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  • Begg, Isoleen Heather (New Zealand opera singer)

    Dame Heather Begg, (Isoleen Heather Begg), New Zealand opera singer (born Dec. 1, 1932, Nelson, N.Z.—died May 12, 2009, Sydney, Australia), delighted international audiences with her rich mezzo-soprano voice and dramatic talent for playing matrons, confidants, and spinsters. Although she trained at

  • Beggar’s Opera, The (work by Gay)

    The Beggar’s Opera, a ballad opera in three acts by John Gay, performed at Lincoln’s Inn Fields Theatre, London, in 1728 and published in the same year. The work combines comedy and political satire in prose interspersed with songs set to contemporary and traditional English, Irish, Scottish, and

  • Beggar’s Opera, The (painting by Hogarth)

    William Hogarth: Youth and early career: …by his first dated painting, The Beggar’s Opera (1728), a scene from John Gay’s popular farce, which emphasized Hogarth’s prevailing interests: his involvement with the theatre and with down-to-earth, comic subjects. Closely attentive to realistic detail, he recorded the scene exactly as it appeared to the audience and included portraits…

  • Beggar, The (work by Karkavitsas)

    Greek literature: Demoticism and folklorism, 1880–1922: The novel O zitiános (1896; The Beggar), by Andréas Karkavítsas, satirically depicts the economic and cultural deprivation of the rural population. From about 1910 this critical attitude is further reflected in the prose writing of Konstantínos Chatzópoulos and Konstantínos Theotókis. Meanwhile Grigórios Xenópoulos wrote novels with an urban setting and…

  • Beggar-My-Neighbour (card game)

    card game: Origins: …so-called children’s games, such as beggar-my-neighbour and old maid, derive from old drinking and gambling games. Other families of games, particularly non-trick-taking games, reached Europe from the Far East, especially from China. They include the casino family (17th century), the rummy family (19th century), which probably derived from

  • beggar-thy-neighbor policy (economics)

    Beggar-thy-neighbor policy, in international trade, an economic policy that benefits the country that implements it while harming that country’s neighbours or trading partners. It usually takes the form of some kind of trade barrier imposed on the neighbours or trading partners or a devaluation of

  • beggar-tick (plant genus)

    Bidens, cosmopolitan genus of weedy herbs in the family Asteraceae, consisting of about 230 species. Bidens plants are variously known as bur marigold, sticktights, and tickseed sunflowers. They are characterized by fruits with two to four barbed bristles that become attached to animal coats or to

  • Beggars Banquet (album by the Rolling Stones)

    the Rolling Stones: First original hits: (I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction and Get off My Cloud: …blues-rock roots, and the album Beggars Banquet. Replacing Jones with the virtuosic but self-effacing guitarist Mick Taylor, they returned to the road in 1969, almost instantly becoming rock’s premier touring attraction.

  • Beggars of Life (film by Wellman [1928])

    Louise Brooks: …Port (1928) and William Wellman’s Beggars of Life (1928). Her performances attracted the attention of the German director G.W. Pabst, who cast her as the amoral self-destructive temptress Lulu in Die Büchse der Pandora (1929; Pandora’s Box). Brooks’s haunting performance in this film and as the 16-year-old girl who is…

  • begging the question (logic)

    fallacy: Material fallacies: (4) The fallacy of circular argument, known as petitio principii (“begging the question”), occurs when the premises presume, openly or covertly, the very conclusion that is to be demonstrated (example: “Gregory always votes wisely.” “But how do you know?” “Because he always votes Libertarian.”). A special form…

  • Beghards (lay religious group)

    history of Europe: Devotional life: …all-male communities and were called Beghards) who lived together in devotional communities within towns, especially in the Low Countries and the Rhineland, followed no rule, and took no vow. They worked in the towns but lived collectively and might leave for marriage or another form of life at any time.…

  • Beghinselen der Weeghconst, De (work by Stevin)

    Simon Stevin: In De Beghinselen der Weeghconst (1586; “Statics and Hydrostatics”) Stevin published the theorem of the triangle of forces. The knowledge of this triangle of forces, equivalent to the parallelogram diagram of forces, gave a new impetus to the study of statics, which had previously been founded…

  • Begich, Mark (United States senator)

    Dan Sullivan: He narrowly defeated Democratic incumbent Mark Begich in the general election. After taking office in 2014, Sullivan largely pursued a conservative agenda, and he publicly voiced opposition to same-sex marriage and amnesty or a path to citizenship for illegal immigrants.

  • Begin the Beguine (song by Porter)

    Julio Iglesias: …Iglesias’s Spanish version of “Begin the Beguine” by Cole Porter became the first all-Spanish song to reach number one on the British music charts.

  • Begin, Menachem (prime minister of Israel)

    Menachem Begin, Zionist leader who was prime minister of Israel from 1977 to 1983. Begin was the corecipient, with Egyptian Pres. Anwar el-Sādāt, of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Peace for their achievement of a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt that was formally signed in 1979. Begin received a law

  • Begin, Menachem Wolfovitch (prime minister of Israel)

    Menachem Begin, Zionist leader who was prime minister of Israel from 1977 to 1983. Begin was the corecipient, with Egyptian Pres. Anwar el-Sādāt, of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Peace for their achievement of a peace treaty between Israel and Egypt that was formally signed in 1979. Begin received a law

  • Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code (computer language)

    BASIC, Computer programming language developed by John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz (b. 1928) at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. One of the simplest high-level languages, with commands similar to English, it can be learned with relative ease even by schoolchildren and novice programmers. Since

  • Beginners (film by Mills [2011])
  • Beginners (short story by Carver)

    Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance): …of Raymond Carver’s short story “What We Talk About When We Talk About Love.” The film draws viewers behind the scenes of the fraught production and into Thomson’s mind. The character of Birdman taunts Thomson whenever he is alone, and Thomson exhibits magical powers under Birdman’s influence, but it is…

  • Beginners, The (novel by Jacobson)

    Dan Jacobson: With The Beginners (1966), a long generational novel paralleling his own family history, Jacobson began to shift away from writing about South Africa. The Rape of Tamar (1970) and Her Story (1987) are biblical novels, and The Confessions of Josef Baisz (1977) is set in a…

  • Beginning of the Great Revival (motion picture [2011])

    Chow Yun-Fat: …Jian dang wei ye (2011; Beginning of the Great Revival), which dramatized the events leading to the founding of the Chinese Communist Party, Chow took on the role of political leader Yuan Shikai. His later films included Tong que tai (2012; The Assassins), in which he portrayed Cao Cao, a…

  • Beginning of the World (sculpture by Brancusi)

    Constantin Brancusi: Maturity: …devoid of any detail entitled Beginning of the World; as the title suggests, for Brancusi, this ovoid mass represented the very essence of form, or a sort of primal foundation of form that the artist did not care to alter with traditional sculptural techniques of modeling.

  • Beginning or the End, The (film by Taurog [1947])

    Norman Taurog: Musical comedies and Boys Town: Taurog switched gears with The Beginning or the End (1947), a compelling docudrama about the development of the atomic bomb, with Brian Donlevy as Leslie Groves and Hume Cronyn as J. Robert Oppenheimer. Big City (1948), however, was a middling melodrama. Margaret O’Brien played a young girl who is…

  • beginning rhyme (literature)

    Beginning rhyme, in literature, the rhyme at the beginning of successive lines of verse. Lines 3 and 4 of Robert Herrick’s “To Daffodils” demonstrate beginning rhyme: The term is also used as a synonym for

  • Beginning, A (work by Moraes)

    Dom Moraes: His first book of poetry, A Beginning (1957), was published when he was only 19 years old. He produced nearly 30 books in his lifetime.

  • Beginnings of the American People, The (work by Becker)

    Carl Becker: In The Beginnings of the American People (1915), he elaborated on his doctoral work by advancing the thesis of a dual American Revolution—the first being the struggle for self-government and the second the ideological battle over the form such government should take. In The Eve of…

  • Begleiter, Lionel (British composer)

    Lionel Bart, (Lionel Begleiter), British composer, lyricist, and playwright who helped revive the British stage musical with such shows as Lock Up Your Daughters (1959), Fings Ain’t Wot They Used t’Be (1959), and especially Oliver! (1960), his greatest success; he also wrote a number of hit songs,

  • Begley, Ed (American actor)

    12 Angry Men: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Begley, Edward James (American actor)

    12 Angry Men: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Bego, Monte (mountain, France)
  • Begonia (plant)

    Begonia, (genus Begonia), any of about 1,000 species of mostly rather succulent plants in the family Begoniaceae, many with colourful flowers or leaves and used as pot plants indoors or as garden plants. They are from the tropics and subtropics. Prominent features are their usually four-coloured

  • begonia (plant)

    Begonia, (genus Begonia), any of about 1,000 species of mostly rather succulent plants in the family Begoniaceae, many with colourful flowers or leaves and used as pot plants indoors or as garden plants. They are from the tropics and subtropics. Prominent features are their usually four-coloured

  • begonia family (plant family)

    Begoniaceae, the begonia family of flowering plants in the order Cucurbitales. The Begoniaceae consists of two genera: Begonia, with some 1,000 species, and Hillebrandia, with one species. The family is distributed throughout most tropical and warm temperate regions, with a large percentage of

  • Begonia masoniana (plant)

    houseplant: Foliage plants: …with its olive-green, silver-haired foliage; B. masoniana, with beautiful green, puckered leaves splotched brown; and B. serratipetala, with small leaves spotted pink, are examples of types more resistant to dry rooms.

  • Begonia metallica (plant)

    houseplant: Foliage plants: Begonia metallica, with its olive-green, silver-haired foliage; B. masoniana, with beautiful green, puckered leaves splotched brown; and B. serratipetala, with small leaves spotted pink, are examples of types more resistant to dry rooms.

  • Begonia phyllomaniaca (plant)

    malformation: Translocation of organs: …shoot formation is found in Begonia phyllomaniaca after shock. In this instance, small plantlets develop spontaneously in incredible numbers from the superficial cell layers of the leaf blades, petioles, and stems. The adventitious shoots do not arise from preformed buds but develop from cells at the base of hairs and…

  • Begonia serratipetala (plant)

    houseplant: Foliage plants: …puckered leaves splotched brown; and B. serratipetala, with small leaves spotted pink, are examples of types more resistant to dry rooms.

  • Begoniaceae (plant family)

    Begoniaceae, the begonia family of flowering plants in the order Cucurbitales. The Begoniaceae consists of two genera: Begonia, with some 1,000 species, and Hillebrandia, with one species. The family is distributed throughout most tropical and warm temperate regions, with a large percentage of

  • Begrām (Afghanistan)

    South Asian arts: Indian sculpture from the 1st to 4th centuries ce: Mathura: Ivory plaques discovered at Bagrām (Begrām) in Afghanistan are closely related to the school of Mathura. These are of great importance; for, though ivory must have been a favourite medium of sculpture, little has been preserved of the early work. Most of it is in very low engraved relief,…

  • Begrām (Pakistan)

    Peshawar, city, central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, northern Pakistan. The city (capital of the province) lies just west of the Bara River, a tributary of the Kabul River, near the Khyber Pass. The Shahji-ki Dheri mounds, situated to the east, cover ruins of the largest Buddhist stupa in the

  • Begrebet angest (work by Kierkegaard)

    S?ren Kierkegaard: A life of collisions: Philosophical Fragments), Begrebet angest (1844; The Concept of Anxiety), Stadier paa livets vei (1845; Stages on Life’s Way), and Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript). Even after acknowledging that he had written these works, however, Kierkegaard insisted that they continue to be attributed to their pseudonymous authors. The pseudonyms…

  • Begriff der Zahl, Der (work by Husserl)

    phenomenology: Basic principles: …be found in the treatise über den Begriff der Zahl (1887; Concerning the Concept of Number), which was later expanded into Philosophie der Arithmetik: Psychologische und logische Untersuchungen (1891; Philosophy of Arithmetic: Psychological and Logical Investigations). Numbers are not found ready-made in nature but result from a mental achievement. Here…

  • Begriffsschrift: Eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formelsprache des reinen Denkens (work by Frege)

    history of logic: Gottlob Frege: …logic in the 19th century, Begriffsschrift (“Conceptual Notation”). The title was taken from Trendelenburg’s translation of Leibniz’ notion of a characteristic language. Frege’s small volume is a rigorous presentation of what would now be called the first-order predicate logic. It contains a careful use of quantifiers and predicates (although predicates…

  • Beguiled, The (film by Coppola [2017])

    Sofia Coppola: …honoured for her work in The Beguiled, a Civil War thriller about a wounded Union soldier who is taken in by the women at a Southern boarding school. In addition to helming the film, she also wrote the script, which was adapted from a novel by Thomas Cullinan.

  • Beguiled, The (film by Siegel [1971])

    Don Siegel: Films with Eastwood: Next was The Beguiled (1971), an unusual psychological drama set late in the American Civil War. Eastwood played an injured Union soldier whose arrival at a girl’s boarding school in the South leads to tension and ultimately murder. The Gothic film was initially rejected by American audiences,…

  • Beguines (lay religious group)

    Beguines, women in the cities of northern Europe who, beginning in the Middle Ages, led lives of religious devotion without joining an approved religious order. So-called “holy women” (Latin: mulieres sanctae, or mulieres religiosae) first appeared in Liège toward the end of the 12th century. Use

  • Begusarai (India)

    Begusarai, city, central Bihar state, northeastern India. It is situated in the Middle Ganges Plain, just north of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The name Begusarai is derived from serai (Persian, meaning “travelers’ lodge”), a building in the centre of the town. It is an important commercial centre on

  • Behaghel, Otto (German language scholar)

    Otto Behaghel, language scholar who specialized in studies of the German language and whose Deutsche Syntax, 4 vol. (1923–32; “German Syntax”), is a massive compilation and classification of examples of German linguistic usage from the 8th to the early 20th century. Behaghel held professorships at

  • Behagle, Philippe (Flemish weaver)

    Beauvais tapestry: …Flemish weavers, Louis Hinart and Philippe Behagle. Although it was under the patronage of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance minister to Louis XIV, and was subsidized by the state, the Beauvais works was a private enterprise.

  • Behaim, Martim (Portuguese geographer and navigator)

    Martin Behaim, navigator and geographer whose Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe is the earliest globe extant. Behaim first visited Portugal about 1480 as a merchant in the Flemish trade and, claiming to have been a pupil of the astronomer Johann Müller (Regiomontanus) at Nürnberg, became an adviser on

  • Behaim, Martin (Portuguese geographer and navigator)

    Martin Behaim, navigator and geographer whose Nürnberg Terrestrial Globe is the earliest globe extant. Behaim first visited Portugal about 1480 as a merchant in the Flemish trade and, claiming to have been a pupil of the astronomer Johann Müller (Regiomontanus) at Nürnberg, became an adviser on

  • Beham, Barthel (German engraver)

    Hans Sebald Beham: …also included Beham’s younger brother, Barthel Beham (1502–40), and Georg Pencz (c. 1500–50). All three artists, noted for their brilliant work on extremely small copper plates, grew up under the influence of Albrecht Dürer’s late classical style. It is likely that they worked in Dürer’s studio. In 1525 the trio…

  • Beham, Hans Sebald (German engraver)

    Hans Sebald Beham, German engraver who was the most prolific of the Kleinmeister (German: “Little Masters”) of engraving, so called because they produced small prints. The Kleinmeister also included Beham’s younger brother, Barthel Beham (1502–40), and Georg Pencz (c. 1500–50). All three artists,

  • Behan, Brendan (Irish author)

    Brendan Behan, Irish author noted for his earthy satire and powerful political commentary. Reared in a family active in revolutionary and left-wing causes against the British, Behan at the age of eight began what became a lifelong battle with alcoholism. After leaving school in 1937, he learned the

  • Behan, Brendan Francis (Irish author)

    Brendan Behan, Irish author noted for his earthy satire and powerful political commentary. Reared in a family active in revolutionary and left-wing causes against the British, Behan at the age of eight began what became a lifelong battle with alcoholism. After leaving school in 1937, he learned the

  • Behanzin (king of Dahomey)

    Benin: The French conquest and colonial rule: King Behanzin, who had succeeded to the Dahomean throne in 1889, resisted the French claim to Cotonou, provoking the French invasion and conquest of Dahomey in 1892–94. Behanzin was then deposed and exiled, and the kingdom of Dahomey became a French protectorate.

  • Behār (state, India)

    Bihar, state of eastern India. It is bounded by Nepal to the north and by the Indian states of West Bengal to the northeast and Uttar Pradesh to the west. In November 2000 the new state of Jharkhand was created from Bihar’s southern provinces and now forms the state’s southern and southeastern

  • Behar, Georg (British diplomat and Soviet spy)

    George Blake, British diplomat and spy for the Soviet Union. After escaping from the Netherlands at the beginning of World War II, Blake served in the Royal Navy until 1948, when he entered the Foreign Office and was appointed vice-consul in Seoul. Blake was interned (1950–53) after North Korean

  • Béhar, Yves (Swiss-born industrial designer)

    Yves Béhar, Swiss-born industrial designer and founder of the design and branding firm Fuseproject. Béhar was widely known for his work on the XO and XO-3 laptops, which were created in partnership with American digital-media scientist Nicholas Negroponte and his nonprofit organization One Laptop

  • Behavior Mechanisms in Monkeys (work by Klüver)

    Heinrich Klüver: …of Chicago (1933–63), Klüver wrote Behavior Mechanisms in Monkeys (1933), a work that had far-reaching influence on behavioral and neurological research. The Klüver–Bucy syndrome refers to the behavioral and physiological effects following the removal of the temporal lobes (comprising most of the lower cerebrum) from monkey brains.

  • Behavior Theory and Conditioning (work by Spence)

    Kenneth Wartinbee Spence: In Behavior Theory and Conditioning (1956), he related his findings to behaviour in general, as well as to specific learning systems. The strength of learning potential, in Spence’s view, is dependent both on the strength of the drive (such as hunger or sex) that the response…

  • Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology (work by Watson)

    John B. Watson: His first major work, Behavior: An Introduction to Comparative Psychology, was published in 1914. In it he argued forcefully for the use of animal subjects in psychological study and described instinct as a series of reflexes activated by heredity. He also promoted conditioned responses as the ideal experimental tool.…

  • behavioral ecology

    ecology: Areas of study: Behavioral ecology examines the ecological factors that drive behavioral adaptations. The subject considers how individuals find their food and avoid their enemies. For example, why do some birds migrate (see migration) while others are resident? Why do some animals, such as lions, live in groups…

  • behavioral economics

    John A. List: …the fields of experimental and behavioral economics. He helped to popularize the use of field experiments as viable tools for analyzing a broad set of economic questions. In 2011 he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

  • behavioral genetics

    Behaviour genetics, the study of the influence of an organism’s genetic composition on its behaviour and the interaction of heredity and environment insofar as they affect behaviour. The question of the determinants of behavioral abilities and disabilities has commonly been referred to as the

  • behavioral isolation (biology)

    evolution: Ethological (behavioral) isolation: Sexual attraction between males and females of a given species may be weak or absent. In most animal species, members of the two sexes must first search for each other and come together. Complex courtship rituals then take place, with the male often taking…

  • behavioral pharmacology (medicine)

    Psychopharmacology, the development, study, and use of drugs for the modification of behaviour and the alleviation of symptoms, particularly in the treatment of mental disorders. One of the most striking advances in the treatment of mental illnesses in the middle of the 20th century was the

  • behavioral science

    Behavioral science, any of various disciplines dealing with the subject of human actions, usually including the fields of sociology, social and cultural anthropology, psychology, and behavioral aspects of biology, economics, geography, law, psychiatry, and political science. The term gained

  • behavioral therapy

    Behaviour therapy, the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. The concept derives primarily from work of the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, who published extensively in the 1920s and 1930s on the application of conditioning

  • behavioralism (political science)

    political science: Behavioralism: Behavioralism, which was one of the dominant approaches in the 1950s and ’60s, is the view that the subject matter of political science should be limited to phenomena that are independently observable and quantifiable. It assumes that political institutions largely reflect underlying social forces…

  • behaviour

    emotion: The physical expression of emotion: …might hesitate to call deliberate behaviour an “expression” because of the intervening conscious activity it involves. One might speak instead of such behaviour as being “out of” the emotion (as in, “he acted out of anger”). Yet the difference between the two cases is often very slight. Acting out of…

  • behaviour genetics

    Behaviour genetics, the study of the influence of an organism’s genetic composition on its behaviour and the interaction of heredity and environment insofar as they affect behaviour. The question of the determinants of behavioral abilities and disabilities has commonly been referred to as the

  • behaviour modification

    Behaviour therapy, the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. The concept derives primarily from work of the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, who published extensively in the 1920s and 1930s on the application of conditioning

  • Behaviour of the Lower Organisms (book by Jennings)

    Herbert Spencer Jennings: …contribution to zoology was his Behaviour of the Lower Organisms (1906). In this study of the reactions of individual organisms and individual response to stimuli, Jennings reported new experimental evidence of the similarity of activity and reactivity in all animals, from protozoans to man.

  • behaviour therapy

    Behaviour therapy, the application of experimentally derived principles of learning to the treatment of psychological disorders. The concept derives primarily from work of the Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, who published extensively in the 1920s and 1930s on the application of conditioning

  • behaviour, plant

    carnivorous plant: Trap types and digestion: …passive based on whether they move to capture prey. Pitfall traps, such as those found in pitcher plants, are among the most common types of traps and employ a hollow, lidded leaf filled with liquid to passively collect and digest prey. Flypaper traps can be active or passive and rely…

  • behavioural science

    Behavioral science, any of various disciplines dealing with the subject of human actions, usually including the fields of sociology, social and cultural anthropology, psychology, and behavioral aspects of biology, economics, geography, law, psychiatry, and political science. The term gained

  • behaviourism (economics)

    Herbert A. Simon: …decision making known as “behaviourism.” In his influential book Administrative Behavior (1947), Simon sought to replace the highly simplified classical approach to economic modeling—based on a concept of the single decision-making, profit-maximizing entrepreneur—with an approach that recognized multiple factors that contribute to decision making. According to Simon, this theoretical…

  • behaviourism (psychology)

    Behaviourism, a highly influential academic school of psychology that dominated psychological theory between the two world wars. Classical behaviourism, prevalent in the first third of the 20th century, was concerned exclusively with measurable and observable data and excluded ideas, emotions, and

  • behaviourist semantics (study of meaning)

    semantics: Behaviourist semantics: In an effort to render linguistic meaning public and the study of linguistic meaning more “scientific,” the American psychologist B.F. Skinner (1904–90) proposed that the correct semantics for a natural language is behaviouristic: the meaning of an expression, as uttered on a particular…

  • Behbahān (Iran)

    Behbehān, town, southwestern Iran, in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near the Mārūn River. The largely mountainous county extends to Mt. Dīnār and has tribal populations. The town prospers through development of the neighbouring oil fields. It lies on an ancient trade route and connects by

  • Behbahani, Simin (Iranian poet)

    Simin Behbahani, Iranian poet who earned the sobriquet “the lioness of Iran” for eloquently challenging national authorities and expressing her steadfast opposition to oppression and violence in more than 600 poems. Prior to her birth, Khalili’s father, an editor and writer, was temporarily exiled

  • Behbehān (Iran)

    Behbehān, town, southwestern Iran, in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains near the Mārūn River. The largely mountainous county extends to Mt. Dīnār and has tribal populations. The town prospers through development of the neighbouring oil fields. It lies on an ancient trade route and connects by

  • Beh?et syndrome (pathology)

    digestive system disease: Mouth and oral cavity: In a more serious condition, Beh?et syndrome, similar ulcers occur in the mouth and on the genitalia, and the eyes may become inflamed.

  • Behdesīr (Iran)

    Kermān, city, provincial capital, and ostān (province), southeastern Iran. The city lies on a sandy plain, 5,738 feet (1,749 metres) above sea level, under barren rocky hills. Surrounded by mountains on the north and east, it has a cool climate and frequent sandstorms in the autumn and spring. The

  • Behdet (Egypt)

    Idfū, town on the west bank of the Nile River in Aswān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Upper Egypt. The chief god of the city of ancient times was Horus of the Winged Disk, called the Behdetite. His consort was Hathor of Dandarah, whose statue during the late empire was brought to Idfū annually by boat on

  • Behe, Michael (American molecular biologist)

    evolution: Intelligent design and its critics: In Michael Behe’s book Darwin’s Black Box: The Biochemical Challenge to Evolution (1996), an irreducibly complex system is defined as being “composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to…

  • beheading (capital punishment)

    Beheading, a mode of executing capital punishment by which the head is severed from the body. The ancient Greeks and Romans regarded it as a most honourable form of death. Before execution the criminal was tied to a stake and whipped with rods. In early times an ax was used, but later a sword,

  • Beheading of St. John the Baptist, The (work by Caravaggio)

    Caravaggio: Naples, Malta, Sicily, Naples, Porto Ercole: 1606–10: …largest of all his paintings, The Beheading of St. John, for the oratory of the conventual church, now cocathedral, of Valletta in Malta. The painting was to be accepted in lieu of his passaggio, the payment due from any knight on entering the order. It shows St. John’s gruesome beheading…

  • Beheira, Al- (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Bu?ayrah, mu?āfa?ah (governorate) of the Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. It embraces the whole of the delta west of the Rosetta Branch, with a considerable desert region to the south. The capital and largest city is Damanhūr; other principal towns are Idkū, Kafr Salim, and Rosetta (Rashīd), where

  • Behemoth (Old Testament)

    Behemoth, in the Old Testament, a powerful, grass-eating animal whose “bones are tubes of bronze, his limbs like bars of iron” (Job 40:18). Among various Jewish legends, one relates that the righteous will witness a spectacular battle between Behemoth and Leviathan in the messianic era and later

  • Behemoth; or, The Long Parliament (work by Hobbes)

    Thomas Hobbes: Political philosophy: …of which are represented in Behemoth; or, The Long Parliament (1679), his history of the English Civil Wars. Hobbes produced the first English translation of Thucydides’ History of the Peloponnesian War, which he thought contained important lessons for his contemporaries regarding the excesses of democracy, the worst kind of dilution…

  • Beheshti, Mohammad Hosayn (Iranian cleric)

    Mohammad Hosayn Beheshti, Iranian cleric who played a key role in establishing Iran as an Islamic republic in 1979. As a Shī?ite religious scholar of some note, he was addressed with the honorific ayatollah. Beheshti studied with the noted Shī?ite cleric Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, of whom he

  • behind (sports)

    Australian rules football: Play of the game: …from each goalpost to its behind post is called the behind line.

  • Behind the Beautiful Forevers (play by Hare)

    Sir David Hare: Behind the Beautiful Forevers (2014) was a stage adaptation of a nonfiction volume about a poverty-stricken area of Mumbai. The Moderate Soprano (2015) dramatized the founding of the Glyndebourne Festival Opera by John Christie and his wife, opera singer Audrey Mildmay.

  • Behind the Candelabra (television film by Soderbergh [2013])

    Steven Soderbergh: Ocean’s series and Magic Mike: …antidepressants has criminal consequences, and Behind the Candelabra, about a romantic relationship that the entertainer Liberace (Michael Douglas) began with a young man (Damon) in the late 1970s. The latter was produced by and for the cable network HBO, though it was released theatrically outside the United States; Soderbergh won…

  • Behind the Green Curtains (play by O’Casey)

    Sean O'Casey: …a satire on Dublin intellectuals, Behind the Green Curtains (published 1961).

  • Behind the Log (poetry by Pratt)

    E.J. Pratt: Behind the Log (1947) commemorates the heroism of the Canadian convoy fleet running supplies to Murmansk during World War II.

  • Behind the Mask (film by Hurst [1958])

    Vanessa Redgrave: Early life and career: …appeared in her first film, Behind the Mask, in 1958 but concentrated mostly on stage work throughout the late ’50s and early ’60s and was a member of the Royal Shakespeare Company in Stratford-upon-Avon during the 1959–60 season. Her film career began in earnest in 1966; within the space of…

  • Behind the Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge (work by Lorenz)

    Konrad Lorenz: …einer Naturgeschichte menschlichen Erkennens (1973; Behind the Mirror: A Search for a Natural History of Human Knowledge), Lorenz examined the nature of human thought and intelligence and attributed the problems of modern civilization largely to the limitations his study revealed.

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