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  • Beira (historical province, Portugal)

    Beira, former principality and historical province, north-central Portugal, extending from the banks of the Douro River in the north to the upper course of the Tagus in the southeast and from the Spanish frontier in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The region was reconquered from the

  • Beira Alta (province, Portugal)

    Portugal: Northern interior: …of the Spanish Meseta, are Beira Alta and Beira Baixa.

  • Beira Baixa (province, Portugal)

    Portugal: Northern interior: …Meseta, are Beira Alta and Beira Baixa.

  • Beira Litoral (province, Portugal)

    Portugal: Land: The old coastal provinces of Beira Litoral and Estremadura are transitional in cultural landscape, vegetation, and climate but southern in relief and geology.

  • Beiringraja binoculata (fish)
  • Beirut (film by Anderson [2018])

    Jon Hamm: …next year he starred in Beirut, portraying Mason Skiles, a former U.S. diplomat mediating a hostage situation in the midst of the Lebanese civil war, and the ensemble comedy Tag, playing a member of a group of friends involved in an epic match of the children’s game. Hamm assumed the…

  • Beirut (national capital, Lebanon)

    Beirut, capital, chief port, and largest city of Lebanon. It is located on the Mediterranean coast at the foot of the Lebanon Mountains. Beirut is a city of baffling contradictions whose character blends the sophisticated and cosmopolitan with the provincial and parochial. Before 1975 Beirut was

  • Beirut International Airport (airport, Beirut, Lebanon)

    Lebanon: Transportation: Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (until 2005 known as Beirut International Airport) was one of the busiest airports in the Middle East before the civil war. Its runways were built to handle the largest jet airplanes in service, and a number of international airlines used Beirut…

  • Beirut, American University of (university, Beirut, Lebanon)

    American University of Beirut, private, nondenominational, coeducational international and intercultural university in Beirut, Lebanon, chartered in 1863 by the state of New York, U.S., as the Syrian Protestant College. Classes started in 1866. Although founded by the American Protestant Mission to

  • Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (airport, Beirut, Lebanon)

    Lebanon: Transportation: Beirut–Rafic Hariri International Airport (until 2005 known as Beirut International Airport) was one of the busiest airports in the Middle East before the civil war. Its runways were built to handle the largest jet airplanes in service, and a number of international airlines used Beirut…

  • beisa (mammal)

    Beisa, African antelope, a race of the species Oryx gazella. See

  • Beisān (Israel)

    Bet She?an, town, northeastern Israel, principal settlement in the low ?Emeq Bet She?an (?emeq, “valley”), site of one of the oldest inhabited cities of ancient Palestine. It is about 394 ft (120 m) below sea level. Overlooking the town to the north is Tel Bet She?an (Arabic Tall al-?u?n), one of

  • Beisan (Turkey)

    World War I: The Turkish fronts, 1918: …rail line at ?Afula and Beisān, some 60 miles behind the Turkish front, could be reached by a strategic “bound” of his cavalry and that their fall would isolate the two Turkish armies in the west.

  • Beishouling culture (anthropology)

    China: 5th millennium bce: The lower stratum of the Beishouling culture is represented by finds along the Wei and Jing rivers; bowls, deep-bodied jugs, and three-footed vessels, mainly red in colour, were common. The lower stratum of the related Banpo culture, also in the Wei River drainage area, was characterized by cord-marked red or…

  • Beissel, Conrad (American religious leader)

    Conrad Beissel, hymn writer and founder of the Ephrata religious community (1732). The posthumous son of a German baker, Beissel experienced a religious conversion at the age of 27 and migrated to America in 1720. He joined the Dunkers in Pennsylvania (1724) but withdrew from them when he became

  • Beissel, Johann Conrad (American religious leader)

    Conrad Beissel, hymn writer and founder of the Ephrata religious community (1732). The posthumous son of a German baker, Beissel experienced a religious conversion at the age of 27 and migrated to America in 1720. He joined the Dunkers in Pennsylvania (1724) but withdrew from them when he became

  • Beiswanger, George (American critic)

    dance criticism: The 20th century: …was the American philosophy professor George Beiswanger. He maintained that accurate observation and faithful description were the critic’s obligations, which he articulated as “translating signs and symbols into images and feelings, conceptions and beliefs.”

  • Beit Alfa (archaeological site, Israel)

    Bet Alfa, ancient site in northeastern Israel, noted for the remains of a synagogue (founded 6th century ad) that was discovered in 1928 by kibbutz workers digging drainage ditches. The kibbutz was founded in 1922 by Polish Jewish immigrants, who revived the historical name of Bet Alfa for their

  • Beit Alpha (archaeological site, Israel)

    Bet Alfa, ancient site in northeastern Israel, noted for the remains of a synagogue (founded 6th century ad) that was discovered in 1928 by kibbutz workers digging drainage ditches. The kibbutz was founded in 1922 by Polish Jewish immigrants, who revived the historical name of Bet Alfa for their

  • Beit Bridge (Zimbabwe)

    Beit Bridge, town, southern Zimbabwe. It lies near the bridge across the Limpopo River named for Alfred Beit, a British South African financier. The bridge is situated on the border with Limpopo province, South Africa, opposite Musina and is a port of entry and a customs and immigration post. The

  • Beit Giorgis (church, Ethiopia)

    Lalībela: House of Giyorgis, cruciform in shape, is carved from a sloping rock terrace. House of Golgotha contains Lalībela’s tomb, and House of Mariam is noted for its frescoes. The interiors were hollowed out into naves and given vaulted ceilings.

  • Beit Medhane Alem (church, Ethiopia)

    Lalībela: House of Medhane Alem (“Saviour of the World”) is the largest church, 109 feet (33 metres) long, 77 feet (23 metres) wide, and 35 feet (10 metres) deep. House of Giyorgis, cruciform in shape, is carved from a sloping rock terrace. House of Golgotha contains Lalībela’s tomb,…

  • Beitbridge (Zimbabwe)

    Beit Bridge, town, southern Zimbabwe. It lies near the bridge across the Limpopo River named for Alfred Beit, a British South African financier. The bridge is situated on the border with Limpopo province, South Africa, opposite Musina and is a port of entry and a customs and immigration post. The

  • Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums über die franz?sische Revolution (work by Fichte)

    Johann Gottlieb Fichte: Early life and career: …remarkable political works, of which Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums über die franz?sische Revolution (“Contribution to the Correction of the Public’s Judgments Regarding the French Revolution”) was the more important. It was intended to explain the true nature of the French Revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right…

  • Beitr?ge zur Analyse der Empfindungen (work by Mach)

    Ernst Mach: …zur Analyse der Empfindungen (1886; Contributions to the Analysis of the Sensations, 1897), Mach advanced the concept that all knowledge is derived from sensation; thus, phenomena under scientific investigation can be understood only in terms of experiences, or “sensations,” present in the observation of the phenomena. This view leads to…

  • Beitr?ge zur Begründung der transfiniten Mengelehre (work by Cantor)

    Georg Cantor: Transfinite numbers: …in English under the title Contributions to the Founding of the Theory of Transfinite Numbers, 1915). This work contains his conception of transfinite numbers, to which he was led by his demonstration that an infinite set may be placed in a one-to-one correspondence with one of its subsets. By the…

  • Beitr?ge zur Biologie der Pflanzen (German science journal)

    Ferdinand Cohn: …founded a new journal entitled Beitr?ge zur Biologie der Pflanzen (“Contributions to the Biology of Plants”), in which he played such a large part that it came to be known as “Cohn’s Beitr?ge.” Many of the founding papers of bacteriology were to be published in this journal.

  • Beitr?ge zur Genauern Kenntniss der ehstnischen Sprache (Estonian journal)

    Estonian literature: The philological journal Beitr?ge zur Genauern Kenntniss der ehstnischen Sprache (“Contributions to a Better Understanding of the Estonian Language”) contained examples of folk poetry and essays, including work by the first native Estonian poet, Kristjan Jaak Peterson. More significant for literature was an epic, Kalevipoeg (1857–61; “The Son…

  • Beitr?ge zur Historie und Aufnahme des Theaters (German periodical)

    Gotthold Ephraim Lessing: Education and first dramatic works.: …a periodical of his own, Beitr?ge zur Historie und Aufnahme des Theaters (“Contributions to the History and Improvement of the Theatre”), which was discontinued in 1750.

  • Beitr?ge zur Poesie mit besonderer Hinweisung auf Goethe (work by Eckermann)

    Johann Peter Eckermann: …attention by sending him his Beitr?ge zur Poesie mit besonderer Hinweisung auf Goethe (“Helps Toward Understanding Poetry with Special Instructions on Goethe”), which contained sensitive appreciations of Goethe’s work. Goethe invited Eckermann to Weimar, where he became Goethe’s unpaid literary assistant. Eckermann also acted as tutor to the son of…

  • Beitr?ge zur Sprachenkunde (work by Gabelentz)

    Hans Conon von der Gabelentz: His Beitr?ge zur Sprachenkunde (1852; “Contributions to Linguistics”) included grammars of Dakota and other little-known languages.

  • Beitr?ge zur Vogelkunde (German publication)

    Berlin Zoo: …Garten (“The Zoological Garden”) and Beitr?ge zur Vogelkunde (“Contributions to Ornithology”), as well as the lay-oriented Milu.

  • Beiwenquan Park (park, Chongqing, China)

    Chongqing: Cultural life: …the well-known hot springs of Beiwenquan Park, along the Jialing River. Visitors come to relax, often soaking for hours in one of the numerous baths filled with warm mineral water, or they swim in one of the three Olympic-sized pools, which are also fed by the hot springs.

  • Beixin culture (anthropology)

    China: 5th millennium bce: …of the 5th millennium, the Beixin culture in central and southern Shandong and northern Jiangsu was characterized by fine clay or sand-tempered pots decorated with comb markings, incised and impressed designs, and narrow appliquéd bands. Artifacts include many three-legged, deep-bodied tripods, gobletlike serving vessels, bowls, and pot supports. Hougang (lower…

  • Béja (Tunisia)

    Béja, town in northern Tunisia, located in the hills on the northern edge of the Majardah (Medjerda) valley. Béja is built on the site of ancient Vacca (or Vaga)—a Punic town and Roman colony. It became an important agricultural market beginning in the 1st century bce and was conquered by the

  • Beja (Portugal)

    Afonso I: …beyond the Tagus River, annexing Beja in 1162 and évora in 1165; in attacking Badajoz, he was taken prisoner but then released. He married Mafalda of Savoy and associated his son, Sancho I, with his power. By the time of his death he had created a stable and independent monarchy.

  • Beja (people)

    Beja, nomadic people grouped into tribes and occupying mountain country between the Red Sea and the Nile and Atbara rivers from the latitude of Aswān southeastward to the Eritrean Plateau—that is, from southeastern Egypt through Sudan and into Eritrea. Numbering about 1.9 million in the early 21st

  • Beja language

    Cushitic languages: …Cushitic family: North Cushitic, or Beja; Central Cushitic (also known as Agau [Agaw, Agew]), with languages such as Bilin, Kemant, Kwara, Xamtage, and Awngi; South Cushitic (spoken mainly in Tanzania), including Iraqw, Burunge, and Gorowa, the hybrid language Ma?a/Mbugu, and (in Kenya) Dahalo; Highland East Cushitic, including Burji,

  • Beja?a (Algeria)

    Beja?a, town, Mediterranean Sea port, northeastern Algeria. The town lies at the mouth of the Wadi Soummam. Sheltered by Mount Gouraya (2,165 feet [660 metres]) and Cape Carbon, it receives an annual average rainfall of 40 inches (1,000 mm) and is surrounded by a fertile plain. The older town,

  • Béjart family (French theatrical family)

    Béjart family, French theatrical family of the 17th century closely associated with the playwright Molière. Its members include the brothers and sisters Joseph, Madeleine, Geneviève, Armande, and Louis. Joseph Béjart (c. 1616–59) was a strolling player and later a member of Molière’s first company

  • Béjart, Armande (French actress)

    Armande Béjart, French actress, member of the Béjart family, and wife of the playwright Molière. The exact date and place of Armande’s birth has long generated controversy, for although documents show her to be Madeleine Béjart’s sister, contemporary gossip had it that she was Madeleine’s daughter.

  • Béjart, Armande-Grésinde-Claire-élisabeth (French actress)

    Armande Béjart, French actress, member of the Béjart family, and wife of the playwright Molière. The exact date and place of Armande’s birth has long generated controversy, for although documents show her to be Madeleine Béjart’s sister, contemporary gossip had it that she was Madeleine’s daughter.

  • Béjart, Geneviève (French actress)

    Geneviève Béjart, French actress and early member of Molière’s Illustre Théatre company. Geneviève played as Mlle Hervé, adopting her mother’s name. She acted with the Béjart family company managed by her sister Madeleine before they joined forces with Molière. She attained note as a

  • Béjart, Joseph (French actor)

    Joseph Béjart, French actor, a strolling player who later joined Molière’s first company, the Illustre-Théatre. Accompanying Molière in his theatrical wanderings, Béjart created the parts of Lélie and éraste in the playwright’s L’étourdi (1653; The Blunderer) and Dépit amoureux (1654; The Amorous

  • Béjart, Louis (French actor)

    Louis Béjart, French actor, a member of the famous Béjart family theatrical troupe, and an original member of Molière’s Illustre Théatre company. Louis created many parts in Molière’s plays, including Valère in Dépit amoureux, Dubois in Le Misanthrope (1666), Alcantor in Le Mariage forcé (1664; The

  • Béjart, Madeleine (French actress and theatrical manager)

    Madeleine Béjart, French actress and theatrical manager, a member of the Béjart family, and an intimate friend of the playwright Molière. Madeleine Béjart is reputed to have persuaded Molière to take to the theatre. Together with her and a group of other actors he formed an acting company, the

  • Béjart, Maurice (French dancer)

    Maurice Béjart, French-born dancer, choreographer, and opera director known for combining classic ballet and modern dance with jazz, acrobatics, and musique concrète (electronic music based on natural sounds). After studies in Paris, Béjart toured with the Ballets de Paris de Roland Petit

  • bejel (disease)

    Bejel, chronic infection characterized by eruptions initially in the mouth and on the skin and typically later involving the bones. Bejel is a nonvenereal form of syphilis. It is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum endemicum, which is closely related to T. pallidum pallidum, the cause of

  • Bejo, Bérénice (Argentine-French actress)

    The Artist: Peppy Miller (Bérénice Bejo), one of Valentin’s adoring fans, contrives to slip past the security cordon and reach Valentin’s side, where she playfully kisses him. A photograph of the kiss appears in the next day’s newspaper, captioned “Who’s That Girl?” She auditions as a dancer, and, when…

  • Beka Lamb (novel by Edgell)

    Belize: The arts: Her most widely read novel, Beka Lamb (1982), describes the emerging sense of nationalism in the 1950s in Belize City through the eyes of a young Creole girl. Another of Edgell’s novels, Time and the River (2007), looks at the slave society of Belize in the early 19th century.

  • Bekaa (valley, Lebanon)

    Al-Biqā?, broad valley of central Lebanon, extending in a northeast-southwest direction for 75 miles (120 km) along the Lī?ānī and Orontes rivers, between the Lebanon Mountains to the west and Anti-Lebanon Mountains to the east. The valley contains nearly half of Lebanon’s arable land but is not as

  • Bekabad (Uzbekistan)

    Bekabad, city, eastern Uzbekistan. It lies along both banks of the Syr River. The town arose originally in connection with a cement plant and until World War II was known as a cement and cotton centre. During World War II a small steel plant was constructed in Bekabad. It uses scrap and some pig

  • Bekasi (Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Urban settlement: cities—Jakarta, Surabaya, Bandung, and Bekasi—are on Java; the other, Medan, is located on Sumatra. These five cities may be considered metropolitan areas rather than large provincial towns, since they contain the major government, financial, and business offices. Other large cities, such as Semarang, Padang, Palembang, and Makassar (Ujungpandang), are…

  • Bekdache, Khalid (Syrian politician)

    Khalid Bakdash, Syrian politician who acquired control of the Syrian Communist Party in 1932 and remained its most prominent spokesman until 1958, when he went into exile. As a young man Bakdash went to law school in Damascus but was expelled for illegal political activity. In 1930 he joined the

  • Beke, Charles Tilstone (British explorer and biblical scholar)

    Charles Tilstone Beke, English biblical scholar, geographer, and businessman who played an important role in the final phase of the discovery of the sources of the Nile River. After beginning a business career (1820), Beke turned to the study of law. His interest in ancient and biblical history led

  • Beke, Joos van der (Netherlandish painter)

    Joos van Cleve, Netherlandish painter known for his portraits of royalty and his religious paintings. He is now often identified with the “Master of the Death of the Virgin.” In 1511 Joos van Cleve entered the Antwerp guild as a master painter, and in 1520 he was appointed dean of the guild. He

  • Bekele, Kenenisa (Ethiopian athlete)

    Kenenisa Bekele, Ethiopian long-distance runner who won Olympic gold medals in the 10,000 metres in 2004 and in both the 5,000 metres and the 10,000 metres in 2008. He later had success in the marathon. Like many of his countrymen, Bekele admired Ethiopian Olympic gold medal-winning runners Haile

  • Bekennende Kirche (German Protestant movement)

    Confessing Church, movement for revival within the German Protestant churches that developed during the 1930s from their resistance to Adolf Hitler’s attempt to make the churches an instrument of National Socialist (Nazi) propaganda and politics. The German Protestant tradition of close c

  • Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull, Die (novel by Mann)

    The Confessions of Felix Krull, Confidence Man, novel by Thomas Mann, originally published in German as Die Bekenntnisse des Hochstaplers Felix Krull in 1954; the first few chapters were published in 1922 as a short story. The novel, which was unfinished at Mann’s death, is the story of a

  • Bekenstein, Jacob (Mexican-born American-Israeli theoretical physicist)

    Jacob David Bekenstein, Mexican-born American-Israeli theoretical physicist (born May 1, 1947, Mexico City, Mex.—died Aug. 16, 2015, Helsinki, Fin.), deduced that black holes must have entropy and proposed that the entropy was proportional to the event horizon, or boundary, of the black hole. The

  • Bekenstein, Jacob David (Mexican-born American-Israeli theoretical physicist)

    Jacob David Bekenstein, Mexican-born American-Israeli theoretical physicist (born May 1, 1947, Mexico City, Mex.—died Aug. 16, 2015, Helsinki, Fin.), deduced that black holes must have entropy and proposed that the entropy was proportional to the event horizon, or boundary, of the black hole. The

  • Békés (county, Hungary)

    Békés, megye (county), southeastern Hungary, occupying a vast area of agricultural flatland on the Great Alfold (Great Hungarian Plain, or Nagy Magyar Alf?ld). It is bordered by the counties of Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok to the northwest and Hajdú-Bihar to the northeast, by Romania to the southeast and

  • Békéscsaba (Hungary)

    Békéscsaba, city of county status and seat of Békés megye (county), southeastern Hungary. A central point for road and rail communications, it is also connected by canal with the K?r?s River and serves as an agricultural and industrial centre for a large fertile countryside. A 13th-century Roman

  • Békésy, Georg von (American physicist and physiologist)

    Georg von Békésy, American physicist and physiologist who received the 1961 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the physical means by which sound is analyzed and communicated in the cochlea, a portion of the inner ear. As director of the Hungarian Telephone System Research

  • Bekhterev spondylitis (pathology)

    spondylitis: …most widely occurring forms are ankylosing spondylitis, hypertrophic spondylitis, and tuberculous spondylitis.

  • Bekhterev, Vladimir (Russian psychiatrist)

    Vladimir Bekhterev, Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who studied the formations of the brain and investigated conditioned reflexes. Bekhterev received a doctorate from the Medical-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg in 1881 and then studied abroad for four years. He returned to Russia in

  • Bekhterev, Vladimir Mikhaylovich (Russian psychiatrist)

    Vladimir Bekhterev, Russian neurophysiologist and psychiatrist who studied the formations of the brain and investigated conditioned reflexes. Bekhterev received a doctorate from the Medical-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg in 1881 and then studied abroad for four years. He returned to Russia in

  • Bekkai, Mubarak (prime minister of Morocco)

    Morocco: Independent Morocco: Mubarak Bekkai, an army officer who was not affiliated with any party, was selected as prime minister. The sultan (who officially adopted the title of king in August 1957) selected the ministers personally and retained control of the army and the police; he did, however,…

  • Bekker, August Immanuel (German philologist)

    August Immanuel Bekker, German philologist and classical scholar who prepared a great array of critical editions of many classical Greek writers. Bekker studied classics at the University of Halle and was appointed professor of philosophy at Friedrich-Wilhelm University, Berlin, in 1810. He

  • Bekobod (Uzbekistan)

    Bekabad, city, eastern Uzbekistan. It lies along both banks of the Syr River. The town arose originally in connection with a cement plant and until World War II was known as a cement and cotton centre. During World War II a small steel plant was constructed in Bekabad. It uses scrap and some pig

  • Bektashiyyah (Islamic sect)

    Bektashiyyah, order of Sufi mystics founded, according to their own traditions, by ?ājjī Bektāsh Walī of Khorāsān. It acquired definitive form in the 16th century in Anatolia (Turkey) and spread to the Ottoman Balkans, particularly Albania. Originally one of many Sufi orders within orthodox Sunni

  • Bekta?i (Islamic sect)

    Bektashiyyah, order of Sufi mystics founded, according to their own traditions, by ?ājjī Bektāsh Walī of Khorāsān. It acquired definitive form in the 16th century in Anatolia (Turkey) and spread to the Ottoman Balkans, particularly Albania. Originally one of many Sufi orders within orthodox Sunni

  • Bel (Mesopotamian god)

    Enlil, Mesopotamian god of the atmosphere and a member of the triad of gods completed by Anu (Sumerian: An) and Ea (Enki). Enlil meant Lord Wind: both the hurricane and the gentle winds of spring were thought of as the breath issuing from his mouth and eventually as his word or command. He was

  • Bel (Babylonian god)

    Marduk, in Mesopotamian religion, the chief god of the city of Babylon and the national god of Babylonia; as such, he was eventually called simply Bel, or Lord. Originally, he seems to have been a god of thunderstorms. A poem, known as Enuma elish and dating from the reign of Nebuchadrezzar I

  • Bel (Palmyran god)

    Palmyra: Bol soon became known as Bel by assimilation to the Babylonian god Bel-Marduk. Both gods presided over the movements of the stars. The Palmyrenes associated Bel with the sun and moon gods, Yarhibol and Aglibol, respectively. Another heavenly triad formed around the Phoenician god Baal Shamen, the “lord of heaven,”…

  • bel (unit of measurement)

    decibel: The term bel is derived from the name of Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone. The unit decibel is used because a one-decibel difference in loudness between two sounds is the smallest difference detectable by human hearing.

  • Bel and the Dragon (religious work)

    Bel and the Dragon, Greek apocryphal addition to the biblical Book of Daniel. It is a deuterocanonical work in that it is accepted in the Roman canon but not by Jews or Protestants. It tells of the Jewish hero Daniel, who refuses to worship the god Bel and kills the dragon, thus being forced into a

  • Bel Canto (novel by Patchett)

    Ann Patchett: With her fourth novel, Bel Canto (2001), Patchett established her prominence among contemporary writers. The novel, set somewhere in South America, explores relationships between terrorists and hostages who, shut off from the rest of the world, find unexpected bonds. One of the hostages is a renowned operatic diva, and…

  • bel canto (vocal music)

    Bel canto, (Italian: “beautiful singing”) style of operatic singing that originated in Italian singing of polyphonic (multipart) music and Italian courtly solo singing during the late 16th century and that was developed in Italian opera in the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries. Using a

  • Bel Canto (film by Weitz [2018])

    Renée Fleming: …of the King (2003) and Bel Canto (2018). She published an account of her professional development, The Inner Voice: The Making of a Singer, in 2004.

  • bel fruit (fruit and tree)

    Bel fruit, (Aegle marmelos), tree of the family Rutaceae, cultivated for its fruit. The plant is native to India and Bangladesh and has naturalized throughout much of Southeast Asia. The unripe fruit, sliced and sun-dried, is traditionally used as a remedy for dysentery and other digestive

  • Bel Geddes, Barbara (American actress)

    Barbara Bel Geddes, American actress (born Oct. 31, 1922, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 8, 2005, Northeast Harbor, Maine), first gained acclaim for her performances in such films as I Remember Mama (1948) and Vertigo (1958), for her roles on Broadway as the original Maggie in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (

  • Bel ?ajj, ?Alī (Algerian political leader)

    Ali Belhadj, deputy leader of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS), an Algerian political party. Born to Algerian parents, he became a high-school teacher and an imam. He and the more moderate Abbasi al-Madani registered FIS as a political party in 1989, and in 1990 FIS won a majority of votes in

  • bel tree (fruit and tree)

    Bel fruit, (Aegle marmelos), tree of the family Rutaceae, cultivated for its fruit. The plant is native to India and Bangladesh and has naturalized throughout much of Southeast Asia. The unripe fruit, sliced and sun-dried, is traditionally used as a remedy for dysentery and other digestive

  • Bel’s-Fire (ancient Celtic festival)

    Beltane, festival held on the first day of May in Ireland and Scotland, celebrating the beginning of summer and open pasturing. Beltane is first mentioned in a glossary attributed to Cormac, bishop of Cashel and king of Munster, who was killed in 908. Cormac describes how cattle were driven between

  • Bel, Joseph-Achille Le (French chemist)

    Joseph-Achille Le Bel, French chemist whose explanation of why some organic compounds rotate the plane of polarized light helped to advance stereochemistry. Le Bel studied at the école Polytechnique in Paris and was an assistant to A.-J. Balard and C.-A. Wurtz. He perceived that a molecule in which

  • Bel-Ami (novel by Maupassant)

    Bel-Ami, novel by Guy de Maupassant, published in 1885. Maupassant is perhaps best known as a writer of short fiction, and he utilizes the shorter form as a structuring principle for his longer productions. The hero of Bel-Ami ("Good Friend"), Georges Duroy, arrives in Paris as an innocent from the

  • Bel-ibni (king of Babylonia)

    history of Mesopotamia: Sennacherib: …puppet king of Babylonia was Bel-ibni (702–700), who had been raised in Assyria.

  • Bel-shar-usur (king of Babylonia)

    Belshazzar, coregent of Babylon who was killed at the capture of the city by the Persians. Belshazzar had been known only from the biblical Book of Daniel (chapters 5, 7–8) and from Xenophon’s Cyropaedia until 1854, when references to him were found in Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions. Though he

  • Béla futása (opera by Ruzitska)

    Ferenc Erkel: …he revived József Ruzitska’s opera Béla futása (“Béla’s Flight”), which in 1822 had been the first Hungarian opera.

  • Béla I (king of Hungary)

    Béla I, king of Hungary (1060–63) who fought a successful war against the Holy Roman emperor Henry III to defend his country’s independence. His father, Prince Vazul (also called Basil or Vászoly), was a nephew of King Stephen I. On the death of his son Imre, Stephen declared not Vazul but another

  • Béla II (king of Hungary)

    Béla II, king of Hungary (1131–41). He was the son of Prince álmos, the younger brother of King Coloman (Hungarian: Kálmán). álmos rose up against Coloman on several occasions. Coloman had álmos and Béla blinded to secure the throne for his own son Stephen. When the latter assumed the throne as

  • Béla III (king of Hungary)

    Béla III, king of Hungary (1173–96) under whom Hungary became the leading power of south-central Europe. Béla was educated at the Byzantine court and placed on the throne by force of arms by the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus in 1173. He made the Hungarian monarchy hereditary by naming his

  • Béla IV (king of Hungary)

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