You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Basu, Jyoti (Indian politician)

    Jyoti Basu, Indian politician who served as the chief minister of West Bengal state from 1977 to 2000 and was a cofounder of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI[M]). Basu was the son of a physician, and he enjoyed an affluent childhood. He began his studies in Calcutta, at St. Xavier’s

  • Basuku (people)

    Suku, people of southwestern Congo (Kinshasa) and northwestern Angola. They speak a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo group of languages. Suku women cultivate cassava (yuca) as the staple crop, and men hunt. The fundamental social unit is the matrilineage, a corporate group based on descent in t

  • Basuto (people)

    Sotho: …the southern Sotho (often called Basuto) of Lesotho and adjoining areas.

  • Basutoland

    Lesotho, country in Southern Africa. A scenic land of tall mountains and narrow valleys, Lesotho owes a long history of political autonomy to the mountains that surround it and protect it from encroachment. Since the Neolithic Period, the mountain kingdom was the domain of Khoisan-speaking

  • Basutoland Congress Party (political party, Lesotho)

    Southern Africa: Lesotho, Botswana, and Swaziland: …1952 Ntsu Mokhehle formed the Basutoland Congress Party (BCP), modeled on the ANC. In 1958 Chief Leabua Jonathan, who was to become Lesotho’s first prime minister, founded the conservative Basutoland National Party (BNP), with the support of the South African government, the powerful Roman Catholic church, and the queen regent.…

  • Basutoland National Party (political party, Lesotho)

    flag of Lesotho: …flag of his own ruling Basotho National Party, which had four equal horizontal stripes from top to bottom of blue, white, red, and green. Other parties objected, and instead the national flag displayed green, red, and blue vertically with a white silhouette version of a typical Sotho straw hat.

  • Bat (aircraft)

    Andrey Nikolayevich Tupolev: From this came the Tu-2, a twin-engine bomber that saw wide use in World War II and, in 1943, earned Tupolev his freedom and a Stalin Prize. Near the end of the war he was given the job of copying the U.S. B-29 Superfortress, three of which had force-landed…

  • BAT (geochronology)

    Holocene Epoch: Continental shelf and coastal regions: …forests in western Europe (the BAT, or “Boreal–Atlantic Transition”). In The Netherlands the barrier beaches re-formed close to the present coastline, and widespread tidal flats developed to the interior. These are known as the Calais Beds (or Calaisian) from the definition in Flanders by Dubois. In the protected inner margins,…

  • bat (unit of measurement)

    Bat, in a measurement system, ancient Hebrew unit of liquid and dry capacity. Estimated at 37 litres (about 6.5 gallons) and approximately equivalent to the Greek metrētēs, the bat contained 10 omers, 1 omer being the quantity (based on tradition) of manna allotted to each Israelite for every day

  • bat (mammal)

    Bat, (order Chiroptera), any member of the only group of mammals capable of flight. This ability, coupled with the ability to navigate at night by using a system of acoustic orientation (echolocation), has made the bats a highly diverse and populous order. More than 1,200 species are currently

  • BAT (British conglomerate)

    British American Tobacco PLC, British conglomerate that is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of tobacco products. The company’s international headquarters are in London. Its chief American subsidiary, Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corporation, is headquartered in Louisville, Kentucky. The

  • bat bug (insect)

    Bat bug, (family Polyctenidae), any of about 20 species of bloodsucking insects (order Heteroptera) that are external parasites found mainly in the fur of tropical bats. The adult (between 3.5 and 5 mm [0.14 and 0.2 inch] long) lacks eyes and wings. Its forelegs are short and thick, and its middle

  • bat falcon (bird)

    falcon: The bat falcon (F. albigularis) of Mexico and Central and South America is a little bird with a dark back, white throat, barred black-and-white breast, and reddish belly. It preys upon birds. The forest falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus) of tropical America hunts birds and reptiles in the…

  • bat flower (plant)

    angiosperm: Pollination: Flowers pollinated by bats produce large quantities of nectar and strong fragrances. They generally open only at night, when bats are the most active, and often hang down on long inflorescence stalks, which provide easy access to the nectaries and pollen. Some eucalypts (Eucalyptus) are pollinated by small…

  • bat fly (insect)

    Bat fly, any insect belonging to the two families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae (order Diptera). Members of the family Nycteribiidae are wingless, spiderlike insects with long legs and a small head that folds back into a groove in the thorax when at rest. They are external parasites of bats.

  • bat mitzvah (Judaism)

    bar mitzvah: …the adulthood of girls, called bat mitzvah.

  • bat parrolet (bird)

    parakeet: …short, blunt tails, as the hanging parrots, or bat parrotlets, Loriculus species, popular cage birds in their native area, India to Malaya and the Philippines.

  • Bat Project (art installation by Huang)

    Huang Yong Ping: …often courted controversy, notably with Bat Project (2001–05), which featured a replica of the U.S. EP-3 spy plane with a bat logo on its tail fin that collided in April 2001 with a Chinese aircraft and made an emergency landing on Hainan Island. In the installation, he presented display cases…

  • bat stingray (fish)

    stingray: …its tail spines, and the bat stingray (Myliobatis californicus), a Pacific form noted for its depredations on the shellfish of San Francisco Bay.

  • Bat Yam (Israel)

    Bat Yam, city, west-central Israel, on the Plain of Sharon and the Mediterranean coast just south of Tel Aviv–Yafo. Founded in 1926 as a suburban development called Bayit ve-Gan (Hebrew: “House and Garden”), it was abandoned during the Arab riots of 1929. Resettled, it developed as a seaside resort

  • Bat Zabbai (queen of Palmyra)

    Zenobia, queen of the Roman colony of Palmyra, in present-day Syria, from 267 or 268 to 272. She conquered several of Rome’s eastern provinces before she was subjugated by the emperor Aurelian (ruled 270–275). Zenobia’s husband, Odaenathus, Rome’s client ruler of Palmyra, had by 267 recovered the

  • Bat, The (operetta by Strauss)

    Die Fledermaus, (German: “The Bat”) operetta by the Austrian composer Johann Strauss the Younger (German libretto by Carl [or Karl] Haffner and Richard Genée) that premiered in Vienna on April 5, 1874. It is the best-known stage work by Strauss, whose fame rested mainly on his ballroom dance

  • Bat, The (novel by Nesb?)

    Jo Nesb?: The Bat), follows Hole, a recovering alcoholic, to Australia for a murder investigation. Nesb?’s second Hole novel, Kakerlakkene (1998; “Cockroaches”; The Cockroaches), takes the detective through the seamy underworld of Bangkok. R?dstrupe (2000; “Robin”; The Redbreast) details the role of fascism in Norway. In Sorgenfri…

  • bat-eared fox (mammal)

    Bat-eared fox, (species Otocyon megalotis), large-eared fox, belonging to the dog family (Canidae), found in open, arid areas of eastern and southern Africa. It has 48 teeth, 6 more than any other canid. The bat-eared fox is like the red fox in appearance but has unusually large ears. It is

  • Bat-Girl (comic-book superhero)

    Batgirl, American comic-strip superhero created for DC Comics by writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino. Batgirl first appeared in Detective Comics no. 359 (January 1967). The first teenage heroine to join Batman’s extended family was Betty Kane, niece of the costumed hero Batwoman. As

  • Bat-loving Flowers

    More than 500 species of tropical plants are pollinated by nectar- and pollen-eating bats, and they have evolved special features to make their nectar and pollen attractive to the nocturnal flyers. Such plants are called chiropterophilous, or “bat-loving” (bats being mammals of the order

  • Bata (Equatorial Guinea)

    Bata, port, northwestern Equatorial Guinea, West Africa, lying on the Gulf of Guinea 18 miles (29 km) north of the Río Mbini. One of the deepest seaports in the region, Bata serves as one of the country’s main ports. Because Bata has no natural harbour, a jetty was built to facilitate offshore

  • Bata, Thomas John (Czech-born shoe manufacturer)

    Thomas John Bata, Czech-born shoe manufacturer (born Sept. 17, 1914, Prague, Czech.—died Sept. 1, 2008, Toronto, Ont.), presided over the shoe company that was founded in 1894 by his father, Tomas Bata; he took control a few years after the latter’s death in a plane crash in 1932 and expanded the

  • Bataafse Republiek (historical republic, Netherlands)

    Batavian Republic, republic of the Netherlands, established after it was conquered by the French during the campaign of 1794–95. Formalized in a constitution of 1798, it possessed a centralized government patterned after that of the Directory in France and was bound to France by alliance. In March

  • Bataan (film by Garnett [1943])

    Tay Garnett: Films of the 1940s: …to World War II for Bataan (1943), a superior drama that featured a top-notch cast headlined by Robert Taylor, Thomas Mitchell, Desi Arnaz, and Robert Walker. The Cross of Lorraine (1943) also illuminated the horrors of war; Peter Lorre played a sadistic Nazi, and Gene Kelly was a tortured American…

  • Bataan Death March (World War II)

    Bataan Death March, march in the Philippines of some 66 miles (106 km) that 76,000 prisoners of war (66,000 Filipinos, 10,000 Americans) were forced by the Japanese military to endure in April 1942, during the early stages of World War II. Mainly starting in Mariveles, on the southern tip of the

  • Bataan Peninsula (peninsula, Philippines)

    Bataan Peninsula, peninsula, western Luzon, Philippines, sheltering Manila Bay (to the east) from the South China Sea. It is about 30 miles (50 km) long and 15 miles (25 km) wide. Corregidor Island lies just off its southern tip at the entrance of the bay. Bataan is largely covered by jungle and is

  • Bataan, Battle of (World War II)

    Bataan Death March: Lead-up to the march: The Battle of Bataan began on January 1, 1942, and almost immediately the defenders were on half rations. Sick with malaria, dengue fever, and other diseases, living on monkey meat and a few grains of rice, and without air cover or naval support, the Allied force…

  • Batabanó, Golfo de (gulf, Cuba)

    Gulf of Batabanó, inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting southwestern Cuba. The gulf stretches from the shore of eastern Pinar del Río province approximately 80 miles (130 km) to the southwestern coast of Matanzas province and the Zapata Peninsula. At its northern edge lies La Habana province; 50

  • Batabanó, Gulf of (gulf, Cuba)

    Gulf of Batabanó, inlet of the Caribbean Sea, indenting southwestern Cuba. The gulf stretches from the shore of eastern Pinar del Río province approximately 80 miles (130 km) to the southwestern coast of Matanzas province and the Zapata Peninsula. At its northern edge lies La Habana province; 50

  • Bataceae (plant family)

    Brassicales: Bataceae, Salvadoraceae, and Koeberliniaceae: Bataceae, Salvadoraceae, and Koeberliniaceae have in common ultrastructural features, the same base chromosome number, and flowers that lack a nectary and have only two carpels. They, and many other Brassicales, have a curved embryo.

  • Batache (people)

    Nupe: …of which the Beni, Zam, Batache (Bataci), and Kede (Kyedye) are the most important. The Kede and Batache are river people, subsisting primarily by fishing and trading; the other Nupe are farmers, who grow the staple crops millet, sorghum, yams, and rice. Commercial crops include rice, peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, and…

  • Bataci (people)

    Nupe: …of which the Beni, Zam, Batache (Bataci), and Kede (Kyedye) are the most important. The Kede and Batache are river people, subsisting primarily by fishing and trading; the other Nupe are farmers, who grow the staple crops millet, sorghum, yams, and rice. Commercial crops include rice, peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, and…

  • Bataclan (theatre and concert hall, Paris, France)

    Paris attacks of 2015: The November 13 attacks: …being carried out at the Bataclan, a historic theatre and concert hall. The American rock band Eagles of Death Metal was playing to a sold-out crowd at the 1,500-capacity venue when three attackers burst in and fired on the audience. Some of the concertgoers were able to escape through a…

  • batagur (reptile)

    turtle: Habitats: …largest species of pond turtles—the Asian river turtle, or batagur (Batagur baska), and the painted terrapin (Callagur borneoensis)—with shell lengths to a half-metre (about 20 inches) and weights to 25 kg (55 pounds). Both are tidal river species, tolerating salinities up to about half that of marine salt water, and…

  • Batagur baska (reptile)

    turtle: Habitats: …largest species of pond turtles—the Asian river turtle, or batagur (Batagur baska), and the painted terrapin (Callagur borneoensis)—with shell lengths to a half-metre (about 20 inches) and weights to 25 kg (55 pounds). Both are tidal river species, tolerating salinities up to about half that of marine salt water, and…

  • Bataille, Félix-Henry (French dramatist)

    Henry Bataille, French dramatist whose luxuriant plays of passionate love and stifling social conventions were extremely popular at the beginning of the 20th century. Bataille’s parents died when he was very young, and, having shown talent for both painting and poetry at school, he turned to

  • Bataille, Georges (French author)

    Georges Bataille, French librarian and writer whose essays, novels, and poetry expressed his fascination with eroticism, mysticism, and the irrational. He viewed excess as a way to gain personal “sovereignty.” After training as an archivist at the school of paleography known as the école des

  • Bataille, Henry (French dramatist)

    Henry Bataille, French dramatist whose luxuriant plays of passionate love and stifling social conventions were extremely popular at the beginning of the 20th century. Bataille’s parents died when he was very young, and, having shown talent for both painting and poetry at school, he turned to

  • Bataille, Nicolas (French weaver)

    tapestry: 14th century: …the duke of Anjou by Nicolas Bataille (flourished c. 1363–1400). This monumental set originally included seven tapestries, each measuring approximately 16.5 feet in height by 80 feet in length (5.03 by 24.38 metres). Based on cartoons drawn by Jean de Bandol of Bruges (flourished 1368–81), the official painter to Charles…

  • Bataisk (Russia)

    Bataysk, city, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia, just south of Rostov-na-Donu. It is a transport centre in the northern Caucasus and a main rail junction, with railway shops and freight yards: much of the labour force is in transportation. Other important industries are metalworking

  • Batajsk (Russia)

    Bataysk, city, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia, just south of Rostov-na-Donu. It is a transport centre in the northern Caucasus and a main rail junction, with railway shops and freight yards: much of the labour force is in transportation. Other important industries are metalworking

  • Batak (people)

    Batak, several closely related ethnic groups of north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. The term Batak is one of convenience, likely coined during precolonial times by indigenous outsiders (e.g., the Malay) and later adopted by Europeans. The groups embraced by the term—the Toba, the Karo, the

  • Batak Plateau (plateau, Indonesia)

    North Sumatra: The central Batak Plateau of the Barisan Mountains, running northwest-southeast, covers about two-thirds of the province. It is surmounted by both active and extinct volcanic cones, including Mount Sinabung (8,041 feet [2,451 metres]), which erupted in 2010 after more than 400 years of dormancy, Mount Sibayak (6,870…

  • Batak Protestant Christian Church (church, Indonesia)

    Batak Protestant Christian Church, church in northern Sumatra, Indon., organized as an independent church in 1930 and constituting the largest Lutheran church in Asia. It developed from the work of missionaries of the Rhenish Mission Society, established in Barmen, Ger., in 1828. Under the

  • Batala (India)

    Batala, city, northern Punjab state, northwestern India. It is located on the Punjab Plain, about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Amritsar. Batala is an agricultural marketplace and industrial centre. Cotton ginning, weaving, sugar refining, rice milling, and manufacturing are the principal

  • Batalha (Portugal)

    Batalha, town, west-central Portugal. It is located just south of Leiria city. The town is dominated by the great Dominican monastery of Santa Maria da Vitória, also known simply as the monastery of Batalha (“Battle”), which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983. In the Battle of

  • Batali, Mario (American chef, television personality, and author)

    Mario Batali, American chef, television personality, author, and restaurateur who was one of the most well-known food celebrities of the early 21st century. Batali developed a passion for cooking while growing up surrounded by accomplished home cooks in his family, particularly during visits to his

  • Batali, Mario Francesco (American chef, television personality, and author)

    Mario Batali, American chef, television personality, author, and restaurateur who was one of the most well-known food celebrities of the early 21st century. Batali developed a passion for cooking while growing up surrounded by accomplished home cooks in his family, particularly during visits to his

  • Ba?alyaws (Spain)

    Badajoz, city, capital of Badajoz provincia (province), in the Extremadura comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southwestern Spain. Situated on the south bank of the Guadiana River near the Portuguese frontier, it occupies a low range of hills crowned by a ruined Moorish castle. It originated

  • Batam (island, Indonesia)

    Riau Islands: The most important islands are Batam, Bintan, and Great Karimun (Indonesian: Karimun Besar), all in the Riau archipelago. Tanjungpinang, on Bintan, is the provincial capital. Area 3,167 square miles (8,202 square km). Pop. (2010 prelim.) 1,679,163.

  • Batan Islands (islands, Philippines)

    Batan Islands, chain of 14 islands in the Philippines, about 190 miles (310 km) north of Luzon in the Luzon Strait. The Bashi (north) and Balintang (south) channels separate the group from Taiwan and the Babuyan Islands. Volcanic in origin, the islands are rugged and rocky, but relatively flat and

  • Batan Tsalang (desert, China)

    Alxa Plateau: …Desert in the south, the Badain Jaran (Baden Dzareng, or Batan Tsalang) in the west, and the Ulan Buh (Wulanbuhe) in the northeast.

  • Batanes Islands (islands, Philippines)

    Batan Islands, chain of 14 islands in the Philippines, about 190 miles (310 km) north of Luzon in the Luzon Strait. The Bashi (north) and Balintang (south) channels separate the group from Taiwan and the Babuyan Islands. Volcanic in origin, the islands are rugged and rocky, but relatively flat and

  • Batang Rajang (river, Malaysia)

    Rajang River, river in East Malaysia (northwest Borneo), rising in the Iran Mountains and flowing southwest to Kapit, where it turns westward to complete its 350-mile (563-kilometre) course to the South China Sea. Its large, swampy delta includes Beruit Island, with a lighthouse at Sirik Point. In

  • Batangas (Philippines)

    Batangas, city, southern Luzon, Philippines. It lies in a small plain on the west bank of the Calumpang River about 1 mile (1.6 km) from the coast of Batangas Bay, which issues through straits ultimately into the South China Sea. The city is connected with Manila, about 70 miles (110 km) north, by

  • Batard d’Orléans, Le (French military commander)

    Jean d’Orléans, comte de Dunois, French military commander and diplomat, important in France’s final victory over England in the Hundred Years’ War. Jean was the natural son of Louis, duc d’Orléans, by his liaison with Mariette d’Enghien. Jean entered the service of his cousin the dauphin, the

  • batarde (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: The black-letter, or Gothic, style (9th to 15th century): …vernacular books—is called cursiva bastarda, lettre batarde, or simply batarde, the word bastard indicating its mixed parentage of formal black letter and casual cursive script. Although the script is not truly cursive (there are several pen lifts within and between letters), the freedom with which it is written (e.g., in…

  • Batata (Colombian musician)

    Batata, (Paulino Salgado Valdez), Colombian master drummer, singer, and composer (born 1929, San Basilio de Palenque, Colom.—died Jan. 24, 2004, Bogotá, Colom.), was the leading figure in Afro-Colombian music. Batata hailed from a city in Colombia founded by escaped slaves, and his music thus r

  • Batavi (people)

    Batavi, ancient Germanic tribe from whom Batavia, a poetic name for the Netherlands, is derived. The Batavi inhabited what is now the Betuwe district of the Netherlands, around Lugdunum Batavorum (Leiden), at the mouth of the Rhine River. Subjugated by Rome in 12 ce, they became an “allied people”

  • Batavia (national capital, Indonesia)

    Jakarta, largest city and capital of Indonesia. Jakarta lies on the northwest coast of Java at the mouth of the Ciliwung (Liwung River), on Jakarta Bay (an embayment of the Java Sea). It is coextensive with the metropolitan district of Greater Jakarta (Jakarta Raya) and nearly coextensive with the

  • Batavia (New York, United States)

    Batavia, city, seat (1802) of Genesee county, northwestern New York, U.S. It lies along Tonawanda Creek, midway between Buffalo (west) and Rochester (northeast). Batavia is a distribution point and trade centre for a dairy and truck-farm region and has some industry, including the manufacture of

  • Batavia Society of Arts and Science (museum, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    museum: The spread of the European model: …1778, eventually to become the Central Museum of Indonesian Culture and finally part of the National Museum. The origins of the Indian Museum in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) were similar, based on the collections of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, which commenced in 1784. In South America a number of national…

  • Batavia, Statutes of (Dutch East Indies [1602-1867])

    Joan Maetsuyker: In 1642 he wrote the Statutes of Batavia, the code of laws that served the Dutch during the entire period of the company’s rule (1602–1867) in the East Indies.

  • Batavian Commonwealth (historical republic, Netherlands)

    Batavian Republic: …the Batavian Republic was renamed Batavian Commonwealth, and executive power was given to a kind of dictator called the council pensionary. In June 1806, however, the Batavian Commonwealth was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland under Napoleon’s brother Louis; this monarchy lasted until July 1810, when the northern Dutch provinces…

  • Batavian Republic (historical republic, Netherlands)

    Batavian Republic, republic of the Netherlands, established after it was conquered by the French during the campaign of 1794–95. Formalized in a constitution of 1798, it possessed a centralized government patterned after that of the Directory in France and was bound to France by alliance. In March

  • Batavian ware

    pottery: Coloured glazes: …the old Dutch catalogues as Batavian ware, because the wares were imported via the Dutch centre of trade and transshipment at Batavia (modern Jakarta), in Java. They are also related to “mirror black” (wujin), a lustrous colour obtained by the addition of manganese, and sometimes decorated with gilding or even,…

  • Bataysk (Russia)

    Bataysk, city, Rostov oblast (province), southwestern Russia, just south of Rostov-na-Donu. It is a transport centre in the northern Caucasus and a main rail junction, with railway shops and freight yards: much of the labour force is in transportation. Other important industries are metalworking

  • batch extractor

    fat and oil processing: Extractors: …first practiced in Europe, using batch extractors for the recovery of additional oil from the residues obtained from mechanical pressing. The greater efficiency of solvent extraction encouraged direct application to oilseeds, and the batch extractor gradually gave way to continuous units in which fresh flakes are added continuously and subjected…

  • batch freezing

    dairy product: Ice cream manufacture: …steady flow of mix, or batch freezing, which makes a single quantity at a time. For both methods, the objective is to freeze the product partially and, at the same time, incorporate air. The freezing process is carried out in a cylindrical barrel that is cooled by a refrigerant, either…

  • batch furnace (metallurgy)

    traditional ceramics: Kiln operation: …up and down in so-called batch furnaces. Most mass-produced traditional ceramics, on the other hand, are fired in tunnel kilns. These consist of continuous conveyor belt or railcar operations, with the ware traversing the kiln and gradually being heated from room temperature, through a hot zone, and back down to…

  • batch mixer

    baking: Mixing: Mixers may be the batch type, similar in configuration to the household mixer, with large steel bowls, open at the top, containing the batter while it is mixed or whipped by beater paddles of various conformations. In continuous mixers the batter is pumped through an enclosed chamber while a…

  • batch mode (computing)

    computer: Time-sharing from Project MAC to UNIX: Batch processing was the normal mode of operating computers at the time: a user handed a deck of punched cards to an operator, who fed them to the machine, and an hour or more later the printed output would be made available for pickup. Licklider’s…

  • batch oven

    frozen prepared food: Cooking: Batch-type ovens are ideally suited to cooking under vacuum. In vacuum cooking, meats are cooked at reduced pressure and temperature. In one vacuum technique, known as sous-vide cooking, foods are cooked in their own juices, thus retaining their natural flavours and moisture. Cooking time is…

  • batch processing (computing)

    computer: Time-sharing from Project MAC to UNIX: Batch processing was the normal mode of operating computers at the time: a user handed a deck of punched cards to an operator, who fed them to the machine, and an hour or more later the printed output would be made available for pickup. Licklider’s…

  • batch refining

    fat and oil processing: Alkali refining: In batch refining, the aqueous emulsion of soaps formed from free fatty acids, along with other impurities (soapstock), settles to the bottom and is drawn off. In the continuous system the emulsion is separated with centrifuges. After the fat has been refined, it is usually washed…

  • batch system (industrial engineering)

    tool and die making: …machine shop was called a job shop, which meant that it had no product of its own but served large industrial facilities by fabricating tooling, machines, and machinepart replacements. Eventually, some machine shops began to specialize in tooling to the exclusion of other work.

  • Batchelder, Marjorie (American educator and puppeteer)

    puppetry: Rod puppets: …United States, largely inspired by Marjorie Batchelder, the use of rod puppets was greatly developed in school and college theatres, and the hand-rod puppet was found to be of particular value. In this figure the hand passes inside the puppet’s body to grasp a short rod to the head, the…

  • Batchelor, Horace (British radio personality)

    Radio Luxembourg: Groundbreaking Belgian Broadcaster: …of association football pools forecaster Horace Batchelor, whose Keynsham address—“that’s K-E-Y-N-S-H-A-M”—was immortalized as the title of a Bonzo Dog Band album in 1969.

  • Batchelor, Joy (British director and animator)

    John Halas and Joy Batchelor: After art school Batchelor became a commercial artist and met Halas in 1936 while working on Music Man (1938). They later married and in 1940 established Halas and Batchelor Animation, Ltd., which became the largest cartoon film studio in Great Britain.

  • batching (materials processing)

    traditional ceramics: Blending: …forming operations is known as batching. Batching has always constituted much of the art of the ceramic technologist. Formulas are traditionally jealously guarded secrets, involving the selection of raw materials that confer the desired working characteristics and responses to firing and that yield the sought-after character and properties. Clays must…

  • Batcolumn (work by Oldenburg)

    Claes Oldenburg: …Pompidou Centre in Paris, and Batcolumn (1977), provided by the art-in-architecture program of the federal government for its Social Security Administration office building in Chicago.

  • B?tdambang (Cambodia)

    B?tdambang, city, western Cambodia. It is the third largest urban area in Cambodia and lies along the Sangkê River northwest of Phnom Penh, the national capital. From 1794 to 1904 and again from 1941 to 1946 the town was under Siamese (Thai) sovereignty. B?tdambang had a substantial Chinese trading

  • Bate, W. Jackson (American biographer)

    W. Jackson Bate, American author and literary biographer known for his studies of the English writers John Keats and Samuel Johnson. Educated at Harvard University, Bate taught history and literature there from 1946 to 1986 and was chairman of the department of English from 1956 to 1962. In 1945

  • Bate, Walter Jackson (American biographer)

    W. Jackson Bate, American author and literary biographer known for his studies of the English writers John Keats and Samuel Johnson. Educated at Harvard University, Bate taught history and literature there from 1946 to 1986 and was chairman of the department of English from 1956 to 1962. In 1945

  • Bateau ivre, Le (poem by Rimbaud)

    The Drunken Boat, poem by the 16-year-old French poet Arthur Rimbaud, written in 1871 as “Le Bateau ivre” and often considered his finest poem. The poem was written under the sponsorship of the poet Paul Verlaine, who first published it in his study of Rimbaud that appeared in the review Lutèce in

  • bateba (fetish)

    African religions: Ritual and religious specialists: …such figures, which they call bateba. Once activated, the bateba can be invoked for aid but will die if neglected. Other intermediaries range from simple officiants at family altars to prophets, sacred kings, and diviners as well as certain priests, who are invested with powers that identify them more fully…

  • Bateke (people)

    African art: Lower Congo (Kongo) cultural area: The Teke live on the banks of the Congo River. They are best known for their fetishes, called butti, which serve in the cult of a wide range of supernatural forces sent by the ancestors, who are not worshiped directly. Each figure has its own specific…

  • Batéké Plateau (plateau, Congo)

    Republic of the Congo: Relief: …the Chaillu Massif, while the Batéké Plateau stretches northward along the Congo River from Brazzaville to Mpouya.

  • Batelco (Bahrainian company)

    Bahrain: Transportation and telecommunications: Bahrain Telecommunications Company (Batelco), established in 1981, serves the country’s telephone, wireless telephone, data communications, and Internet needs, either directly or through its subsidiaries. Through Batelco, Bahrain has promoted itself as a regional telecommunications centre, connecting the countries of the gulf region with the broader world. In 1998…

  • bateleur (bird)

    Bateleur, (species Terathopius ecaudatus), small eagle of Africa and Arabia, belonging to the subfamily Circaetinae (serpent eagles) of the family Accipitridae. The name bateleur (French: “tumbler”) comes from the birds’ distinctive aerial acrobatics. About 60 cm (2 feet) long, the bateleur has a

  • Bateman, Ellen (American actress)

    H.L. Bateman: …two eldest daughters, Kate and Ellen, aged six and four, respectively, began to tour widely as stars. Later Ellen played Richard III, Shylock, and Macbeth to Kate’s Richmond, Portia, and Lady Macbeth. In 1855 Bateman managed a St. Louis theatre and later, as Kate’s manager, moved to New York City,…

  • Bateman, H. L. (American actor)

    H.L. Bateman, actor and theatrical manager who made a great success of touring the United States and England with two of his daughters, both child actresses. Bateman made his stage debut in 1832 and acted in various repertory companies until 1849. Then he, his wife, Sidney Frances, and his two

  • Bateman, H. M. (Australian cartoonist)

    H.M. Bateman, cartoonist known for narrative cartoons and for cartoons of situations involving social gaffes. After studying drawing and painting, Bateman began drawing for publication in 1906. Before World War I his work had appeared in Punch and other publications. A notable series of cartoons

  • Bateman, Henry Mayo (Australian cartoonist)

    H.M. Bateman, cartoonist known for narrative cartoons and for cartoons of situations involving social gaffes. After studying drawing and painting, Bateman began drawing for publication in 1906. Before World War I his work had appeared in Punch and other publications. A notable series of cartoons

Your preference has been recorded
Get a Premium membership for 30% off!
Save 30% with our Memorial Day Sale!
色色影院-色色影院app下载