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  • Bemidbar (Old Testament)

    Numbers, the fourth book of the Bible. The English title is a translation of the Septuagint (Greek) title referring to the numbering of the tribes of Israel in chapters 1–4. The book is basically the sacred history of the Israelites as they wandered in the wilderness following the departure from S

  • Bemidji (Minnesota, United States)

    Bemidji, city, seat (1897) of Beltrami county, north-central Minnesota, U.S. It lies on Lake Bemidji, about 150 miles (240 km) northwest of Duluth. Bemidji was established in 1888. Its name, first applied to the lake and then to the Ojibwa chief who in 1883 became the area’s first permanent

  • Bemidji State Normal School (university, Bemidji, Minnesota, United States)

    Bemidji State University, coeducational institution of higher learning, situated on Lake Bemidji in Bemidji, Minnesota, U.S. It is one of seven institutions in the Minnesota State University system. Bemidji State University was founded in 1919 as Bemidji State Normal School. All the normal

  • Bemidji State University (university, Bemidji, Minnesota, United States)

    Bemidji State University, coeducational institution of higher learning, situated on Lake Bemidji in Bemidji, Minnesota, U.S. It is one of seven institutions in the Minnesota State University system. Bemidji State University was founded in 1919 as Bemidji State Normal School. All the normal

  • Bemis Heights, Battle of (United States history)

    Battles of Saratoga: Second Battle of Saratoga: On October 7 Burgoyne decided he could wait no longer and launched an attack without the reinforcements. This engagement was called the Battle of Bemis Heights, also known as the Second Battle of Freeman’s Farm or the Second Battle of Saratoga.…

  • Bemis module (architecture)

    module: …in the 1930s of the Bemis 4-inch (10-centimetre in Europe) cubical module. In the 1950s an effort was made to combine into a single “number pattern” several of these modular systems to offer the designer a larger range of approved dimensions. Most architects and producers of building materials continued, however,…

  • Ben (film by Karlson [1972])

    Phil Karlson: Later films: The rodent thriller Ben (1972) was a follow-up to the surprise hit Willard (1971), directed by Daniel Mann, though it is perhaps best remembered for the theme song by Michael Jackson. After a string of largely forgettable films, Karlson found box-office success with Walking Tall (1973). The sleeper…

  • Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc. (American company)

    marketing: Marketing’s contribution to individuals and society: …PLC, based in England, and Ben & Jerry’s Homemade Inc., which produces ice cream and is based in the U.S. state of Vermont. Body Shop’s cosmetics and personal hygiene products, based on natural ingredients, are sold in recycled packaging. The products are formulated without animal testing, and a percentage of…

  • Ben Ali, Zine al-Abidine (president of Tunisia)

    Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, army officer and politician who served as president of Tunisia (1987–2011). Ben Ali was trained in France at the military academy of Saint-Cyr and at the artillery school at Chalons-sur-Marne. He also studied engineering in the United States. From 1964 to 1974 he was head

  • Ben Ali, Zine el-Abidine (president of Tunisia)

    Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali, army officer and politician who served as president of Tunisia (1987–2011). Ben Ali was trained in France at the military academy of Saint-Cyr and at the artillery school at Chalons-sur-Marne. He also studied engineering in the United States. From 1964 to 1974 he was head

  • Ben Badis, Sheikh ?Abd al-Hamid (Algerian leader)

    North Africa: Nationalist movements: …Arab Islamic nationalist movement of Sheik ?Abd al-Hamid Ben Badis. After the war the French were on the defensive, conceding independence to Tunisia and Morocco in 1956 in order to concentrate their efforts on Algeria, where a full-scale rebellion led by the National Liberation Front (FLN) broke out in 1954.…

  • Ben Barek, Larbi (Moroccan athlete)

    football: Africa: Moroccan forward Larbi Ben Barek became the first African professional in Europe, playing for Olympique de Marseille and the French national team in 1938.

  • Ben Barka, Mehdi (Moroccan politician)

    Mehdi Ben Barka, Moroccan revolutionary politician exiled to Paris whose abduction and presumed murder in October 1965 caused a political crisis for the government of French President Charles de Gaulle and led to ruptured diplomatic relations between France and Morocco for almost four years. Ben

  • Ben Bella, Ahmed (president of Algeria)

    Ahmed Ben Bella, principal leader of the Algerian War of Independence against France, the first prime minister (1962–63) and first elected president (1963–65) of the Algerian republic, who steered his country toward a socialist economy. Ben Bella was the son of a farmer and small businessman in

  • Ben Casey (American television show)

    Sydney Pollack: Early work in television and film: …later directed the TV series Ben Casey, The Fugitive, Dr. Kildare, and Bob Hope Presents the Chrysler Theatre, among others; for the latter, Pollack helmed The Game (1965) episode, which won him an Emmy Award. During that time he also acted in his first feature film, War Hunt (1962). The…

  • Ben Cruachan (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ben Cruachan, mountain in the Highlands, Argyll and Bute council area, Scot., culminating in several peaks, the highest of which is 3,689 feet (1,124 metres). It is situated between Loch (“Lake”) Etive on the north and Loch Awe on the south. The Cruachan hydroelectric scheme, at the northwestern

  • Ben Day process (printing)

    photoengraving: The benday process: An entirely mechanical procedure for production of a halftone image on a metal printing plate is the benday process (1879), named after its inventor, Benjamin Day, a New York newspaper engraver. This process utilizes a series of celluloid screens bearing raised images of…

  • Ben Djellab (North African dynasty)

    Touggourt: …of the Touggourt kings (the Ben Djellab) are clustered under a large dome. The oasis, fed by artesian wells, grows date palms, cereals, and vegetables. Located at the junction of ancient trans-Saharan caravan routes, Touggourt ships dates and trades in livestock, carpets, and woven cloth. It is the terminus of…

  • Ben Grimm (fictional character)

    Fantastic Four: Origins: …Richards’s beefy longtime friend pilot Ben Grimm. The foursome commandeered an untested spaceship of Richards’s design from the U.S. military in a frantic but unsanctioned effort to beat the Soviets into space. In orbit, the craft was flooded by cosmic rays that genetically altered its passengers. Upon returning to Earth,…

  • Ben Gurion International Airport (airport, Lod, Israel)

    Israel: Transportation: Ben Gurion International Airport in Lod is the country’s largest. Regular flights are maintained by several international airlines, with EL AL Israel Airlines Ltd., Israel’s national carrier, accounting for the largest share of the traffic. Scheduled domestic aviation and charter aviation abroad is operated by…

  • Ben Ha-Mizra? (people)

    Mizrahi Jews, the approximately 1.5 million Diaspora Jews who lived for several centuries in North Africa and the Middle East and whose ancestors did not reside in either Germany or Spain. They are thus distinguished from the two other major groups of Diaspora Jews—the Ashkenazim (German rite) and

  • Ben is Back (film by Hedges [2018])

    Julia Roberts: …return home for Christmas in Ben Is Back.

  • Ben Jelloun, Tahar (Moroccan author)

    Tahar Ben Jelloun, Moroccan-French novelist, poet, and essayist who wrote expressively about Moroccan culture, the immigrant experience, human rights, and sexual identity. While studying philosophy at Mu?ammad V University in Rabat, Ben Jelloun began to write poems for the politically charged

  • Ben Khedda, Benyoussef (Algerian leader)

    Benyoussef Ben Khedda, Algerian independence leader (born Feb. 23, 1920, Berrouaghia, Alg.—died Feb. 4, 2003, Algiers, Alg.), negotiated Algeria’s independence from France in 1962, but he was forced from power shortly thereafter. In 1943, after he protested against French attempts to recruit A

  • Ben Lomond (plateau, Tasmania, Australia)

    Ben Lomond, mountain mass in northeastern Tasmania, Australia, comprising a plateau of 30 square miles (78 square km) made up of igneous rock. It mostly lies above 4,500 feet (1,400 m), making it the highest land in the state. The loftiest portion stretches 7 miles (11 km) from Legge Peak (Legges

  • Ben Macdui (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Cairngorm Mountains: Ben Macdui, the highest mountain in the massif, with an elevation of 4,296 feet (1,309 metres), is the second highest mountain (after Ben Nevis) in the British Isles. A winter-sports industry in the Cairngorm Mountains, centred on the town of Aviemore, has developed and expanded…

  • Ben Matthias, Joseph (Jewish priest, scholar, and historian)

    Flavius Josephus, Jewish priest, scholar, and historian who wrote valuable works on the Jewish revolt of 66–70 and on earlier Jewish history. His major books are History of the Jewish War (75–79), The Antiquities of the Jews (93), and Against Apion. Flavius Josephus was born of an aristocratic

  • Ben Ner, Yitz?ak (Israeli author)

    Hebrew literature: Israeli literature: The realistic stories of Yitz?ak Ben Ner are set in rural and urban communities (She?i?ah kefarit [1976; “A Rustic Sunset”] and Ere? re?okah [1981; “A Distant Land”]). The writings of Amalia Kahana-Carmon explore the subjective impressions of experience and the complexities of time and memory through a stream-of-consciousness technique.

  • Ben Nevis (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ben Nevis, highest mountain of the British Isles, in the Highland council area, Scotland. Its summit, reaching an elevation of 4,406 feet (1,343 metres), is a plateau of about 100 acres (40 hectares), with a slight slope to the south and a sheer face to the northeast. Snow lies in some parts all

  • ben oil (plant extract)

    moringa: Ben oil, extracted from the seeds, is used by watchmakers and in cosmetics; perfume makers value it for its retention of scents.

  • ben plantada, La (work by Ors y Rovira)

    Spanish literature: The Renaixensa and after: … (pseudonym “Xenius”), whose philosophical novel La ben plantada (1911; “Firmly Rooted”) was one of the most notable works in modern Catalan literature.

  • Ben Rinnes (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ben Rinnes, mountain in the Moray council area, Scotland, situated 15 miles (24 km) southwest of Keith and about 5 miles (8 km) east of the confluence of the Rivers Avon and Spey. It reaches an elevation of 2,759 feet (841 metres). One of the notable sights associated with Ben Rinnes is the Linn of

  • Ben Salah, Ahmad (Tunisian government official)

    Tunisia: Domestic development: In 1961 Ahmad Ben Salah took charge of planning and finance. His ambitious efforts at forced-pace modernization, especially in agriculture, were foiled, however, by rural and conservative opposition. Expelled from the party and imprisoned in 1969, Ben Salah escaped in 1973 to live in exile. His fall…

  • Ben Sira (ancient Hebrew author)

    Ecclesiasticus: …Palestine around 180–175 bc by Ben Sira, who was probably a scribe well-versed in Jewish law and custom.

  • Ben Slimane (Morocco)

    Ben Slimane, town, north-central Morocco. The town, a local market centre, is situated 12 miles (20 km) inland from the Atlantic Ocean between the cities of Rabat and Casablanca. It lies at an elevation of roughly 1,000 feet (300 metres) above sea level, at the edge of the Ziada cork oak forest.

  • Ben Stiller Show, The (American television program)

    Ben Stiller: …debuted his own sketch series, The Ben Stiller Show, on MTV. Although the show was cancelled within months, a revived version aired on the Fox network in 1992–93. Featuring a young ensemble cast, The Ben Stiller Show lampooned popular culture in an anarchically spirited fashion, and its writing staff (which,…

  • Ben Thuy (Vietnam)

    Ben Thuy, town, northern Vietnam, on the Ca River, just southeast of the urban centre of Vinh. Just upstream from where the Ca River enters the Gulf of Tonkin where it meets the South China Sea, Ben Thuy serves as the outport of Vinh, and much of the trade of the central part of the country is

  • Ben Tre (Vietnam)

    Ben Tre, city on the flat Mekong River delta, southern Vietnam. Ben Tre is linked by highway and ferry boat to Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon) 53 miles (85 km) to the northeast. It is served by a commercial airfield and functions as a link on the My Tho-Phu Vinh river-canal system. The

  • Ben Vorlich (hills, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Dunbartonshire: …northwest of Loch Lomond, is Ben Vorlich, with an elevation of 3,092 feet (942 metres). The eastern section lies on the lowland plain that extends between the River Clyde and the Firth of Forth. The council area of West Dunbartonshire lies entirely within the historic county of Dunbartonshire, as do…

  • Ben Wyvis (mountain, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ben Wyvis, mountain in the northern Highlands, Highland council area, Scotland, whose summit stands some 9 miles (14 km) northwest of Dingwall on the Cromarty Firth, which is an inlet of the Moray Firth. The mountain has an elevation of 3,429 feet (1,045 metres). On its heights is Castle Leod

  • ben Yair, Phineas (rabbi)

    tohorah: …the hierarchical statement by Rabbi Phineas ben Yair in the Mishnah tractate Sotah 9:15: Rabbi Yair says, “Heedfulness leads to cleanliness, cleanliness leads to cleanness, cleanness leads to abstinence, abstinence leads to holiness, holiness leads to modesty, modesty leads to the fear of sin, the fear of sin leads to…

  • Ben Youssef, Salah (Tunisian nationalist)

    Democratic Constitutional Rally: …the other aligning itself with Salah Ben Yusuf, who had led the party when Bourguiba was imprisoned by the French. Ben Yusuf was expelled from the party in 1955, established himself in Cairo, and initiated a six-year guerrilla campaign against the Neo-Destour, the French, and Bourguiba. He was found murdered…

  • Ben Yusuf, Salah (Tunisian nationalist)

    Democratic Constitutional Rally: …the other aligning itself with Salah Ben Yusuf, who had led the party when Bourguiba was imprisoned by the French. Ben Yusuf was expelled from the party in 1955, established himself in Cairo, and initiated a six-year guerrilla campaign against the Neo-Destour, the French, and Bourguiba. He was found murdered…

  • Ben-Aharon, Yitzhak (Israeli politician)

    Yitzhak Ben-Aharon, (Yitzhak Nussboim), Israeli politician (born July 17, 1906, Bukovina territory, Austria-Hungary [now in Romania]—died May 19, 2006, Kibbutz Givat Haim, Israel), as an influential and often controversial member of Israel’s political left wing, was noted for his support of s

  • Ben-Gurion, David (prime minister of Israel)

    David Ben-Gurion, Zionist statesman and political leader, the first prime minister (1948–53, 1955–63) and defense minister (1948–53; 1955–63) of Israel. It was Ben-Gurion who, on May 14, 1948, at Tel Aviv, delivered Israel’s declaration of independence. His charismatic personality won him the

  • Ben-hadad I (king of Damascus)

    Ben-hadad I, king of Damascus who led a coalition against the invading forces of the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III, repulsing them at Karkar in 853. In a battle with him King Ahab of Israel was killed (I Kings 22:29–36). Ben-hadad was murdered by the usurper H

  • Ben-Hur (film by Niblo [1925])

    Ben-Hur, American silent film, released in 1925, about ancient Rome and Jerusalem at the time of Jesus that set new standards for action scenes. Judah Ben-Hur (played by Ramon Navarro) is a young Jewish man from a family of privilege who is betrayed by his Roman boyhood friend Messala (Francis X.

  • Ben-Hur (historical novel by Wallace)

    Ben-Hur, historical novel by Lewis Wallace, published in 1880 and widely translated. It depicts the oppressive Roman occupation of ancient Palestine and the origins of Christianity. The Jew Judah Ben-Hur is wrongly accused by his former friend, the Roman Messala, of attempting to kill a Roman

  • Ben-Hur (film by Wyler [1959])

    Ben-Hur, American dramatic film, released in 1959, that was arguably the best of Hollywood’s biblical epics. In addition to being a huge commercial success, it set a record for most Academy Award wins (11). The story traces the plight of Judah Ben-Hur (played by Charlton Heston), a young Jewish

  • Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (film by Niblo [1925])

    Ben-Hur, American silent film, released in 1925, about ancient Rome and Jerusalem at the time of Jesus that set new standards for action scenes. Judah Ben-Hur (played by Ramon Navarro) is a young Jewish man from a family of privilege who is betrayed by his Roman boyhood friend Messala (Francis X.

  • Ben-Ner, Guy (Israeli video artist)

    Guy Ben-Ner, Israeli video artist who featured himself and his family as actors in his humorous and profound productions. His story lines made pointed reference to well-known works of literature, philosophy, art, and cinema. Ben-Ner studied at Hamidrasha Art School, Beit Berl College (B.Ed., 1997),

  • Ben-Porat, Miriam (Israeli judge and government official)

    Miriam Ben-Porat, (Miriam Shinezon), Israeli judge and government official (born April 26, 1918, Vitsyebsk, Vitebsk province, Soviet Russia [now in Belarus]—died July 26, 2012, Jerusalem), was the first female justice (1976–88) on Israel’s Supreme Court and the first woman to be that country’s

  • Ben-Zvi Institute (Israeli archaeological organization)

    Itzhak Ben-Zvi: …Middle Eastern Communities (now the Ben-Zvi Institute) in 1948 and directed it until 1960. He wrote a history of the Jews, The Exiled and the Redeemed (1958).

  • Ben-Zvi, Itzhak (president of Israel)

    Itzhak Ben-Zvi, second president of Israel (1952–63) and an early Zionist leader in Palestine, who helped create the political, economic, and military institutions basic to the formation of the state of Israel. A Zionist from his youth, Ben-Zvi in 1905 helped form the Russian Poale Zion, a

  • Benacantil Hill (hill, Alicante, Spain)

    Alicante: The city is dominated by Benacantil Hill (721 feet [220 metres]) and the citadel of Santa Bárbara (1,000 feet [305 metres]), the earliest foundations of which date from 230 bc. Arrabal Roig, the old quarter, overlooks the bay from the heights known as the Balcón del Mediterráneo (“Mediterranean Balcony”). Notable…

  • Benacerraf, Baruj (American immunologist)

    Baruj Benacerraf, Venezuelan-born American pathologist and immunologist who shared (with George Snell and Jean Dausset) the 1980 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of genes that regulate immune responses and of the role that some of these genes play in autoimmune diseases.

  • Benaco (lake, Italy)

    Lake Garda, the largest (area 143 square miles [370 square km]) of the Italian lakes, bordering Lombardy (southwest and west), Veneto (east and southeast), and Trentino-Alto Adige (north). It is surpassed in area in the Alpine region only by Lakes Geneva and Constance. Lying at an elevation of 213

  • Benacus, Lacus (lake, Italy)

    Lake Garda, the largest (area 143 square miles [370 square km]) of the Italian lakes, bordering Lombardy (southwest and west), Veneto (east and southeast), and Trentino-Alto Adige (north). It is surpassed in area in the Alpine region only by Lakes Geneva and Constance. Lying at an elevation of 213

  • Benadir (region, Somalia)

    Benadir, traditional coastal region, southern Somalia, on the Horn of Africa. The name, from Persian bandar, “port,” refers to the voyages of Persian and Arab traders to eastern Africa across the Arabian Sea during the European Middle Ages. Benadir passed to the sultan of Zanzibar in 1871; it was

  • Benadryl (drug)

    Diphenhydramine, synthetic drug used in the treatment of various conditions including hay fever, acute skin reactions (such as hives), contact dermatitis (such as from poison ivy), and motion sickness. Diphenhydramine counteracts the histamine reaction. Introduced into medicine in 1945 and marketed

  • Benalcázar, Sebastián de (Spanish conqueror)

    Sebastián de Benalcázar, Spanish conqueror of Nicaragua, Ecuador, and southwestern Colombia. He captured Quito and founded the cities of Guayaquil in Ecuador and Popayán in Colombia. Going to the New World in 1519, Benalcázar became an officer in the forces of Pedro Arias Dávila and in 1524

  • Benalla (Victoria, Australia)

    Benalla, city, central Victoria, Australia, on the Broken River. Founded in 1848 on an overland stock route after Sir Thomas Mitchell’s exploration of the area, its name is derived from an Aboriginal term meaning “crossing place,” “big water holes,” or, possibly, “musk duck.” It became a shire in

  • Benambran orogeny (geology)

    Benambran orogeny, a mountain-building event in eastern Australia during Late Ordovician time (the Ordovician Period began about 488 million years ago and ended about 444 million years ago). The uplift and deformation produced a tectonic ridge that separated the Tasman Geosyncline into an eastern

  • Bénard cell (physics)

    fluid mechanics: Convection: …of convective rolls known as Bénard cells is established between the plates. Evidence for the existence of such cells in the convecting atmosphere is sometimes seen in the regular columns of cloud that form over regions where the air is rising. Their periodicity can be astonishingly uniform.

  • Bénard, Abraham-Joseph (French actor)

    Fleury, French actor of the Comédie-Fran?aise, one of the greatest comedians of his time. Fleury began his stage apprenticeship at Nancy, Fr., where his father was an actor at the court of Stanis?aw I, duke of Lorraine and Bar. After encouragement from Voltaire, he acted at the Comédie-Fran?aise i

  • Benares (India)

    Varanasi, city, southeastern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is located on the left bank of the Ganges (Ganga) River and is one of the seven sacred cities of Hinduism. Pop. (2001) city, 1,091,918; urban agglom., 1,203,961; (2011) city, 1,198,491; urban agglom., 1,432,280. Varanasi is one of

  • Benaud, Richard (Australian cricket player and broadcaster)

    Richie Benaud, cricketer who is best remembered as one of Australia’s most-imaginative captains. He served as captain of the Australian national team from 1958 to 1963, during which time Australia never lost a Test (international) series. After his retirement from professional cricket, Benaud moved

  • Benaud, Richie (Australian cricket player and broadcaster)

    Richie Benaud, cricketer who is best remembered as one of Australia’s most-imaginative captains. He served as captain of the Australian national team from 1958 to 1963, during which time Australia never lost a Test (international) series. After his retirement from professional cricket, Benaud moved

  • Benavente y Martínez, Jacinto (Spanish dramatist)

    Jacinto Benavente y Martínez, one of the foremost Spanish dramatists of the 20th century, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1922. He returned drama to reality by way of social criticism: declamatory verse giving way to prose, melodrama to comedy, formula to experience, impulsive

  • Benavides, Oscar (president of Peru)

    Peru: Troubled democracy: Oscar Benavides, who restored confidence in the economy. He also settled a dangerous boundary controversy with Colombia over the port of Leticia on the upper Amazon and a finger of land giving access to the river, both of which had been ceded to Colombia in…

  • Benbecula (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Benbecula, island of the Outer Hebrides, Western Isles council area, historic county of Inverness-shire, Scotland. Benbecula, whose name means “Mountain of the Fords” in Scots Gaelic, lies between the islands of North Uist and South Uist and is connected over the fords by a causeway (1960) to the

  • Benbow, John (English admiral)

    John Benbow, English admiral who became a popular hero through his exploits against the French and his death in active service. The son of a tanner of Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Benbow served in the navy and merchant marine from 1678 and became captain of a naval vessel in 1689. As master of the fleet

  • Bencao gangmu (work by Li Shizhen)

    Li Shizhen: …highly influential materia medica, the Bencao gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), which described 1,892 drugs and presented directions for preparing some 11,000 prescriptions. Completed in 1578, the book was in part a compilation of other smaller works of the same kind. It contained descriptions of 1,094 herbs and 444 animal…

  • Bence-Jones protein (biochemistry)

    blood disease: Multiple myeloma: …multiple myeloma they are called Bence Jones proteins. A type of chronic kidney disease often develops, probably as a result of the high concentration of Bence Jones proteins in the kidney tubules; this frequently is the ultimate cause of death. Adrenocorticosteroid hormones and chemotherapeutic agents are used in the treatment…

  • bench (geology)

    mining: Pit geometry: …divided into horizontal layers called benches. The thickness (that is, the height) of the benches depends on the type of deposit, the mineral being mined, and the equipment being used; for large mines it is on the order of 12 to 15 metres (about 40 to 50 feet). Mining is…

  • bench (furniture)

    Bench, long seat that may be freestanding, fixed to the wall, or placed against the wall. Paneled benches were used by the Romans, and they were the most common form of seating in medieval halls at a time when a chair was a rare luxury reserved for those of high status. Benches were not only used

  • Bench language

    Omotic languages: Bench is the main variety of Gimira, and the Ometo cluster is represented by languages such as Woylatta, Gamo, Gofa, Basketto, Male, and Chara, plus several minority groups of speakers in the southern Rift Valley.

  • bench mark (surveying)

    surveying: Triangulation: Bench marks, or marked points on the Earth’s surface, connected by precise leveling constitute the vertical controls of surveying. The elevations of bench marks are given in terms of their heights above a selected level surface called a datum. In large-level surveys the usual datum…

  • bench plane

    hand tool: Plane: …first, typified by the common bench plane, consists of a straight iron and a flat sole and is used for working flat surfaces; the second includes a variety of planes defined by the profile of the iron and sole. If the iron has a concavity, a projection or molding is…

  • bench press (powerlifting)

    powerlifting: The bench press, done from a prone position and requiring a pause of the barbell at the chest, shows upper-body strength. The two-handed dead lift, in which the lifter raises the weight from the floor to hip level in one movement, displays overall back and gripping…

  • bench stop (carpentry)

    hand tool: Workbench and vise: …what are variously known as bench stops, holdfasts, or dogs. The stems of these T-shaped iron fittings were set into holes in the workbench, and a sharp end of the horizontal part of the T was turned to engage the wood.

  • bench trial (law)

    double jeopardy: …witness is sworn in a bench trial. Actions before jeopardy attaches will not bar a subsequent prosecution. For example, if a judge dismisses a prosecution at a preliminary hearing for lack of evidence, this determination does not bar the government from initiating new charges for the same offense, since jeopardy…

  • Bench, Johnny (American baseball player)

    Johnny Bench, American professional baseball player who, in 17 seasons with the Cincinnati Reds of the National League, established himself as one of the game’s finest catchers. He won 10 consecutive Gold Glove Awards (1968–77) and had an exceptional throwing arm. Bench was a master at blocking

  • Bench, Johnny Lee (American baseball player)

    Johnny Bench, American professional baseball player who, in 17 seasons with the Cincinnati Reds of the National League, established himself as one of the game’s finest catchers. He won 10 consecutive Gold Glove Awards (1968–77) and had an exceptional throwing arm. Bench was a master at blocking

  • Benchley, Peter Bradford (American writer)

    Peter Bradford Benchley, American writer (born May 8, 1940, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 11, 2006, Princeton, N.J.), was the author of the novel Jaws (1974), which sold more than 20 million copies and spawned the motion picture of the same title in 1975; the story about a small East Coast beach c

  • Benchley, Robert (American actor and writer)

    Robert Benchley, American humorist, actor, and drama critic, whose main persona, that of a slightly confused, ineffectual, socially awkward bumbler, served in his essays and short films to gain him the sobriquet “the humorist’s humorist.” The character allowed him to comment brilliantly on the

  • Benchley, Robert Charles (American actor and writer)

    Robert Benchley, American humorist, actor, and drama critic, whose main persona, that of a slightly confused, ineffectual, socially awkward bumbler, served in his essays and short films to gain him the sobriquet “the humorist’s humorist.” The character allowed him to comment brilliantly on the

  • benchmarking (government)

    Benchmarking, technique of governance designed to improve the quality and efficiency of public services. In essence, benchmarking involves comparing specific aspects of a public problem with an ideal form of public action (the benchmark) and then acting to make the two converge. By making

  • Benci, Antonio di Jacopo d’Antonio (Italian artist)

    Pollaiuolo brothers: Antonio learned goldsmithing and metalworking from either Vittore Ghiberti (son of Lorenzo) or Andrea del Castagno. Piero probably learned painting from Andrea del Castagno and became his brother’s associate in goldsmithing, painting, sculpture, and engraving.

  • Benci, Piero di Jacopo d’Antonio (Italian artist)

    Pollaiuolo brothers: Piero probably learned painting from Andrea del Castagno and became his brother’s associate in goldsmithing, painting, sculpture, and engraving.

  • Benckendorff, Aleksandr Khristoforovich, Count (Russian general and statesman)

    Aleksandr Khristoforovich, Count Benckendorff, general and statesman who played a prominent role in the Napoleonic Wars and later served as Tsar Nicholas I’s chief of police. Of Baltic-German origin, Benckendorff joined the Russian army and was one of the officers who assassinated Emperor Paul I in

  • Bencoolen (Indonesia)

    Bengkulu, city, port, and capital of Bengkulu propinsi (or provinsi; province), southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. It lies on the Indian Ocean, about 180 miles (290 km) southwest of Palembang. The British had a trading post there in the 17th century, and in 1710 the Fort of Marlborough was built. In

  • bend (heraldry)

    heraldry: Ordinaries: …perpendicularly through the centre; the bend, a third of the shield, drawn from the dexter chief to sinister base (when drawn from the dexter base to sinister chief, it is a bend sinister); the fess, a third drawn horizontally and taking up the centre of the shield; and the chevron,…

  • Bend (Oregon, United States)

    Bend, city, seat (1916) of Deschutes county, central Oregon, U.S. It lies along the Deschutes River, in the eastern foothills of the Cascade Range (west), and is bordered by Pilot Butte (east). Laid out in 1904, the community grew after the Deschutes Irrigation and Power Company opened farmland for

  • Bend in the River, A (novel by Naipaul)

    A Bend in the River, novel by V.S. Naipaul, published in 1979. Reminiscent of Joseph Conrad’s Heart of Darkness, A Bend in the River chronicles both an internal journey and a physical trek into the heart of Africa as it explores the themes of personal exile and political and individual corruption.

  • Bend It Like Beckham (film by Chadha [2002])

    David Beckham: …and crosses; the 2002 film Bend It Like Beckham paid homage to his kicking ability. After helping Manchester United win three more league titles (2000, 2001, and 2003), he left the team in 2003 to join the Spanish football club Real Madrid. Four years later he signed a record-setting deal…

  • Bend of the River (film by Mann [1952])

    Anthony Mann: The 1950s: westerns: …and Stewart teamed again in Bend of the River (1952), with Stewart as the leader of a wagon train traveling to Oregon that is about to be robbed by his former outlaw partner (Arthur Kennedy). The Naked Spur (1953), often considered the very best of Mann’s westerns, starred Stewart as…

  • Bend Sinister (novel by Nabokov)

    Bend Sinister, novel by Vladimir Nabokov, published in 1947. It is the second novel that the Russian-born author wrote in English. It tells the story of Adam Krug, a philosopher who disregards his country’s totalitarian regime until his son David is killed by the forces he has attempted to

  • Benda, Franti?ek (German musician)

    Franti?ek Benda, an outstanding violinist of 18th-century Germany whose playing was celebrated for its cantabile (singing) quality and sophisticated embellishments. The eldest son of Jan Ji?í Benda and his wife Dorota Brixi, both talented musicians, Benda studied under Johann Gottlieb Graun and

  • Benda, Franz (German musician)

    Franti?ek Benda, an outstanding violinist of 18th-century Germany whose playing was celebrated for its cantabile (singing) quality and sophisticated embellishments. The eldest son of Jan Ji?í Benda and his wife Dorota Brixi, both talented musicians, Benda studied under Johann Gottlieb Graun and

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