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  • Beauharnais, Alexandre, vicomte de (French noble)

    Alexandre, viscount de Beauharnais, first husband of Joséphine (later empress of the French) and grandfather of Napoleon III; he was a prominent figure during the Revolution. He married Joséphine Tascher de La Pagerie in Martinique in 1779. Known as a liberal noble, he rose after the French

  • Beauharnais, Eugène de (French soldier and viceroy)

    Eugène de Beauharnais, soldier, prince of the French First Empire, and viceroy of Italy for Napoleon I, who was his stepfather (from 1796) and adoptive father (from 1806). His father, the general Alexandre, Viscount de Beauharnais, was guillotined on June 23, 1794. The marriage of the general’s

  • Beauharnais, Eugénie-Hortense de (queen of Holland)

    Hortense, queen of Holland, stepdaughter of Napoleon I, and mother of Napoleon III. The daughter of the future empress Joséphine and of her first husband, Alexandre de Beauharnais, Hortense became one of the attractions of the court after Napoleon became first consul of the French in 1799. To

  • Beauharnais, Marie-Josèphe-Rose, vicomtesse de (empress of France)

    Joséphine, consort of Napoleon Bonaparte and empress of the French. Joséphine, the eldest daughter of Joseph Tascher de La Pagerie, an impoverished aristocrat who had a commission in the navy, lived the first 15 years of her life on the island of Martinique. In 1779 she married a rich young army

  • Beauharnois Canal (canal, Canada)

    canals and inland waterways: Major inland waterways of North America: …channel runs to the lower Beauharnois Lock, which rises 41 feet to the level of Lake St. Francis via a 13-mile canal. Thirty miles farther, the seaway crosses the international boundary to the Bertrand H. Snell Lock, with its lift of 45 feet to the Wiley-Dondero Canal; it then lifts…

  • Beaujeu, Anne of (regent of France)

    Anne Of France, eldest daughter of Louis XI of France and Charlotte of Savoy, who exercised, with her husband, Pierre de Bourbon, seigneur de Beaujeu, a virtual regency in France from 1483 to 1491, during the early years of the reign of King Charles VIII. Anne’s energy, strength of will, cunning, a

  • Beaujeu, édouard I de (marshal of France)

    Beaujolais: édouard I de Beaujeu, marshal of France, fought at the Battle of Crécy (1346) and perished in the Battle of Ardres in 1351. His son died without issue in 1374 and was succeeded by his cousin édouard II, who gave his estates of Beaujolais and…

  • Beaujeu, Pierre, Seigneur de (French duke)

    Pierre II, 7e duke de Bourbon, duke of Bourbon (from 1488) and seigneur de Beaujeu (from 1474). Louis XI of France espoused his eldest daughter, Anne of France (q.v.), to Pierre de Beaujeu in 1474 and, on his deathbed, entrusted to Pierre the charge of his 13-year-old son, Charles VIII. Thus, from

  • Beaujolais (wine)

    Beaujolais, one of the most widely drunk red wines in the world, produced in the Beaujolais region of southern Burgundy, France. The wine, made from the Gamay grape, is medium red in colour, with a relatively light body and a fruity, refreshing taste. Wines from the southern part of the region are

  • Beaujolais (region, France)

    Beaujolais, region of east-central France, just east of the Massif Central and west of the Saone River. Most of the region is located within Rh?ne département. The local relief is broken and culminates in Mount Saint-Rigaud, 3,310 feet (1,009 m); well-wooded, the region supports a local forestry

  • Beaujolais (ancient province, France)

    Beaujolais, ancient province of France, of which Beaujeu and Villefranche were successively the capital and which corresponded in area to much of the modern département of Rh?ne, with a small portion of Loire. Crossed by the mountains of Beaujolais (Monts du Beaujolais) and bounded on the east by

  • Beaujolais nouveau (alcoholic beverage)

    Beaujolais: …very young wine is called Beaujolais nouveau. By the early 1990s more than half the production was drunk as nouveau. Beaujolais, and particularly Beaujolais nouveau, is often served chilled.

  • Beaujoyeulx, Balthazar de (Italian composer and choreographer)

    Balthazar de Beaujoyeulx, composer and choreographer who influenced the development of theatrical dance and opera. In 1555 the Duke de Brissac brought Beaujoyeulx to the French court of Queen Catherine de Médicis as a violinist. He became valet de chambre to the royal family and unofficially

  • Beaujoyeux, Balthasar de (Italian composer and choreographer)

    Balthazar de Beaujoyeulx, composer and choreographer who influenced the development of theatrical dance and opera. In 1555 the Duke de Brissac brought Beaujoyeulx to the French court of Queen Catherine de Médicis as a violinist. He became valet de chambre to the royal family and unofficially

  • Beaulieu, Jean-Pierre (Austrian commander)

    Battle of Lodi: …troops, the rear guard of Jean-Pierre Beaulieu’s Austrian army. After knocking the kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) out of the war in April, Napoleon turned northeastward against Beaulieu. Beaulieu refused to stand and fight, afraid to lose his army in a major battle. The retreating Austrians’ rear guard continued to hold…

  • Beaulieu, Treaty of (France [1576])

    Fran?ois, duc d'Anjou: …he secured in the general Treaty of Beaulieu (May 6, 1576) a group of territories that made him duc d’Anjou. He also courted Elizabeth I of England and even succeeded in negotiating with her a marriage contract (1579), which, however, was never concluded, even after two wooing visits to London…

  • Beaulieu, Treuille de (French inventor)

    artillery: Breech loading: …a muzzle-loading system designed by Treuille de Beaulieu, in which the gun had three deep spiral grooves and the projectile had soft metal studs. The gun was loaded from the muzzle by engaging the studs in the grooves before ramming the shell.

  • Beaulieu, Victor-Lévy (Canadian author)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: …Redeemer); the author and publisher Victor-Lévy Beaulieu, with his continuing saga of the Beauchemin family; Roch Carrier, who mocked biculturalism in La Guerre, Yes Sir! (1968; Eng. trans. La Guerre, Yes Sir!); and Jacques Poulin, whose early novels, set in the old city of Quebec, are comic visions of life…

  • Beaumanoir, Jean de (British officer)

    Battle of the Thirty: A truce arranged by Jean de Beaumanoir, governor of Brittany and a supporter of Blois, was being ignored by Sir Robert Bramborough, the captain of Plo?rmel and a supporter of Montfort. Beaumanoir issued a challenge that thirty knights and squires on each side should decide the matter in battle,…

  • Beaumanoir, Philippe de (French administrator and jurist)

    Philippe de Remi, sire de Beaumanoir, French administrator and jurist whose major work, Coutumes de Beauvaisis (drafted c. 1280–83), was an early codification of old French law. Beaumanoir also wrote two metrical romances, La Manekine and Jehan et Blonde, preserved in a single 14th-century

  • Beaumanoir, Philippe de Remi, sire de (French administrator and jurist)

    Philippe de Remi, sire de Beaumanoir, French administrator and jurist whose major work, Coutumes de Beauvaisis (drafted c. 1280–83), was an early codification of old French law. Beaumanoir also wrote two metrical romances, La Manekine and Jehan et Blonde, preserved in a single 14th-century

  • Beaumarchais, Pierre-Augustin Caron de (French author)

    Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais, French author of two outstanding comedies of intrigue that still retain their freshness, Le Barbier de Séville (1775; The Barber of Seville, 1776) and Le Mariage de Figaro (1784; The Marriage of Figaro, 1785). Although Beaumarchais did not invent the type

  • Beauménard, Mademoiselle (French actress)

    Madame Bellecour, French actress noted for her performances in works of Molière and Regnard. The daughter of an aged artillery captain of noble ancestry, Rose-Perrine left home at the age of 13 and took up with an itinerant comedian called Beauménard. She decided to adopt both his name and his

  • Beaumont (Texas, United States)

    Beaumont, city, seat (1838) of Jefferson county, southeastern Texas, U.S., at the head of navigation on the Neches River (an arm of the Sabine-Neches Waterway), 85 miles (137 km) east-northeast of Houston. With Port Arthur and Orange, it forms the “Golden Triangle” petrochemical and industrial

  • Beaumont borer (tunneling machine)

    tunnels and underground excavations: Machine-mined tunnels: …air-powered rotary cutting arm, the Beaumont borer, had been invented. A 1947 coal-mining version followed, and in 1949 a coal saw was used to cut a circumferential slot in chalk for 33-foot-diameter tunnels at Fort Randall Dam in South Dakota. In 1962 a comparable breakthrough for the more difficult excavation…

  • Beaumont Hospital (hospital, Dublin, Ireland)

    Dublin: Health: Beaumont Hospital, opened in 1987, is the principal undergraduate and postgraduate teaching and research centre associated with the Royal College, whose campus it shares. It is the national centre for neurosurgery. St. Vincent’s is the teaching hospital of University College Dublin and a leading biomedical…

  • Beaumont, Charles, chevalier d’éon de (French spy)

    Charles, chevalier d’éon de Beaumont, French secret agent from whose name the term “eonism,” denoting the tendency to adopt the costume and manners of the opposite sex, is derived. His first mission was to the Russian empress Elizabeth in 1755, on which he seems to have disguised himself as a

  • Beaumont, élie de (French geologist)

    élie de Beaumont, geologist who prepared the great geological map of France in collaboration with the French geologist Ours Pierre Dufrénoy. Beaumont was appointed professor of geology at the école des Mines, Paris, in 1835. He was engineer in chief of mines in France from 1833 to 1847, when he was

  • Beaumont, Francis (English dramatist)

    Francis Beaumont, English Jacobean poet and playwright who collaborated with John Fletcher on comedies and tragedies between about 1606 and 1613. The son of Francis Beaumont, justice of common pleas of Grace-Dieu priory, Charnwood Forest, Leicestershire, Beaumont entered Broadgates Hall (later

  • Beaumont, Gustave de (French writer)

    Alexis de Tocqueville: Early life: …to become his alter ego—Gustave de Beaumont. Their life histories are virtual mirror images. Of similar backgrounds and positions, they were companions in their travels in America, England, and Algeria, coordinated their writings, and ultimately entered the legislature together.

  • Beaumont, Harry (American film director)
  • Beaumont, Jean-Baptiste-Armand-Louis-Léonce élie de (French geologist)

    élie de Beaumont, geologist who prepared the great geological map of France in collaboration with the French geologist Ours Pierre Dufrénoy. Beaumont was appointed professor of geology at the école des Mines, Paris, in 1835. He was engineer in chief of mines in France from 1833 to 1847, when he was

  • Beaumont, Mme Le Prince de (French author)

    children's literature: Overview: Mme Le Prince de Beaumont, an adventurous 18th-century lady who wrote over 70 volumes for the young, thought that children’s stories should be pervaded by “the spirit of geometry.” It is possible that the blame for France’s showing might in part be laid on a…

  • Beaumont, Robert de (English noble)

    United Kingdom: Matilda and Stephen: …Beaumont family, headed by the Earl of Leicester, and their allies, who formed a powerful court faction. They planned the downfall of the bishops, and, when a council meeting was held at Oxford in June 1139, they seized on the opportunity provided by a brawl in which some of Roger’s…

  • Beaumont, Robert Gerald (American entrepreneur)

    Robert Gerald Beaumont, American entrepreneur (born April 1, 1932, Teaneck, N.J—died Oct. 24, 2011, Columbia, Md.), developed the first mass-produced electric car, the trapezoidal CitiCar, in the 1970s. After selling his Chrysler-Plymouth dealership in upstate New York, Beaumont launched (1974)

  • Beaumont, Sir John, 1st Baronet (English author)

    Sir John Beaumont, 1st Baronet, English poet whose work helped to establish the heroic couplet as a dominant verse form. His most important works are The Metamorphosis of Tobacco (1602), a mock-heroic poem; Bosworth Field (1629), a long historical poem on the Battle of Bosworth Field (1485); and

  • Beaumont, William (United States army surgeon)

    William Beaumont, U.S. army surgeon, the first person to observe and study human digestion as it occurs in the stomach. On June 6, 1822, while serving at Fort Mackinac (now in Michigan), Beaumont was summoned to Michilimackinac to treat Alexis St. Martin, a 19-year-old French-Canadian trapper, who

  • Beaune (France)

    Beaune, town, C?te-d’Or département, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, east-central France, on the Bouzaise River, southwest of Dijon. Settled since prehistoric times, it prospered under the Romans as a centre for cattle and viticulture and is still the wine capital of Burgundy. In the 3rd and 4th

  • Beauneveu, André (French sculptor)

    Western sculpture: International Gothic: …was a native of Valenciennes, André Beauneveu. His reputation was so widespread that he rather surprisingly earned a mention in the chronicles of Jean Froissart. He produced a large number of monuments, especially for King Charles V, of which several effigies survive. This sculpture, while technically good, is somewhat pedestrian…

  • Beauregard, P. G. T. (Confederate general)

    P.G.T. Beauregard, Confederate general in the American Civil War. Beauregard graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1838), and served in the Mexican-American War (1846–48) under the command of Winfield Scott. After the secession of Louisiana from the Union (January 1861),

  • Beauregard, Paul (American rap-music producer)
  • Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant (Confederate general)

    P.G.T. Beauregard, Confederate general in the American Civil War. Beauregard graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1838), and served in the Mexican-American War (1846–48) under the command of Winfield Scott. After the secession of Louisiana from the Union (January 1861),

  • Beautiful and Damned, The (novel by Fitzgerald)

    The Beautiful and Damned, novel by F. Scott Fitzgerald, published in 1922. Fitzgerald’s second novel, it concerns a handsome young married couple who choose to wait for an expected inheritance rather than involve themselves in productive, meaningful lives. Anthony Patch pursues and wins the

  • Beautiful Boy (film by Van Groeningen [2018])

    Steve Carell: Carell’s credits from 2018 included Beautiful Boy, in which he was cast as a father who tries to save his son from a consuming drug addiction, and Welcome to Marwen, a drama based on a true story of an artist who finds a therapeutic outlet in building a miniature town…

  • Beautiful Changes and Other Poems, The (work by Wilbur)

    Richard Wilbur: With The Beautiful Changes, and Other Poems (1947) and Ceremony, and Other Poems (1950), he established himself as an important young writer. These early poems are technically exquisite and formal in their adherence to the convention of rhyme and other devices.

  • Beautiful City (film by Farhadi [2004])

    Asghar Farhadi: …next made Shahr-e zībā (2004; Beautiful City), which explores the concept of justice through the story of an 18-year-old prisoner awaiting execution for the murder of his girlfriend while his sister works to save his life by trying to persuade the murdered girl’s father to give his consent for clemency.…

  • Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood, A (film by Heller [2019])

    Fred Rogers: … (2018) and the feature film A Beautiful Day in the Neighborhood (2019), starring Tom Hanks.

  • Beautiful Dreams (recording by Twiggy)

    Twiggy: …an award-winning debut single, “Beautiful Dreams,” in 1967. Formally retiring from modeling in 1970 to pursue a film career, she was featured in the romantic musical The Boy Friend (1971), for which she won two Golden Globe awards. In 1975 she published a best-selling autobiography, Twiggy, and was featured…

  • Beautiful Ellen (work by Bruch)

    Max Bruch: …orchestra—such as Sch?n Ellen (1867; Beautiful Ellen) and Odysseus (1872). These were favourites with German choral societies during the late 19th century. These works failed to remain in the concert repertoire, possibly because, despite his sound workmanship and effective choral writing, he lacked the depth of conception and originality needed…

  • Beautiful Girls (film by Demme [1996])

    Natalie Portman: …roles in the relationship drama Beautiful Girls (1996), Woody Allen’s musical Everyone Says I Love You (1996), and Tim Burton’s alien-invasion comedy Mars Attacks! (1996) before appearing as the elaborately costumed Queen Amidala in the Star Wars prequel Star Wars: Episode I—The Phantom Menace

  • Beautiful Helen (operetta by Offenbach)

    theatre music: Offenbach: …and La Belle Hélène (1864; Beautiful Helen). The character of Offenbach’s operettas established several musical precedents, including the burlesque of Italian opera, the romantic ballad in 38 or 68 metre, and the drinking song and the ensemble de perplexité (“ensemble of confusion”). In England, Arthur Sullivan followed in Offenbach’s wake…

  • Beautiful in Music, The (work by Hanslick)

    aesthetics: Post-Hegelian aesthetics: … in his Vom musikalisch-Sch?nen (1854; On the Beautiful in Music). With this work modern musical aesthetics was born, and all the assumptions made by Batteux and Hegel concerning the unity (or unity in diversity) of the arts were thrown in doubt.

  • Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park (national park, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Cultural institutions: The Beautiful Indonesia in Miniature Park (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah; “Taman Mini”), in Jakarta, is a “living museum” that highlights the current diversity of Indonesia’s peoples and lifestyles. The park contains furnished and decorated replicas of houses of various ethnic groups in Indonesia; each of these…

  • Beautiful Losers (work by Cohen)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: Leonard Cohen’s Beautiful Losers (1966) probes the relationship between sainthood, violence, eroticism, and artistic creativity. Mavis Gallant’s stories depict isolated characters whose fragile worlds of illusion are shattered (The Selected Stories of Mavis Gallant, 1996). In her collection of stories Across the Bridge (1993), she probes the…

  • Beautiful María of My Soul; or, The True Story of María García y Cifuentes, the Lady Behind a Famous Song (novel by Hijuelos)

    Oscar Hijuelos: In Beautiful María of My Soul; or, The True Story of María García y Cifuentes, the Lady Behind a Famous Song (2010), Hijuelos returned to the story of Maria, the muse of The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love, in order to examine the meaning of…

  • Beautiful Mind, A (film by Howard [2001])

    A Beautiful Mind, American biographical film, released in 2001, that told the story of American Nobel Prize winner John Nash, whose innovative work on game theory in mathematics was in many ways overshadowed by decades of mental illness. Parts of the film, which is set largely on the campus of

  • Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood, The (memoir by Coates)

    Ta-Nehisi Coates: …his first book, the memoir The Beautiful Struggle: A Father, Two Sons, and an Unlikely Road to Manhood. The critically acclaimed work was followed by Between the World and Me (2015), which became a best seller. It was written in the form of a letter from Coates to his teenage…

  • Beautiful Visit, The (novel by Howard)

    Elizabeth Jane Howard: Her first novel, The Beautiful Visit (1950), won the John Llewellyn Rhys Prize. It was followed by The Long View (1956), The Sea Change (1959), After Julius (1965), and Something in Disguise (1969). The last two were later adapted as television plays for which Howard wrote the scripts.…

  • Beautiful: The Carole King Musical (musical theatre)

    Carole King: Two years later, Beautiful: The Carole King Musical, a look at her career as a singer-songwriter, began a lengthy run on Broadway, and it opened in London’s West End in 2015. King performed all the songs, in order, from her album Tapestry in London’s Hyde Park in 2016,…

  • beauty (aesthetics)

    aesthetics: The nature and scope of aesthetics: …in the language of the beautiful and the ugly. A problem is encountered at the outset, however, for terms such as beautiful and ugly seem too vague in their application and too subjective in their meaning to divide the world successfully into those things that do, and those that do…

  • Beauty and the Beast (film by Condon [2017])

    Audra McDonald: Her film credits included Beauty and the Beast (2017), a live-action remake of the Disney animated classic.

  • Beauty and the Beast (song by Menken and Ashman)
  • Beauty and the Beast (film by Cocteau [1946])

    Jean Cocteau: Filmmaking in the 1940s: …also as a director in La Belle et la bête, a fantasy based on the children’s tale, and Orphée (1949), a re-creation of the themes of poetry and death that he had dealt with in his play.

  • Beauty and the Beast (animated film by Trousdale [1991])

    Céline Dion: …(1991), from the Disney animated feature of the same name. Before long, Dion’s evident vocal talent and emotionally driven songs had made her a worldwide phenomenon, even as some critics dismissed her music as schmaltzy and overly polished. With The Colour of My Love (1993), she scored another hit single…

  • Beauty Behind the Madness (album by the Weeknd)

    The Weeknd: …My Face,” were featured on Beauty Behind the Madness (2015). In 2016 The Weeknd won Canada’s Juno Award for artist of the year for the second consecutive year, as well as four other Junos, including album of the year. He also won Grammy Awards for best R&B performance for “Earned…

  • beauty berry (plant)
  • beauty bush (shrub)

    Beauty bush, (Kolkwitzia amabilis), ornamental flowering shrub of the Linnaea clade in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to central China. It is the only member of its genus. The beauty bush has deciduous oval leaves and can reach a maximum height of about 3 m (10 feet). Its paired bell-like

  • Beauty Is a Rare Thing (album by Coleman)

    Ornette Coleman: …simultaneously improvising jazz quartets, and Beauty Is a Rare Thing (1961), in which he successfully experimented with free metres and tempos, also proved influential.

  • beauty leaf (tree)

    Alexandrian laurel, (Calophyllum inophyllum), evergreen plant (family Calophyllaceae) cultivated as an ornamental throughout tropical areas. Alexandrian laurel ranges from East Africa to Australia and is often cultivated near the ocean; it is resistant to salt spray and has a leaning habit. Dilo, a

  • Beauty of the Husband: A Fictional Essay in 29 Tangos, The (essay by Carson)

    Anne Carson: …beauty, desire, and marriage in The Beauty of the Husband: A Fictional Essay in 29 Tangos (2001). For the work, Carson became the first woman to win the T.S. Eliot Prize. Decreation (2005), composed of poetry, essays, and opera, reflects on jealousy. The middle section of the opera libretto, called…

  • beauty product

    Cosmetic, any of several preparations (excluding soap) that are applied to the human body for beautifying, preserving, or altering the appearance or for cleansing, colouring, conditioning, or protecting the skin, hair, nails, lips, eyes, or teeth. See also makeup; perfume. The earliest cosmetics

  • beauty quark (subatomic particle)

    quark: Binding forces and massive quarks: …the “charm” (c) and “bottom” (b) quarks and their associated antiquarks, achieved through the creation of mesons, strongly suggests that quarks occur in pairs. This speculation led to efforts to find a sixth type of quark called “top” (t), after its proposed flavour. According to theory, the top quark…

  • beauty-of-the-night (plant)

    Four-o’clock, (Mirabilis jalapa) ornamental perennial plant, of the family Nyctaginaceae, native to tropical America. Four-o’clock is a quick-growing species up to one metre (three feet) tall, with oval leaves on short leafstalks. The stems are swollen at the joints. The plant is called

  • beautyberry (plant)
  • Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born, The (work by Armah)

    Ayi Kwei Armah: In his first novel, The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968), Armah showed his deep concern for greed and political corruption in a newly independent African nation. In his second novel, Fragments (1970), a young Ghanaian returns home after living in the United States and is disillusioned by…

  • Beauvais (France)

    Beauvais, town, capital of Oise département, Hauts-de-France région, northern France, at the juncture of the Thérain and Avelon rivers, north of Paris. Capital of the Bellovaci tribe, it was first called Caesaromagus, after its capture by Julius Caesar in 52 bce, and later Civitas de Bellovacis. In

  • Beauvais Cathedral (cathedral, Beauvais, France)

    Beauvais: The cathedral of Saint-Pierre was ambitiously conceived as the largest in Europe; the apse and transept have survived several collapses, and the choir (157 feet [48 metres]) remains the loftiest ever built. The whole dates from the 10th to the 16th century, with the Romanesque church…

  • Beauvais tapestry

    Beauvais tapestry, any product of the tapestry factory established in 1664 in Beauvais, Fr., by two Flemish weavers, Louis Hinart and Philippe Behagle. Although it was under the patronage of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance minister to Louis XIV, and was subsidized by the state, the Beauvais

  • Beauvais, H?tel de (building, Paris, France)

    Antoine Le Pautre: …in 1654 to design the H?tel de Beauvais on the rue Fran?ois Miron in Paris. This is considered his masterwork because of his ingenious treatment of the irregular building site, in which no side of the building is parallel to any other.

  • Beauvilliers, Antoine (French restauranteur)

    restaurant: The owner, Antoine Beauvilliers, a leading culinary writer and gastronomic authority, later wrote L’Art du cuisinier (1814), a cookbook that became a standard work on French culinary art. Beauvilliers achieved a reputation as an accomplished restaurateur and host, and the French aphorist and gastronomic chronicler Jean-Athelme Brillat-Savarin,…

  • Beauvoir (mansion, Biloxi, Mississippi, United States)

    Biloxi: Beauvoir, the home of former Confederate president Jefferson Davis for the last 12 years of his life, is 5 miles (8 km) west; it was heavily damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The hurricane also destroyed both the Ohr-O’Keefe Museum of Art and its new…

  • Beauvoir, Fran?ois Max Gesner (Haitian religious leader)

    Max Beauvoir, (Fran?ois Max Gesner Beauvoir), Haitian religious leader (born Aug. 25, 1936, Pétionville, Haiti—died Sept. 12, 2015, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), was for many years the public face and most widely known practitioner of the traditional Afro-Haitian religion Vodou; in 2008 his fellow

  • Beauvoir, Max (Haitian religious leader)

    Max Beauvoir, (Fran?ois Max Gesner Beauvoir), Haitian religious leader (born Aug. 25, 1936, Pétionville, Haiti—died Sept. 12, 2015, Port-au-Prince, Haiti), was for many years the public face and most widely known practitioner of the traditional Afro-Haitian religion Vodou; in 2008 his fellow

  • Beauvoir, Simone de (French writer)

    Simone de Beauvoir, French writer and feminist, a member of the intellectual fellowship of philosopher-writers who have given a literary transcription to the themes of Existentialism. She is known primarily for her treatise Le Deuxième Sexe, 2 vol. (1949; The Second Sex), a scholarly and passionate

  • Beaux Arts Coffeehouse (coffeehouse, Pinellas Park, Florida, United States)

    Jim Morrison: …reciting poetry at the local Beaux Arts coffeehouse. He subsequently transferred to Florida State University and then to the University of California, Los Angeles, where he studied film. There he met Ray Manzarek, who played the organ in the rock group that the two formed in 1965 with guitarist Robby…

  • Beaux Arts réduits à un même principe, Les (work by Batteux)

    aesthetics: Major concerns of 18th-century aesthetics: …Batteux in a book entitled Les Beaux Arts réduits à un même principe (1746; “The Fine Arts Reduced to a Single Principle”). This diffuse and ill-argued work contains the first modern attempt to give a systematic theory of art and aesthetic judgment that will show the unity of the phenomena…

  • Beaux Arts, Musée des (museum, Dijon, France)

    Dijon: … (town hall) and contains the Musée des Beaux Arts. The magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold (1342–1404) and John the Fearless (1371–1419), dukes of Burgundy, are found there. A psychiatric hospital now stands on the site of the Chartreuse de Champmol, a Carthusian monastery founded by Philip the Bold in…

  • Beaux Arts, Musée des (museum, Valenciennes, France)

    Valenciennes: …University of Valenciennes and the Museum of Fine Arts, which displays works by such masters as Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony Van Dyck, as well as notable local painters, including Antoine Watteau and Henri Harpignies. Pop. (1999) 41,278; (2014 est.) 43,787.

  • Beaux livres, belles histoires (children’s literature)

    children's literature: Overview: …1937, in their introduction to Beaux livres, belles histoires, the compilers Marguerite Gruny and Mathilde Leriche wrote: “Children’s literature in France is still poor, despite the earnest efforts of the last decade.”

  • Beaux’ Stratagem, The (play by Farquhar)

    The Beaux’ Stratagem, five-act comedy by George Farquhar, produced and published in 1707. Farquhar finished the play on his deathbed and died on the night of its third performance. The story concerns Archer and Aimwell, two penniless antic rakes from London who decide that in order to end their

  • Beaux, Cecilia (American painter)

    Cecilia Beaux, American painter, considered one of the finest portrait painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Beaux was left by her widowed father to be reared by relatives in New York City and later West Philadelphia. She was educated at home and for two years at a Philadelphia

  • Beaux, Eliza Cecilia (American painter)

    Cecilia Beaux, American painter, considered one of the finest portrait painters of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Beaux was left by her widowed father to be reared by relatives in New York City and later West Philadelphia. She was educated at home and for two years at a Philadelphia

  • Beaux-Arts, Académie des (academy, Paris, France)

    Paul Cézanne: Early life and work: …Gustave Courbet, and the official Académie des Beaux-Arts, which rejected from its annual exhibition—and thus from public acceptance—all paintings not in the academic Neoclassical or Romantic styles. In 1863 the emperor Napoleon III decreed the opening of a Salon des Refusés to counter the growing agitation in artistic circles over…

  • Beaux-Arts, école des (school, Paris, France)

    école des Beaux-Arts, school of fine arts founded (as the Académie Royale d’Architecture) in Paris in 1671 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister of Louis XIV; it merged with the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (founded in 1648) in 1793. The school offered instruction in drawing, painting,

  • Beaven, Jeffrey Scott (Canadian film critic)

    Jay Scott, (JEFFREY SCOTT BEAVEN), U.S.-born Canadian film critic (born Oct. 4, 1949, Lincoln, Neb.—died July 30, 1993, Toronto, Ont.), elevated film criticism to an art with his insightful, witty, and influential reviews, which graced the pages of the Toronto-based Globe and Mail from 1977 until h

  • Beaver (people)

    Beaver, a small Athabaskan-speaking North American First Nations (Indian) band living in the mountainous riverine areas of northwestern Alberta and northeastern British Columbia, Canada. In the early 18th century they were driven westward into that area by the expanding Cree, who, armed with guns,

  • beaver (rodent)

    Beaver, (genus Castor), either of two species of amphibious rodents native to North America, Europe, and Asia. Beavers are the largest rodents in North America and Eurasia and the second largest rodents worldwide. Their bodies extend up to 80 cm (31 inches) long and generally weigh 16–30 kg (35–66

  • Beaver (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Beaver, county, western Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered to the west by Ohio and West Virginia. It consists of a hilly region on the Allegheny Plateau drained by the Ohio and Beaver rivers. Other waterways include Ambridge Reservoir, Brush Creek, and Raccoon Creek, which runs through Raccoon Creek

  • Beaver (steamboat)

    Vancouver: The SS Beaver, which was the first steamboat to operate on the Pacific Ocean north of San Francisco (1836), was assembled there after arriving under sail from England with engines and paddle wheels as deck cargo.

  • Beaver (aircraft)

    history of flight: General aviation: …rugged example known as the Beaver, built by De Havilland’s Canadian firm. With a big radial engine of 450 horsepower (or more), the high-wing Beaver could carry six to seven people (often more), or about 1,700 pounds (770 kg) of payload (usually more). The Beaver’s moderate size allowed pilots to…

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