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  • bathyal zone (oceanography)

    Bathyal zone, marine ecologic realm extending down from the edge of the continental shelf to the depth at which the water temperature is 4° C (39° F). Both of these limits are variable, but the bathyal zone is generally described as lying between 200 and 2,000 m (660 and 6,600 feet) below the

  • Bathycles (Greek sculptor)

    Bathycles, ancient Greek sculptor whose only known work was a marble altar built around an ancient statue of Apollo at Amyclae. This work was commissioned by the Spartans and was described by the 2nd-century-ad Greek chronicler Pausanias as being adorned with mythological reliefs and free-standing

  • Bathyclupeidae (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Bathyclupeidae Resemble sweepers but apparently not related; compressed body; prominent lower jaw; single short-based dorsal fin; anal fin long-based; eyes large; mouth large. About 5 species; deep-sea midwaters, 400–500 metres (1,300 to 1,640 feet) depth. Family Carangidae (jacks, scads, and pompanos

  • Bathydraconidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Bathydraconidae (Antarctic dragonfishes) About 15 species; true Antarctic fishes, occurring on coasts of Antarctic continent; body greatly elongated; usually a spatulate, pikelike snout; no first dorsal fin; live on coasts of Antarctic continent to depths of 500–700 metres (about 1,650–2,300 feet), a few down to 2,500…

  • Bathyergidae (rodent)

    Blesmol, (family Bathyergidae), any of about a dozen species of burrowing African rodents that live in arid regions south of the Sahara (desert). Blesmols are highly adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They appear virtually neckless, having strong, blunt heads with incisor teeth protruding forward

  • Bathyergus (rodent)

    blesmol: …strong front claws of the dune blesmols (genus Bathyergus). The eyes are very small, and there are no external ears, only openings that are either hidden by fur or surrounded by bare or thickened skin. Blesmols have an acute sense of hearing, however, and they are very sensitive to ground…

  • Bathylutichthys taranetzi (fish)

    scorpaeniform: Annotated classification: 1 species, Bathylutichthys taranetzi, of uncertain phylogenetic position. Family Agonidae (poachers and pogges) Body covered in hard armour of large scutes. 1 or 2 dorsal fins. Teeth minute. Size to 30 cm (12 inches). Small, benthic, coastal fishes of northern Pacific, Atlantic, and Arctic oceans and Antarctic…

  • Bathymasteridae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Bathymasteridae (ronquils) Resemble Opistognathidae, but jaws not so large; no spines in dorsal or anal fins; pelvic fins slightly ahead of pectorals; about 7 species; bottom-dwelling; coasts of North Pacific Ocean. Family Cryptacanthodidae (wrymouths) Pelvic fins absent, mouth oblique. Marine, northern Atlantic and Pacific. 1 genus…

  • bathymetric gradient

    Silurian Period: Silurian life: …zonation expresses itself is through bathymetric gradients (changes in light, temperature, salinity, and pressure with depth).Paleoecologists studying in Wales, Norway, Estonia, Siberia, South China, and North America have used very similar models to explain the geographic distribution of Silurian communities. Some of these communities were adapted to life under conditions…

  • bathymetric map

    Bathymetric map, chart that depicts the submerged topography and physiographic features of ocean and sea bottoms. Individual soundings, or points at which the depth to the seafloor have been measured, are given; however, the principal technique for expressing the submarine topography involves

  • bathymetry (oceanography)

    Bathymetry, measurement of ocean depth. The earliest technique involved lowering a heavy rope or cable of known length over the side of a ship, then measuring the amount needed to reach the bottom. Tedious and frequently inaccurate, this method yielded the depth at only a single point rather than

  • Bathynellacea (crustacean)

    crustacean: Annotated classification: Order Bathynellacea Blind, elongated forms, without a rostrum; first thoracic segment not fused to head but sixth abdominal segment fused with telson; antennules uniramous; worldwide; freshwater, in spaces between sand grains; about 100 species. Superorder Peracarida Females with a ventral brood pouch formed by plates at…

  • bathypelagic zone (oceanography)

    Bathypelagic zone, Worldwide zone of deep ocean waters, about 3,000–13,000 ft (1,000–4,000 m) below the surface. It is inhabited by a wide variety of marine forms, including eels, fishes, mollusks, and

  • bathyphyll (frond)

    fern: Ecology: …these the lower leaves (bathyphylls) are usually vegetative and are often different in form from those at the higher levels (acrophylls), which are entirely or partly fertile in that they bear sporangia over their surfaces.

  • bathyscaphe (diving vessel)

    Bathyscaphe, navigable diving vessel, developed by the Swiss educator and scientist Auguste Piccard (with assistance in later years from his son Jacques), designed to reach great depths in the ocean. The first bathyscaphe, the FNRS 2, built in Belgium between 1946 and 1948, was damaged during 1948

  • bathysphere (water vessel)

    Bathysphere, spherical steel vessel for use in undersea observation, provided with portholes and suspended by a cable from a boat. Built by the American zoologist William Beebe and the American engineer Otis Barton, the bathysphere made its first dives in 1930. On June 11, 1930, it reached a depth

  • Bathystoma (fish)

    Tomtate, any of certain fishes of the grunt (q.v.)

  • Bathyteuthis (cephalopod genus)

    cephalopod: Locomotion: …chamber, while others, such as Bathyteuthis, concentrate buoyant oil in the chambers associated with the digestive gland.

  • bathythermograph (instrument)

    Bathythermograph, any of various oceanographic devices containing temperature- and pressure-sensitive elements and producing a continuous record of underwater temperature and pressure. Recoverable bathythermographs, lowered from a ship at rest or in motion, produce this record on a coated glass

  • Bathyuriscus (trilobite genus)

    Bathyuriscus, genus of trilobites (extinct arthropods) that provide a useful index fossil for the Middle Cambrian epoch of North America (520 to 512 million years ago). In Bathyuriscus the head segment is well developed, and marginal spines are present. The tail region is large and has many

  • Batian (mountain peak, Kenya)

    East African mountains: Physiography: The craggy twin peaks of Batian (17,057 feet) and Nelion (17,022 feet) are closely followed in height by Lenana (16,355 feet).

  • batik (dyeing method)

    Batik, method of dyeing in which patterned areas are covered with wax so they will not receive the colour. The method is used mainly on cottons and in the traditional colours of blue, brown, and red. Multicoloured and blended effects are obtained by repeating the dyeing process several times, with

  • Bā?in, Wadi Al- (river, Asia)

    Iraq: Deserts: The deep Wadi Al-Bā?in runs 45 miles (75 km) in a northeast-southwest direction through Al-Dibdibah. It has been recognized since 1913 as the boundary between western Kuwait and Iraq.

  • Bā?inah, Al- (coastal plain, Oman)

    Al-Bā?inah, narrow, well-populated coastal plain in northeastern Oman, fronting the Gulf of Oman for about 150 miles (240 km) and extending from Oman’s border with the United Arab Emirates near Shinā? southeast to Al-Sīb. The coastal plain varies in width between 10 and 30 miles (15 and 45 km) and

  • Bā?inīyah (Islamic sects)

    Bā?inīyah, Muslim sects—the Ismailis (Arabic: Ismā?īlīyah), in particular—that interpreted religious texts exclusively on the basis of their hidden, or inner, meanings (Arabic: bā?in) rather than their literal meanings (?āhir). This type of interpretation gained currency about the 8th century

  • Batista y Zaldívar, Fulgencio (Cuban dictator)

    Fulgencio Batista, soldier and political leader who twice ruled Cuba—first in 1933–44 with an efficient government and again in 1952–59 as a dictator, jailing his opponents, using terrorist methods, and making fortunes for himself and his associates. The son of impoverished farmers, Batista worked

  • Batista, Eike (Brazilian magnate)

    Eike Batista, Brazilian business magnate who made and then lost a fortune in mining and oil and gas exploration. Batista, one of seven children, was born in the state of Minas Gerais, in southeastern Brazil. His mother was German, and his father, Eliezer Batista da Silva, was a prominent Brazilian

  • Batista, Fulgencio (Cuban dictator)

    Fulgencio Batista, soldier and political leader who twice ruled Cuba—first in 1933–44 with an efficient government and again in 1952–59 as a dictator, jailing his opponents, using terrorist methods, and making fortunes for himself and his associates. The son of impoverished farmers, Batista worked

  • Batista, Joesley (Brazilian businessman)

    Petrobras scandal: …a conversation between Temer and Joesley Batista, the plea-bargaining chairman of a large meatpacking company. In that conversation Temer appeared to approve of the offer of hush money to Cunha. Later Batista would testify that Temer had received millions of dollars in bribes. Threatened with impeachment, Temer denied the accusations…

  • Batistuta, Gabriel (Argentine soccer player)

    Gabriel Batistuta, Argentine professional football (soccer) player whose prolific scoring made him an icon of both the Italian Serie A league and the Argentine national team. Batistuta made his professional debut in Argentina in 1988 with the Rosario-based Newell’s Old Boys. He scored seven goals

  • Batistuta, Gabriel Omar (Argentine soccer player)

    Gabriel Batistuta, Argentine professional football (soccer) player whose prolific scoring made him an icon of both the Italian Serie A league and the Argentine national team. Batistuta made his professional debut in Argentina in 1988 with the Rosario-based Newell’s Old Boys. He scored seven goals

  • Batiushkov, Konstantin Nikolayevich (Russian poet)

    Konstantin Nikolayevich Batyushkov, Russian elegiac poet whose sensual and melodious verses were said to have influenced the great Russian poet Aleksandr Pushkin. Batyushkov’s early childhood was spent in the country on his father’s estate. When he was 10 he went to Moscow, where he studied the

  • Batjan (island, Indonesia)

    Bacan, island, North Maluku propinsi (province), Indonesia. One of the northern Moluccas, in the Molucca Sea, it lies just southwest of the large island of Halmahera. The islands of Kasiruta to the northwest, Mandioli to the west, and about 80 other islets compose the Bacan Island group. With an

  • Batjan basin (basin, Pacific Ocean)

    Molucca Sea: …Sea is the 15,780-foot (4,810-metre) Batjan (Bacan) basin. This area of the Pacific often experiences earthquakes and crustal warping.

  • Batlle Berres, Luis (president of Uruguay)

    Luis Batlle Berres, Uruguayan journalist who became active in politics and served as president of his country from 1947 to 1951 and chief executive officer in 1953–54. Nephew of former president José Batlle y Ordó?ez, Batlle Berres was known as a champion of democracy and civil liberties and as an

  • Batlle Ibá?ez, Jorge Luis (president of Uruguay)

    Jorge Batlle, (Jorge Luis Batlle Ibá?ez), Uruguayan politician (born Oct. 25, 1927, Montevideo, Uruguay—died Oct. 24, 2016, Montevideo), was a member of a long-standing political dynasty and served (2000–05) as president of Uruguay. During his administration Uruguay suffered (2002) a catastrophic

  • Batlle y Ordó?ez, José (president of Uruguay)

    José Batlle y Ordó?ez, statesman who, as president of Uruguay (1903–07 and 1911–15), is generally credited with transforming his country into a stable democratic welfare state. Batlle y Ordó?ez was the son of a president of Uruguay (1868–72), General Lorenzo Batlle, and a grandson of José Batlle y

  • Batlle, Jorge (president of Uruguay)

    Jorge Batlle, (Jorge Luis Batlle Ibá?ez), Uruguayan politician (born Oct. 25, 1927, Montevideo, Uruguay—died Oct. 24, 2016, Montevideo), was a member of a long-standing political dynasty and served (2000–05) as president of Uruguay. During his administration Uruguay suffered (2002) a catastrophic

  • Batman (Turkey)

    Batman, town, southeastern Turkey, in the centre of the country’s oil-producing region. It is located about 5 miles (8 km) west of the town of Siirt and lies in a region of broad plateaus. A government-owned refinery is located at Batman, and a pipeline extends for nearly 320 miles (515 km) from

  • Batman (film by Burton [1989])

    Batman: The modern era: >Batman (1989) to the silver screen, and Michael Keaton, a quirky actor slight of build and best known for comedy roles, was chosen to play the title character. Although the casting decision surprised many, the film was a massive success, spawning a wave of Bat-merchandise…

  • Batman (American television series)

    Tallulah Bankhead: …stint on the TV series Batman (1966–68); when advised that the series was considered “high camp,” her response was vintage Tallulah: “Don’t tell me about camp, dahling! I invented it!”

  • Batman (fictional character)

    Batman, American comic strip superhero created for DC Comics by writer Bill Finger and artist Bob Kane. Batman debuted in May 1939 in Detective Comics no. 27 and has since appeared in numerous comic books, comic strips, and graphic novels; on television in a camp live-action series and a critically

  • Batman & Robin (film by Schumacher [1997])

    George Clooney: …in a series of films—including Batman & Robin (1997), The Peacemaker (1997), and Out of Sight (1998)—Clooney left ER in 1999 to concentrate on his movie career. Later that year he appeared in the critically acclaimed Three Kings. The comedy-drama centred on U.S. soldiers at the end of the Persian…

  • Batman Begins (film by Nolan [2005])

    Christian Bale: …Bruce Wayne and Batman in Batman Begins (2005). The new take on the iconic superhero was a critical and commercial success. Bale continued to highlight his versatility, playing an obsessive magician intent on revenge in The Prestige (2006), a struggling rancher in the tense American western 3:10 to Yuma (2007),…

  • Batman Forever (film by Schumacher [1995])

    Jim Carrey: …and played the Riddler in Batman Forever (1995).

  • Batman Returns (film by Burton [1992])

    Batman: The modern era: …were back in theatres with Batman Returns, and the noirish Batman: The Animated Series (1992–95) debuted on television that fall. While subsequent films in the Batman franchise suffered declining quality and a rotating cast of lead actors, Batman: The Animated Series set a new standard for storytelling in the Batman…

  • Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (film by Snyder [2016])

    Batman: The modern era: …Affleck donned the cowl in Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), a joyless portrayal of DC’s two most-recognizable heroes. In spite of harsh reviews from both critics and many fans, the film earned more than $800 million globally. The LEGO Batman Movie (2017), a spirited comedic romp told with…

  • Batman, John (Australian settler)

    Victoria: European exploration and settlement: …south coast, and in 1835 John Batman landed at Port Phillip. Batman’s venture led the way to the pastoral occupation of Victoria. In that same year John Pascoe Fawkner established a colony on the banks of the Yarra River. From Batman’s colony grew Victoria’s capital city, Melbourne.

  • Batman: The Animated Series (television series)

    Batman: The modern era: …Batman Returns, and the noirish Batman: The Animated Series (1992–95) debuted on television that fall. While subsequent films in the Batman franchise suffered declining quality and a rotating cast of lead actors, Batman: The Animated Series set a new standard for storytelling in the Batman universe. The series—which was marked…

  • Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (graphic novel by Miller)

    Frank Miller: Miller wrote and drew Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), a groundbreaking story that imagined an aging Bruce Wayne emerging from retirement to don the cowl of Batman once more. The following year Miller fashioned a four-issue Batman story arc that is regarded as the definitive retelling of that…

  • Batman: The Killing Joke (graphic novel)

    Batgirl: >Batman: The Killing Joke (1988), revisions to the DC universe had made her the niece—not the daughter—of Commissioner Gordon. In that story, the Joker, Batman’s most-maniacal foe, exacted revenge on his enemy by rampaging against those close to him. The Joker shot Gordon, leaving her…

  • Batman: The Movie (film by Martinson [1966])

    Burgess Meredith: …reprised the role for the 1966 film version. In 1994 Meredith published his autobiography, So Far, So Good.

  • Batman: Year One (graphic novel)

    Frank Miller: …it was later collected as Batman: Year One. Other projects during that period included Elektra: Assassin (1986; with artist Bill Sienkiewicz), the mind-bending tale of a resurrected ninja; Give Me Liberty (1990; with artist Dave Gibbons), the tale of a young woman’s heroism in a dystopian world; and Hard Boiled…

  • Batna (Algeria)

    Batna, city, northeastern Algeria. It lies along the Wadi Tilatou and is situated on a well-watered plain that is bounded on the south by the Aurès Massif and on the north by the Batna Mountains. To the west, the cedar-forested Mount Tougour (Pic des Cèdres) rises to 6,870 feet (2,094 metres).

  • Batoche (Saskatchewan, Canada)

    Batoche, unincorporated place, central Saskatchewan, Canada. It lies on the east bank of the South Saskatchewan River, 40 miles (64 km) southwest of Prince Albert. The site was settled about 1870 by colonists from the Red River Settlement (founded in 1811–12 near the present city of Winnipeg,

  • Batodonoides (fossil mammal genus)

    Batodonoides, genus of extinct insectivorous mammals that lived during the Eocene Epoch (56 to 33.9 million years ago) and of which the oldest species, Batodonoides vanhouteni, may have been the smallest mammal that ever lived. The genus includes three other species as well—B. walshi, B.

  • Batodonoides vanhouteni (fossil mammal)

    Batodonoides: …of which the oldest species, Batodonoides vanhouteni, may have been the smallest mammal that ever lived. The genus includes three other species as well—B. walshi, B. powayensis, and B. rileyi. B. vanhouteni was found in lower Eocene rocks in Wyoming, and fossils of other species are also known from rocks…

  • Batoe Eilanden (islands, Indonesia)

    Batu Islands, group of three major islands and 48 islets off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Administratively, they are part of North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) propinsi (province). The three largest islands are Pini, Tanahmasa, and Tanahbala; the total area is 6,370 square miles (16,500 square

  • Batoidei (fish order)

    fish: Annotated classification: Order Batoidei (rays, sawfishes, guitarfishes, skates, and stingrays) 5 gill openings, wholly on ventral surface; pectoral fins united with sides of head forward past the gill opening. Differ from all sharks in lacking upper free eyelid. More than 500 species. Jurassic to present.

  • Batomys (rodent)

    cloud rat: Bushy-tailed cloud rats: …Luzon tree rats (Carpomys) and hairy-tailed rats (Batomys), both of which are also endemic to the Philippines.

  • baton (relay race)

    athletics: Relays: …team, each member carrying a baton for 25 percent of the total distance before passing it to the next team runner. Two events, the 4 × 100- and 4 × 400-metre relays, are standard. They are included both in low-level dual meets and in the Olympic Games and the IAAF…

  • baton (weapon)

    police: Nonlethal tactics and instruments: The nightstick carried by police officers was originally made of wood, but most now are made of composite materials.

  • baton (music)

    conductor: …two centuries, conductors favoured a baton, or thin wand, in the right hand as a device for emphasizing the metrical outline, reserving the left hand for indicating entries of different parts and nuances. Some contemporary conductors, however, follow a practice long established in unaccompanied choral conducting and dispense with the…

  • Baton Rouge (Louisiana, United States)

    Baton Rouge, city, capital of Louisiana, U.S., and seat (1811) of East Baton Rouge parish. Baton Rouge is a port situated at the head of deepwater navigation on the Mississippi River, in the southeast-central part of the state. The French-Canadian explorer Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville visited the

  • baton technique

    hand tool: Techniques for making stone tools: The second method was the soft-hammer, or baton, technique, based on a discovery of perhaps 500,000 years ago that hard rock (flint in particular) could be chipped by striking it with a softer material. The baton was a light “hammer,” an almost foot-long piece of bone, antler, or even wood,…

  • Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo (Italian painter)

    Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, Italian painter, who in his own time was ranked with Anton Raphael Mengs as a painter of historical subjects. Probably his portraits are now better known, as he invented the type of “grand tourist” portrait, very popular among the English, which shows the sitter at his ease

  • Batoro (people)

    Toro, an interlacustrine Bantu-speaking people who inhabit a high plateau between Lakes Albert and Edward that is bounded on the west by the Ruwenzori Range in southwestern Uganda. Toro lands include rainforest, dense bamboo stands, papyrus swamps, plains of elephant grass, and the shores of Lakes

  • Batoru rowaiaru (film by Fukasaku)

    Kitano Takeshi: …appeared in Batoru rowaiaru (Battle Royale), a futuristic thriller that stirred controversy in Japan with its tale of juvenile delinquents forced by authorities into deadly combat on a remote island. He later starred in its sequel, Batoru rowaiaru II: Chinkonka (2003; Battle Royale II: Requiem). Kitano abandoned his preoccupations…

  • Batory, Stefan (king of Poland)

    Stephen Báthory, prince of Transylvania (1571–76) and king of Poland (1575–86) who successfully opposed the Habsburg candidate for the Polish throne, defended Poland’s eastern Baltic provinces against Russian incursion, and attempted to form a great state from Poland, Muscovy, and Transylvania. The

  • Ba?rā (ancient city, Jordan)

    Petra, ancient city, centre of an Arab kingdom in Hellenistic and Roman times, the ruins of which are in southwest Jordan. The city was built on a terrace, pierced from east to west by the Wadi Mūsā (the Valley of Moses)—one of the places where, according to tradition, the Israelite leader Moses

  • Batrachia (amphibian clade)

    amphibian: Annotated classification: Clade Batrachia ?Family Albanerpetodonidae (albanerpetodontids) Middle Jurassic to Lower Miocene. A peg and socket syphyseal articulation of the mandible. 1 genus and several species. Order Anura (frogs and toads) Middle Jurassic to

  • Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (fungus)

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, fungus isolated as the cause of amphibian

  • Batrachoi (play by Aristophanes)

    Frogs, a literary comedy by Aristophanes, produced in 405 bce. The play tells the story of Dionysus, the god of drama, who is mourning the quality of present-day tragedy in Athens after the death of his recent favourite, Euripides. Disguising himself as the hero Heracles, Dionysus goes down to

  • Batrachoidiformes (fish)

    Toadfish, any of about 80 species of bottom-living fishes constituting the family Batrachoididae and the order Batrachoidiformes. They are found chiefly in the New World and mostly in warm seas—occasionally in freshwater. Toadfishes are heavy-bodied fishes with broad, flattened heads and large

  • Batrachoseps (amphibian genus)

    Caudata: Locomotion: species of the genera Phaeognathus, Batrachoseps, Oedipina, and Lineatriton have reduced limbs and rely mainly on body movements for rapid locomotion. Species of the genus Aneides have arboreal (tree-dwelling) tendencies, and their long legs and digits, expanded toe tips, and prehensile (grasping) tails make them effective climbers. Some salamanders of…

  • Batrachospermum (red algae)

    Batrachospermum, genus of freshwater red algae (family Batrachospermaceae) ranging in colour from violet to blue-green. The long, branched, threadlike filaments bear dense whorls of branchlets, resembling beads on a string. Spores are formed in clusters around the base of the carpogonium (female

  • Batrachostomus (bird genus)

    caprimulgiform: Reproduction: In Batrachostomus the nest is a pad of the birds’ own down, bound and camouflaged externally with cobwebs and lichens, one white egg being laid. Both sexes are believed to incubate, the period being about 30 days. Owlet-frogmouths nest mostly in hollow trees but also in…

  • Batrachostomus auritus (bird)

    frogmouth: The large frogmouth (Batrachostomus auritus), a 16-inch (40-cm) species of the Malay Peninsula and the islands of Sumatra and Borneo, lays a single egg on a pad of down covered with lichens and spiderwebs. The tawny frogmouth (Podargus strigoides), of the Australian mainland and Tasmania, is…

  • batrachotoxin (chemical compound)

    steroid: Steroids of insects, fungi, and other organisms: …aurotaenia, produces a deadly alkaloid, batrachotoxin (14), which is used by tribal peoples as an arrow poison. The skin of salamanders secretes a comparably poisonous alkaloid—samandarin (15).

  • Bats language

    Nakh languages: …group includes Chechen, Ingush, and Bats (Tsova-Tushian). Because Bats has no written form, its speakers use Georgian as their literary language. The Nakh group, sometimes called the Central Caucasian languages, is often classified by scholars with the Dagestanian languages (among which are Avar and Lezgian) in a Nakho-Dagestanian, or Northeast…

  • bats-in-the-belfry (plant)

    bellflower: Throatwort, or bats-in-the-belfry (C. trachelium), a coarse, erect, hairy Eurasian plant also naturalized in North America, bears clusters of lilac-coloured funnel-shaped flowers. Other cultivated Campanula species from Europe include Adria bellflower (C. garganica, sometimes classified as a variety of C. elatines); clustered bellflower (C. glomerata);…

  • Batsányi, János (Hungarian poet)

    János Batsányi, Hungary’s leading political poet during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic periods in Europe. Beginning his career as a tutor, Batsányi became the editor of Magyar Museum and emerged as an eloquent advocate of social progress and Enlightenment ideals in Hungary. In his

  • Batswa (people)

    Pygmy: …is the large group of Tswa (Batswa), who, like the Twa, have adopted much of the culture and language of neighbouring tribes. They live largely by fishing and trapping.

  • Batswana (people)

    Tswana, westerly division of the Sotho, a Bantu-speaking people of South Africa and Botswana. The Tswana comprise several groupings, the most important of which, numerically speaking, are the Hurutshe, Kgatla, Kwena, Rolong, Tlhaping, and Tlokwa. They numbered about four million at the turn of the

  • Batta (people)

    Batak, several closely related ethnic groups of north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. The term Batak is one of convenience, likely coined during precolonial times by indigenous outsiders (e.g., the Malay) and later adopted by Europeans. The groups embraced by the term—the Toba, the Karo, the

  • battaglia di Algeri, La (film by Pontecorvo [1966])

    The Battle of Algiers, Italian-Algerian war film, released in 1966, that is the signature achievement of director Gillo Pontecorvo and an acclaimed experiment in cinéma vérité. The visually striking film documents the Algerian revolt against the French in 1954–62, with a focus on the events of

  • battaglia di Legnano, La (opera by Verdi)

    Giuseppe Verdi: Early career: La battaglia di Legnano (1849; The Battle of Legnano), a tale of love and jealousy set against the Lombard League’s victory over Frederick Barbarossa in 1176 ce, was Verdi’s emphatic response to the Italian unification movement, or Risorgimento, which spilled over into open warfare in…

  • Battaglia peso + odore (poem by Marinetti)

    Futurism: Literature: …peso + odore” (1912; “Battle Weight + Smell”) was appended to one of the Futurists’ manifestos as an example of words-in-freedom:

  • Battak (people)

    Batak, several closely related ethnic groups of north-central Sumatra, Indonesia. The term Batak is one of convenience, likely coined during precolonial times by indigenous outsiders (e.g., the Malay) and later adopted by Europeans. The groups embraced by the term—the Toba, the Karo, the

  • battalion (military unit)

    Battalion, a tactical military organization composed basically of a headquarters and two or more companies, batteries, or similar organizations and usually commanded by a field-grade officer. The term has been used in nearly every Western army for centuries and has had a variety of meanings. In the

  • Battambang (Cambodia)

    B?tdambang, city, western Cambodia. It is the third largest urban area in Cambodia and lies along the Sangkê River northwest of Phnom Penh, the national capital. From 1794 to 1904 and again from 1941 to 1946 the town was under Siamese (Thai) sovereignty. B?tdambang had a substantial Chinese trading

  • Battānī, al- (Arab astronomer and mathematician)

    Al-Battānī, Arab astronomer and mathematician who refined existing values for the length of the year and of the seasons, for the annual precession of the equinoxes, and for the inclination of the ecliptic. He showed that the position of the Sun’s apogee, or farthest point from the Earth, is

  • batte din (Judaism)

    Bet din, Jewish tribunal empowered to adjudicate cases involving criminal, civil, or religious law. The history of such institutions goes back to the time the 12 tribes of Israel appointed judges and set up courts of law (Deuteronomy 16:18). During the period of the Second Temple of Jerusalem (516

  • battement (ballet movement)

    Battement, (French: “beating”), in ballet, an extension of the leg to the front, side, or back, either repeatedly or as a single movement. Among representative types are battement tendu (“stretched beating”), in which one leg is extended until the point of the stretched foot barely touches the

  • battement frappé (ballet)

    battement: …or higher and held straight; battement frappé (“struck beating”), in which the ball of the foot brushes the floor as the working foot is briskly extended from a flexed position against the lower calf of the supporting leg; and petit battement sur le cou-de-pied (“small beatings on the instep”), in…

  • battement tendu (ballet)

    battement: Among representative types are battement tendu (“stretched beating”), in which one leg is extended until the point of the stretched foot barely touches the ground; grand battement (“large beating”), in which the leg is lifted to hip level or higher and held straight; battement frappé (“struck beating”), in which…

  • batten (architecture)

    Batten, term used in joinery for a board 4 to 7 inches (10 to 17.8 cm) wide and not more than 3 inches (7.6 cm) thick employed for various purposes. In sailing the word is applied to a strip of wood nailed to a mast to prevent rubbing or to fix down a tarpaulin over a hatchway in rough

  • Batten disease (pathology)

    Batten disease, rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease that begins in childhood. The disease is named for British physician Frederick Batten, who in 1903 described the cerebral degeneration and macular changes characteristic of the condition. Batten disease is among the most commonly occurring of

  • Batten, Gerard (British politician)

    Nigel Farage: The Brexit Party: UKIP leader Gerard Batten dismissed the new party, calling Farage a “self-serving hypocrite,” while Farage claimed that UKIP had become a refuge for the far right. Those elections seemingly marked the end of UKIP as a political force in Britain. Its representation in the European Parliament dropped…

  • Batten, Jane Gardner (New Zealand aviator)

    Jean Batten, aviator who made record-breaking flights from 1933 to 1937 and was perhaps the most famous New Zealander of the 1930s. Batten was sent by her parents to England to study music, but she became intensely interested in flying and earned a private pilot’s license in 1930. She gained a

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