República Argentina (work by Alberdi)

    Juan Bautista Alberdi: …Alberdi wrote his major book, Bases y puntos de partida para la organización política de la República Argentina (“Bases and Starting Points for the Political Organization of the Argentine Republic”), which was the decisive influence on the Argentine constitution of 1853. It emphasized the need for a federal government and…

  • B?sescu, Traian (president of Romania)

    Romania: New constitution: …Party (Partidul Democrat; PD), whose Traian B?sescu was elected president.

  • Basevi, James (British-American art director)
  • BASF Aktiengesellschaft (German company)

    BASF Aktiengesellschaft, (German: BASF Limited-liability Company), German chemical and plastics manufacturing company originally founded in 1865 and today operating in some 30 countries. The BASF Group produces oil and natural gas, chemicals, fertilizers, plastics, synthetic fibres, dyes and

  • Basha, Eqrem (Kosovar author)

    Kosovo: The arts: …the novelist, playwright, and poet Eqrem Basha; the poet and critic Sabri Hamiti; the poet Ali Podrimja; the scholar, novelist, and political figure Rexhep Qosja; the novelist Zejnullah Rrahmani; the poet Azem Shkreli; and the poet, doctor, and political activist Flora Brovina, who gained renown during her imprisonment by Yugoslav…

  • Bashan (ancient country, Middle East)

    Bashan, country frequently cited in the Old Testament and later important in the Roman Empire; it is located in what is now Syria. Bashan was the northernmost of the three ancient divisions of eastern Palestine, and in the Old Testament it was proverbial for its rich pastures and thick forests. In

  • bashi-bazouk (Ottoman soldier)

    Bashi-bazouk, (“corrupted head,” or “leaderless”), mercenary soldier belonging to the skirmishing or irregular troops of the Ottoman Empire, notorious for their indiscipline, plundering, and brutality. Originally describing the homeless beggars who reached Istanbul from the provinces of the O

  • Bashidang (village, China)

    origins of agriculture: Early history: …the Yangtze floodplain village of Bashidang, where a 100-square-metre (1,075-square-foot) area of wet deposits has yielded some 15,000 rice grains. Domesticated rice remains directly dated to 8500 bp are found at Bashidang and at another site, Pengtoushan. These sites belong to what Chinese archaeologists call the Pengtoushan culture, whose radiocarbon…

  • Bashir Sfar (Tunisian leader)

    Young Tunisians: …by Ali Bash Hamba and Bashir Sfar, demanded complete Tunisian control of the government and administration of the country and full citizenship rights for both Tunisians and Frenchmen. The party attracted a following among the young, educated, professional Muslims, but the liberal attitudes and European ways of its members alienated…

  • Bashīr Shihāb II (ruler of Lebanon)

    Bashīr Shihāb II, Lebanese prince who established hegemony over Lebanon in the first half of the 19th century and ruled it under Ottoman and, later, Egyptian suzerainty from 1788 to 1840. Although born into the princely Shihāb family, Bashīr grew up in poverty but married into great wealth. In 1788

  • Bashir, Abu Bakar (Islamic cleric)

    2002 Bali Bombings: …Indonesian police arrested Muslim cleric Abu Bakar Bashir, the spiritual leader of Jemaah Islamiyah and one of its founders. He was apprehended in connection with a different series of terrorist attacks but was suspected of involvement in the Bali bombings. In March 2005 Bashir was found guilty of conspiracy for…

  • Bashir, Martin (British news reporter)

    Nightline: …Cynthia McFadden, Terry Moran, and Martin Bashir. Bashir was replaced by Bill Weir in 2010. The revamped program also typically covered multiple topics in a single episode. Originally scheduled to follow local late-night news broadcasts, Nightline was pushed to a later time slot by ABC in 2013. The show also…

  • Bashir, Omar al- (president of Sudan)

    Omar al-Bashir, Sudanese military officer who led a revolt that overthrew the elected government of Sudan in 1989. He served as president of Sudan from 1993 until 2019, when he was ousted in a military coup. Bashir was born into a peasant family that later moved to Khartoum, where he received his

  • Bashir, Omar Hassan Ahmad al- (president of Sudan)

    Omar al-Bashir, Sudanese military officer who led a revolt that overthrew the elected government of Sudan in 1989. He served as president of Sudan from 1993 until 2019, when he was ousted in a military coup. Bashir was born into a peasant family that later moved to Khartoum, where he received his

  • Bashīr, ?Umar ?asan A?mad al- (president of Sudan)

    Omar al-Bashir, Sudanese military officer who led a revolt that overthrew the elected government of Sudan in 1989. He served as president of Sudan from 1993 until 2019, when he was ousted in a military coup. Bashir was born into a peasant family that later moved to Khartoum, where he received his

  • Bashiru (people)

    Rwanda: The Habyarimana era: …the principal factions were the Bashiru and Bagoyi elements, respectively identified with the Bushiru and Bugoyi subregions. Habyarimana sided with the Bashiru faction and was the target of an abortive Bagoyi-inspired coup in April 1980. Habyarimana remained in power, reelected in 1983 and 1988 when, as the sole candidate, voters…

  • Bashkent, Battle of (Turkish history)

    Mehmed II: Mehmed’s empire: …leader Uzun ?asan at the Battle of Bashkent in Erzincan (August 11, 1473) marked in Mehmed’s life a turning point as important as the capture of Constantinople, and it sealed his domination over Anatolia and the Balkans.

  • Bashkir (people)

    Bashkir, member of a Turkic people, numbering more than 1,070,000 in the late 20th century, settled in the eastern part of European Russia, between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains, and beyond the Urals. Their main territory is Bashkortostan, where they are far outnumbered by Russians. The

  • Bashkir A.S.S.R. (republic, Russia)

    Bashkortostan, republic in Russia, extending from the western slopes of the southern Ural Mountains in the east to the rolling hills of the Bugulma-Belebey Upland in the west. From Mount Yamantau, the highest peak in the southern Urals, elevation generally decreases southward and westward, with the

  • Bashkir Anticlinorium (geological feature, Russia)

    Ural Mountains: Geology: …west of it, is the Bashkir Anticlinorium. Both are composed of layers (sometimes four miles thick) of ancient metamorphic (heat-altered) rocks—gneisses (metamorphic rocks separable into thin plates), quartzites, and schists—that are between 570 and 395 million years old.

  • Bashkirian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Bashkirian Stage, first of four internationally defined stages of the Pennsylvanian Subsystem of the Carboniferous System, encompassing all rocks deposited during the Bashkirian Age (323.2 million to 315.2 million years ago). The name is derived from Gornaya Bashkiriya in the southern Ural

  • Bashkiriya (republic, Russia)

    Bashkortostan, republic in Russia, extending from the western slopes of the southern Ural Mountains in the east to the rolling hills of the Bugulma-Belebey Upland in the west. From Mount Yamantau, the highest peak in the southern Urals, elevation generally decreases southward and westward, with the

  • Bashkirtseff, Marie (Russian author)

    Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian émigré best known for her sensitive and girlishly candid autobiography in French, Journal de Marie Bashkirtseff, avec un portrait, 2 vol. (1887). Though her diary is justly responsible for her reputation, she was also a highly talented visual artist and a high-spirited

  • Bashkirtseva, Mariya Konstantinovna (Russian author)

    Marie Bashkirtseff, Russian émigré best known for her sensitive and girlishly candid autobiography in French, Journal de Marie Bashkirtseff, avec un portrait, 2 vol. (1887). Though her diary is justly responsible for her reputation, she was also a highly talented visual artist and a high-spirited

  • Bashkortostan (republic, Russia)

    Bashkortostan, republic in Russia, extending from the western slopes of the southern Ural Mountains in the east to the rolling hills of the Bugulma-Belebey Upland in the west. From Mount Yamantau, the highest peak in the southern Urals, elevation generally decreases southward and westward, with the

  • Bashmūric (dialect)

    Coptic language: …dialects of Lower Egypt were Bashmūric, about which little is known (only a few glosses in the dialect are extant), and Bohairic (from Arabic, al-Bu?ayrah), originally spoken in the western part of Lower Egypt including the cities of Alexandria and Memphis. Bohairic has been used for religious purposes since the…

  • Bashō (Japanese poet)

    Bashō, the supreme Japanese haiku poet, who greatly enriched the 17-syllable haiku form and made it an accepted medium of artistic expression. Interested in haiku from an early age, Bashō at first put his literary interests aside and entered the service of a local feudal lord. After his lord’s

  • Bashō style (haiku)

    Japan: Commerce, cities, and culture: …developing a new style called shōfū or “Bashō style.” Bashō proclaimed what he called makoto no (“true”) haiku, seeking the spirit of this poetic form in sincerity and truthfulness. He also introduced a new beauty to haiku by using simple words. Bashō essentially grafted the aristocratic conceptions of medieval poetry…

  • Bashshār ibn Burd (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: The ?Abbāsids: Bashshār ibn Burd (died c. 784), the son of a Persian slave, was the first representative of the new style. This ugly, blind workman excelled as a seductive love poet and also as a biting satirist—“Nobody could be secure from the itch of his tongue,”…

  • Bashung, Alain (French singer, songwriter, and actor)

    Alain Bashung, (Alain Claude Baschung), French singer, songwriter, and actor (born Dec. 1, 1947, Paris, France—died March 14, 2009, Paris), was known as “the gentleman rocker of French chanson” for his distinctive French-language take on rock music. Bashung formed his first band in 1962, dropped

  • Basi and Company (television program)

    Ken Saro-Wiwa: …reached his largest audience with Basi and Company, a comedic television series that ran for some 150 episodes in the 1980s. He was also a journalist and wrote poetry and children’s stories.

  • Basiana (Solomon Islander leader)

    Solomon Islands: Establishment of colonial rule: …with some of his associates, Basiana, the leader of the tax collectors’ killers, was hanged, and his young sons were forced to witness the execution.

  • ba?ibozuk (Ottoman soldier)

    Bashi-bazouk, (“corrupted head,” or “leaderless”), mercenary soldier belonging to the skirmishing or irregular troops of the Ottoman Empire, notorious for their indiscipline, plundering, and brutality. Originally describing the homeless beggars who reached Istanbul from the provinces of the O

  • BASIC (computer language)

    BASIC, Computer programming language developed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz (b. 1928) at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. One of the simplest high-level languages, with commands similar to English, it can be learned with relative ease even by schoolchildren and novice programmers. Since

  • basic action (philosophy)

    Basic action, In action theory, an action that is not performed by performing any other action. If someone turns on the light by flipping the switch, flipping the switch is more basic than turning on the light (because one cannot flip the switch by turning on the light), but moving one’s finger is

  • basic assistive technology

    Aids for activities of daily living (AADLs), products, devices, and equipment used in everyday functional activities by the disabled or the elderly. A form of assistive technology, aids for activities of daily living (AADLs) include a wide range of devices. Potential categories of equipment may

  • basic Bessemer process (metallurgy)

    Bessemer process: …what is now called the Thomas-Gilchrist converter, which was lined with a basic material such as burned limestone rather than an (acid) siliceous material, overcame this problem. Another drawback to Bessemer steel, its retention of a small percentage of nitrogen from the air blow, was not corrected until the 1950s.…

  • basic democracy (Pakistani history)

    Pakistan: Military government: …initiated a plan for “basic democracies,” consisting of rural and urban councils directly elected by the people that would be concerned with local governance and would assist in programs of grassroots development. Elections took place in January 1960, and the Basic Democrats, as they became known, were at once…

  • Basic Eight, The (novel by Handler)

    Daniel Handler: …on the literary scene with The Basic Eight (1999), a critically acclaimed novel about a high-school student bludgeoned with a croquet mallet wielded by a classmate. Watch Your Mouth (2000), written in the form of an opera, was a satiric work centred on the theme of incest.

  • Basic English (artificial language)

    Basic English, simplified form of English developed between 1926 and 1930 by the British writer and linguist Charles Kay Ogden. Intended for use as an international second language, it enjoyed some popularity for more than a decade, but subsequently the language was little used. Basic English

  • basic force (physics)

    Fundamental interaction, in physics, any of the four basic forces—gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak—that govern how objects or particles interact and how certain particles decay. All the known forces of nature can be traced to these fundamental interactions. The fundamental

  • basic income (economics)

    minimum wage: …unconditional social-security system known as basic income, which periodically provides citizens with a lump sum of money.

  • Basic Input/Output System (computer program)

    BIOS, Computer program that is typically stored in EPROM and used by the CPU to perform start-up procedures when the computer is turned on. Its two major procedures are determining what peripheral devices (keyboard, mouse, disk drives, printers, video cards, etc.) are available and loading the

  • Basic Instinct (film by Verhoeven [1992])

    Michael Douglas: Noteworthy acting roles: Basic Instinct (1992), a film as controversial as it was successful, was in the same genre as Fatal Attraction and served to pigeonhole Douglas as an actor specializing in violent or sexual fare. Such films as Black Rain (1989), Falling Down (1993), and Disclosure (1994)…

  • Basic Law (German constitution)

    constitution: Europe: Under the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, Parliament cannot delegate its legislative function to the chancellor, and civil rights cannot be suspended without continuous parliamentary surveillance. The president has been turned into a figurehead on the model of the French presidents of the Third…

  • Basic Law (Palestinian history)

    Palestinian Authority: Administration: …interim constitution known as the Basic Law, which may be amended by the legislature by a two-thirds majority. The president is elected directly to a four-year term, with a limit of two terms. The president is the commander in chief of the security forces, manages foreign relations, has the power…

  • Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control (1967, Japan)

    environmental law: Historical development: …first such overarching law, the Basic Law for Environmental Pollution Control. Not until the end of the 20th century was Minamata declared mercury-free.

  • Basic Law of Government (Saudi Arabian government)

    Saudi Arabia: Constitutional framework: …a document known as the Basic Law of Government (Al-Ni?ām al-Asāsī li al-?ukm), which provides guidelines for how the government is to be run and sets forth the rights and responsibilities of citizens. The king combines legislative, executive, and judicial functions. As prime minister, he presides over the Council of…

  • Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (1990, China)

    Hong Kong: Constitutional framework: …territory in July 1997, the Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (promulgated by the National People’s Congress of China in 1990) went into effect. The guiding principle of the Basic Law was the concept of “one country, two systems,” under which Hong Kong was allowed to maintain…

  • Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region (1999, Macau)

    Macau: Government and society: …the territory to China, the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region, which outlined a policy of “one country, two systems,” went into effect. For a period of 50 years, Macau will thus retain its capitalist economy and some political autonomy, but foreign policy and defense matters will remain…

  • Basic Law on the Management of State Economic Enterprises by Working Collectives (Yugoslavia [1950])

    Serbia: The Yugoslav road to socialism: …in June 1950 of the Basic Law on the Management of State Economic Enterprises in Workers Collectives. Largely the creation of the party’s leading ideologist, the Slovene Edvard Kardelj, the initial law virtually abolished the huge agency for central planning. Through the 1950s the decentralized authority theoretically allocated to the…

  • Basic Laws of Arithmetic (work by Frege)

    Gottlob Frege: System of mathematical logic.: , Basic Laws of Arithmetic), in which Frege presented, in a modified version of the symbolic system of the Begriffsschrift, a rigorous development of the theory of Grundlagen. This, too, received only a single review (by Peano). The neglect of what was to have been his…

  • Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (computer program)

    bioinformatics: Goals of bioinformatics: An example is the program BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). A development of BLAST, known as position-specific iterated- (or PSI-) BLAST, makes use of patterns of conservation in related sequences and combines the high speed of BLAST with very high sensitivity to find related sequences.

  • basic microbiology

    microbiology: Basic microbiology: The study of the biology of microorganisms requires the use of many different procedures as well as special equipment. The biological characteristics of microorganisms can be summarized under the following categories: morphology, nutrition, physiology, reproduction and growth,

  • basic motivation (psychology)

    motivation: Motives are often categorized into primary, or basic, motives, which are unlearned and common to both animals and humans; and secondary, or learned, motives, which can differ from animal to animal and person to person. Primary motives are thought to include hunger, thirst, sex, avoidance of pain, and perhaps aggression…

  • basic norm (law)

    Hans Kelsen: …law is some assumption (Grundnorm) that is accepted by a substantial proportion of the community. Kelsen nevertheless admitted the relevance of sociology and ethics to the lawmaking process and to the content of laws.

  • Basic Organization of Associated Labour (Yugoslavian labour organization)

    Serbia: Economy: …Yugoslav worker belonged to a Basic Organization of Associated Labour (BOAL) that was based on the precise role played by the worker in the production process. The BOALs elected representatives to workers’ councils, which in turn created management boards and determined pay levels, investment policies, and specific goals for production.…

  • basic oxide

    oxide: Metal oxides: …these compounds are often called basic oxides. In accord with their basic behaviour, they react with acids in typical acid-base reactions to produce salts and water; for example, M2O + 2HCl → 2MCl + H2O (where M = group 1 metal). These reactions are also often called neutralization reactions. The…

  • basic oxygen converter (metallurgy)

    basic oxygen process: A typical top-blown basic oxygen furnace is a vertical cylindrical vessel with a closed bottom and an open upper cone through which a water-cooled oxygen lance can be raised and lowered. The vessel is lined with a refractory such as magnesite and is mounted on trunnions so that…

  • basic oxygen furnace (metallurgy)

    basic oxygen process: A typical top-blown basic oxygen furnace is a vertical cylindrical vessel with a closed bottom and an open upper cone through which a water-cooled oxygen lance can be raised and lowered. The vessel is lined with a refractory such as magnesite and is mounted on trunnions so that…

  • basic oxygen process (metallurgy)

    Basic oxygen process (BOP), a steelmaking method in which pure oxygen is blown into a bath of molten blast-furnace iron and scrap. The oxygen initiates a series of intensively exothermic (heat-releasing) reactions, including the oxidation of such impurities as carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and

  • Basic Principles of Classical Ballet (work by Vaganova)

    Agrippina Vaganova: …was published in English as Basic Principles of Classical Ballet (trans. 1946, reissued incorporating all the material from the 4th Russian ed., 1969). In 1934 Vaganova was made People’s Artist of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, and in 1946 she was given the Stalin Prize of the U.S.S.R. Her…

  • basic research (science)

    research and development: Introduction and definitions: Basic research is defined as the work of scientists and others who pursue their investigations without conscious goals, other than the desire to unravel the secrets of nature. In modern programs of industrial research and development, basic research (sometimes called pure research) is usually not…

  • basic rock (igneous rock)

    Mafic rock, in geology, igneous rock that is dominated by the silicates pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, and mica. These minerals are high in magnesium and ferric oxides, and their presence gives mafic rock its characteristic dark colour. Mafic rock is commonly contrasted with felsic rock, in which

  • basic set (music)

    12-tone music: …to be known as its basic set, its 12-tone row, or its 12-tone series, all of which terms are synonymous. The basic set for Schoenberg’s Wind Quintet (1924) is E?–G–A–B–C?–C–B?–D–E–F?–A?–F; for his String Quartet No. 4 (1936) it is D–C?–A–B?–F–E?–E–C–A?–G–F?–B.

  • basic solar motion (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: Solar motion solutions: The term basic solar motion has been used by some astronomers to define the motion of the Sun relative to stars moving in its neighbourhood in perfectly circular orbits around the galactic centre. The basic solar motion differs from the standard solar motion because of the noncircular…

  • Basic Telecommunications Agreement (international trade)

    tariff: Tariff reduction and the growth of international trade: …Information Technology Agreement (ITA) and Basic Telecommunications Agreement (BTA) reduced the tariffs on computer and telecommunications products and some intangible goods considered to be drivers of the developing knowledge-based economy. The rapid growth of the Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) represented some of the most challenging new issues in the…

  • Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel, The (play by Rabe)

    David Rabe: Rabe’s first play, The Basic Training of Pavlo Hummel (1969), depicts the ruthlessness of the Viet Cong and the brutalization of American troops and shows the effects of the war on combatants and noncombatants alike. In Sticks and Bones (1972; film 1973), a blinded, distraught veteran returns to…

  • Basic Treaty (1972)

    Germany: Ostpolitik and reconciliation, 1969–89: …and East Germany concluded the Basic Treaty, which regularized the relations of the two German states. By its terms each side recognized, and agreed to respect, the other’s authority and independence. Each foreswore any title to represent the other internationally, which meant West Germany’s abandonment of its long-standing claim to…

  • Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL training (United States military program)

    Navy SEAL: Training and deployment: …enter an extremely rigorous six-month Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) training program, often said to be the toughest in the U.S. military. There they undergo constant physical and mental conditioning and are trained in a host of skills, including basic water competency and swimming, underwater combat, weapons and demolitions, and navigating…

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