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  • Beza, Theodore (French theologian)

    Theodore Beza, author, translator, educator, and theologian who assisted and later succeeded John Calvin as a leader of the Protestant Reformation centred at Geneva. After studying law at Orléans, France (1535–39), Beza established a practice in Paris, where he published Juvenilia (1548), a volume

  • Bezae, Codex (Greco-Roman manuscript)

    Theodore Beza: …from his library the celebrated Codex Bezae (D), an important manuscript from about the 5th century bearing Greek and Latin texts of the Gospels and Acts and supplemented by Beza’s commentary based on the Calvinist viewpoint. Other works among Beza’s own writings include anti-Catholic tracts, a biography of Calvin, and…

  • bezant (Byzantine coin)

    Byzantine Empire: The reforms of Diocletian and Constantine: …be succeeded by Constantine’s gold solidus. The latter piece, struck at the lighter weight of 72 to the gold pound, remained the standard for centuries. For whatever reason, in summary, Constantine’s policies proved extraordinarily fruitful. Some of them—notably hereditary succession, the recognition of Christianity, the currency reform, and the foundation…

  • Bezbarua, Lakshminath (Indian writer)

    South Asian arts: Assamese: …the early modern writers was Lakshminath Bezbaruwa, who founded a literary monthly, Jōnāki (“Moonlight”), in 1889, and was responsible for infusing Assamese letters with 19th-century Romanticism. Later 20th-century writers have tried to remain faithful to the ideals of Jōnāki. The short story in particular has flourished in the language; notable…

  • Bezborodko, Alexander (Russian diplomat)

    Alexander Bezborodko, Russian foreign minister who was closely linked with the major diplomatic affairs of Catherine the Great, including her idea of reestablishing the Byzantine Empire under her grandson Constantine. Recommended to Catherine by Count P.A. Rumyantsev, with whom he had served in the

  • Bezborodko, Alexander Andreyevich, Prince (Russian diplomat)

    Alexander Bezborodko, Russian foreign minister who was closely linked with the major diplomatic affairs of Catherine the Great, including her idea of reestablishing the Byzantine Empire under her grandson Constantine. Recommended to Catherine by Count P.A. Rumyantsev, with whom he had served in the

  • Bèze, Théodore de (French theologian)

    Theodore Beza, author, translator, educator, and theologian who assisted and later succeeded John Calvin as a leader of the Protestant Reformation centred at Geneva. After studying law at Orléans, France (1535–39), Beza established a practice in Paris, where he published Juvenilia (1548), a volume

  • bezel (jewelry)

    ring: …wide enough to support the bezel. The bezel is the top part of a ring; it may simply be a flat table, or it may be designed to hold a gem or some other ornament.

  • Bezhin Meadow (work by Eisenstein)

    Sergei Eisenstein: …Eisenstein undertook Bezhin lug (Bezhin Meadow). Several weeks before its completion, however, he was ordered to suspend its production. The scenes already shot were put together by Eisenstein, but the film, which was never released, was attacked as “formalistic” because of its poetic interpretation of reality. Eisenstein thus suffered…

  • Bezier curve (computer science)

    computer graphics: 3-D rendering: …representations can be provided by Bezier curves, which have the further advantage of requiring less computer memory. Bezier curves are described by cubic equations; a cubic curve is determined by four points or, equivalently, by two points and the curve’s slopes at those points. Two cubic curves can be smoothly…

  • Béziers (France)

    Béziers, city, Hérault département, Occitanie région, southern France, 9 miles (14 km) from the Mediterranean Sea, on a hilly site overlooking the Orb River where it is intersected by the Canal of the Midi, southwest of Montpellier. There are remains of an arena from the Roman colony Beterrae. In

  • Béziers, Battle of (French history)

    Massacre at Béziers, (21–22 July 1209). This brutal massacre was the first major battle in the Albigensian Crusade called by Pope Innocent III against the Cathars, a religious sect. The French city of Béziers, a Cathar stronghold, was burned down and 20,000 residents killed after a papal legate,

  • Béziers, Massacre at (French history)

    Massacre at Béziers, (21–22 July 1209). This brutal massacre was the first major battle in the Albigensian Crusade called by Pope Innocent III against the Cathars, a religious sect. The French city of Béziers, a Cathar stronghold, was burned down and 20,000 residents killed after a papal legate,

  • bezique (game)

    Bezique, trick-and-meld card game related to pinochle, both of which derive from the 19th-century French game of binocle, itself a development of the card game sixty-six. Bezique is now mostly played by two players using a 64-card deck consisting of two standard 52-card decks in which the 2s

  • bezoar stone (paleontology)

    Coprolite, the fossilized excrement of animals. The English geologist William Buckland coined the term in 1835 after he and fossilist Mary Anning recognized that certain convoluted masses occurring in the Lias rock strata of Gloucestershire and dating from the Early Jurassic Period (200 million to

  • Bezos, Jeff (American entrepreneur)

    Jeff Bezos , American entrepreneur who played a key role in the growth of e-commerce as the founder and chief executive officer of Amazon.com, Inc., an online merchant of books and later of a wide variety of products. Under his guidance, Amazon became the largest retailer on the World Wide Web and

  • Bezos, Jeffrey Preston (American entrepreneur)

    Jeff Bezos , American entrepreneur who played a key role in the growth of e-commerce as the founder and chief executive officer of Amazon.com, Inc., an online merchant of books and later of a wide variety of products. Under his guidance, Amazon became the largest retailer on the World Wide Web and

  • Bezpartyjny Blok Wsopólpracy z Rz?dem (political party, Poland)

    Poland: The Second Republic: …Cooperation with the Government (BBWR) became his political instrument, used at first against the opposition rightist National Democrats. In 1930 Pi?sudski responded to the challenge of the centre-left opposition (Centrolew) by ordering the arrest and trial of its leaders, including three-time premier Witos. The brutal Brze?? affair (named for…

  • Bezpopovtsy sect (religious sect)

    Old Believer: The other, the Bezpopovtsy (priestless sects), renounced priests and all sacraments, except Baptism. Many other sects developed out of these groups, some with practices considered extravagant.

  • Bezru?, Petr (Czech poet)

    Petr Bezru?, one of the finest and most individual Czech poets. Bezru? studied in Prague and became a postal official in Moravia until his retirement in 1928. His literary reputation rests on a remarkable series of poems written during 1899 and 1900 and published in the periodical ?as between 1899

  • Bezuhov, Pierre (fictional character)

    Pierre Bezukhov, fictional character, a good-natured young idealist in Leo Tolstoy’s epic novel War and Peace (1865–69). Pierre matures over the course of the story through his involvement in a series of well-intentioned but often misguided attempts to change the world and the course of his own

  • Bezukhov, Pierre (fictional character)

    Pierre Bezukhov, fictional character, a good-natured young idealist in Leo Tolstoy’s epic novel War and Peace (1865–69). Pierre matures over the course of the story through his involvement in a series of well-intentioned but often misguided attempts to change the world and the course of his own

  • Bezwada (India)

    Vijayawada, city, east-central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It lies in a generally level plain punctuated by hills on the Krishna River, about 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Rajahmundry. The city is a major road and rail junction as well as a centre for Hindu and Buddhist pilgrimages.

  • Be?er Sheva? (Israel)

    Beersheba, biblical town of southern Israel, now a city and the main centre of the Negev (ha-Negev) region. Beersheba is first mentioned as the site where Abraham, founder of the Jewish people, made a covenant with the Philistine king Abimelech of Gerar (Genesis 21). Isaac and Jacob, the other

  • Bf 109 (aircraft)

    Bf 109, Nazi Germany’s most important fighter aircraft, both in operational importance and in numbers produced. It was commonly referred to as the Me 109 after its designer, Willy Messerschmitt. Designed by the Bavarian Airplane Company in response to a 1934 Luftwaffe specification for a

  • Bf-110 (German aircraft)

    air warfare: Air superiority: … and the German Ju-88 and Bf-110. Some of these long-range, twin-engined night fighters also served as “intruders,” slipping into enemy bomber formations, following them home, and shooting them down over their own airfields.

  • BFBS (religious organization)

    British and Foreign Bible Society (BFBS), first Bible society in the fullest sense, founded in 1804 at the urging of Thomas Charles and members of the Clapham sect, who proposed the idea to the Religious Tract Society in London. An interdenominational Protestant lay society with international

  • BFG, The (work by Dahl)

    Steven Spielberg: 2000 and beyond: …an adaptation of a beloved children’s book by Roald Dahl. The film featured Rylance as the titular “big friendly giant.” Though his fellow giants prefer to dine on human children and wreak havoc, the BFG (named Runt) subsists on vegetables and spends his days concocting dreams and his nights delivering…

  • BFG, The (film by Spielberg [2016])

    Steven Spielberg: 2000 and beyond: The BFG (2016) is an adaptation of a beloved children’s book by Roald Dahl. The film featured Rylance as the titular “big friendly giant.” Though his fellow giants prefer to dine on human children and wreak havoc, the BFG (named Runt) subsists on vegetables and…

  • BFGoodrich Company (American company)

    B.F. Goodrich Company, major American manufacturing company of the 20th century, for 90 years a maker of automobile tires and related products. Founded in Akron, Ohio, the company grew out of a partnership—Goodrich, Tew and Company—formed in 1870 by Benjamin Franklin Goodrich, a medical doctor from

  • BFR (launch vehicle)

    SpaceX: …and the Falcon Heavy: the Super Heavy–Starship system (originally called the BFR [Big Falcon Rocket]). The Super Heavy first stage would be capable of lifting 100,000 kg (220,000 pounds) to low Earth orbit. The payload would be the Starship, a spacecraft designed for several purposes, including providing fast transportation between…

  • BfV (German intelligence organization)

    intelligence: Germany: The BfV (Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution), which is part of the Ministry of the Interior, is charged with protecting the country from antidemocratic forces, particularly neo-Nazism. The agency employs some 2,500 people at its headquarters in Cologne. In addition, each German state…

  • BG (music society)

    Moritz Hauptmann: …Robert Schumann, Hauptmann founded the Bach-Gesellschaft (“Bach Society”); for the remainder of his life he served as the society’s president and edited the first three volumes of the Bach-Gesellschaft (BG) edition of Bach’s complete works. His most important publication in the area of theory was Die Natur der Harmonik und…

  • BG Group (British company)

    Royal Dutch Shell PLC: …Shell agreed to purchase the BG Group, a major producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG), in order to solidify its position as one of the leaders in the emerging LNG industry.

  • BGM-109 (cruise missile)

    Tomahawk, American-made low-flying strategic guided missile that may be launched from naval ships or submarines to strike targets on land. It flies at low altitudes to strike fixed targets, such as communication and air-defense sites, in high-risk environments where manned aircraft may be

  • BGN (United States government agency)

    Board on Geographic Names, interdepartmental agency of the U.S. government created in 1890 and providing standardized geographic names of foreign and domestic places for use by the federal government. It was established in its present form by a public law enacted in 1947. Located in Washington,

  • Bh (chemical element)

    Bohrium (Bh), a synthetic element in Group VIIb of the periodic table. It is thought to be chemically similar to the rare metal rhenium. In 1976 Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, U.S.S.R., announced that they had synthesized element 107, later given the

  • BH-3-only protein (biochemistry)

    apoptosis: Regulation of apoptosis: …of these are known as BH-3-only proteins. BH-3-only proteins function as activators or sensitizers of apoptosis and monitor important cell processes for dysfunction. They also control the function of two death-initiating, or pro-apoptotic, proteins (Bax and Bak) and a large number of death-preventing, or anti-apoptotic, proteins, which include BCL-XL and…

  • Bhābar (region, India)

    Tarai: …with the Tarai is the Bhabar, which is a region of coarse gravel and shingle deposits supporting sal (Shorea robusta) forests. Drainage and cultivation of the area, once extremely malarial, have diminished the marshlands. The eastern part of the Tarai is known in West Bengal state and in Bangladesh as…

  • Bhabha, Homi (Indian physicist)

    Homi Bhabha, Indian physicist who was the principal architect of that country’s nuclear energy program. Born into a rich aristocratic family, Bhabha went to the University of Cambridge, England, in 1927, originally to study mechanical engineering, but once there he developed a strong interest in

  • Bhabha, Homi Jehangir (Indian physicist)

    Homi Bhabha, Indian physicist who was the principal architect of that country’s nuclear energy program. Born into a rich aristocratic family, Bhabha went to the University of Cambridge, England, in 1927, originally to study mechanical engineering, but once there he developed a strong interest in

  • Bhādgāon (Nepal)

    Bhaktapur, town, central Nepal, in the Nepal Valley, southeast of Kāthmāndu. Said to have been founded by Rājā Ananda Malla in 865, it was for 200 years the most important settlement in the valley. The old palace in Durbar Square, built in 1700, is well preserved and has beautifully carved woodwork

  • Bhadra-?ukla-pa?camī (Indian festival)

    Paryu?a?a: …last day of the festival, Bhadra-?ukla-pa?camī (“Fifth Day of the Bright Fortnight of Bhādra”), is also an ancient Indian festival day known to Hindus as ??i-pa?camī (“The Fifth of the Seers”), the day on which Hindus pay homage to the seven seers, who are identified with the seven stars of…

  • Bhadrabahu I (religious leader and monk)

    Bhadrabahu I, Jain religious leader and monk often associated with one of Jainism’s two principal sects, the Digambara. According to Digambara tradition, in 310 bce, after a 12-year famine, Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta—the first king of the Mauryan dynasty, who had become a Jain monk—led an exodus

  • Bhadracaryā-pra?idhāna (Buddhist text)

    Bhadracaryā-pra?idhāna, (Sanskrit: “Vows of Good Conduct”, ) (“Practical Vows of Samantabhadra”), a Mahāyāna (“Greater Vehicle”) Buddhist text that has also made an important contribution to the Tantric Buddhism of Tibet. Closely related to the Avata?saka-sūtra (“Discourse on the Adornments of the

  • bhadralok (Indian society)

    India: Social effects: …gentry was known as the bhadralok (“respectable people”).

  • Bhadravarman (king of Cambodia)

    Southeast Asian arts: Art of the northern capital: 4th–11th century: …at My Son, built by King Bhadravarman in the late 4th century, is not known. The earliest surviving fragments of art come from the second half of the 7th century, when the king was a descendant of the royal house at Chenla. The remains of the many dynastic temples built…

  • Bhadravati (India)

    Bhadravati, city, central Karnataka state, southwestern India. It lies along the Bhadra River, near the Baba Budan Hills. The city’s proximity to iron, manganese, and limestone deposits, along with the Bhadra hydropower project, have made the site an ideal location for steelmaking and other

  • Bhaduri, Sisir Kumar (Indian playwright)

    South Asian arts: Modern theatre: …introduced in the 1920s by Sisir Kumar Bhaduri, Naresh Mitra, Ahindra Chowdhuri, and Durga Das Banerji, together with the actresses Probha Devi and Kanka Vati. In his Srirangam Theatre (closed in 1954), Sisir performed two most memorable roles: the again Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and the shrewd Hindu philosopher-politician Chanakya. Sisir’s…

  • bhaga (Iranian deities)

    ancient Iranian religion: Origin and historical development: …other deities called bagha (Vedic bhaga, “the one who distributes”) and yazata (“the one to be worshipped”). At the head of the pantheon stood Ahura Mazdā, the “Wise Lord,” who was particularly connected with the principle of cosmic and social order and truth called arta in Vedic (asha in Avestan).…

  • Bhagadatta (Kāmarūpan ruler)

    Assam: Prehistory to c. 1950: King Narakasura and his son Bhagadatta were famous rulers of Kamarupa in the Mahabharata period (roughly 400 bce to 200 ce). A Chinese traveler, Xuanzang, left a vivid account of the country and its people about 640 ce. Although information about the following centuries is meagre, clay seals and inscriptions…

  • Bhagalpur (India)

    Bhagalpur, city, southeastern Bihar state, northeastern India. It lies just south of the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 30 miles (50 km) east of Jamalpur. The city has major road and rail connections and trades in agricultural produce and cloth. Major industries include rice and sugar milling and

  • Bhagat Bani (Sant literature)

    Sikhism: The Adi Granth and the Dasam Granth: Finally, there is the Bhagat Bani, comprising works by Kabir and other Sants whose compositions Amar Das (who was responsible for the Goindval Pothis) and Arjan regarded as sound. The inclusion of Kabir testifies to the link joining the Gurus to the tradition of the sants, most of whom…

  • Bhagat Singh (Indian revolutionary)

    Bhagat Singh, revolutionary hero of the Indian independence movement. Bhagat Singh attended Dayanand Anglo Vedic High School, which was operated by Arya Samaj (a reform sect of modern Hinduism), and then National College, both located in Lahore. He began to protest British rule in India while still

  • Bhagavadgita (Hindu scripture)

    Bhagavadgita, (Sanskrit: “Song of God”) an episode recorded in the great Sanskrit poem of the Hindus, the Mahabharata. It occupies chapters 23 to 40 of Book VI of the Mahabharata and is composed in the form of a dialogue between Prince Arjuna and Krishna, an avatar (incarnation) of the god Vishnu.

  • Bhagavat (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: Stories of the gods: …devout irrespective of birth, the Bhagavata religion did not actively propagate social reform; but the attempts to make religion an efficient vehicle of new spiritual and social ideas contributed, to a certain extent, to the emancipation of lowborn followers of Vishnu.

  • Bhagavata (Hindu sect)

    Bhagavata, (Sanskrit: “One Devoted to Bhagavat [God]”) member of the earliest Hindu sect of which there is any record, representing the beginnings of theistic devotional worship (bhakti) in Hinduism and of modern Vaishnavism (worship of the god Vishnu). The Bhagavata system was a highly devotional

  • Bhagavata-purana (Hindu literature)

    Bhagavata-purana, (Sanskrit: “Ancient Stories of God [Vishnu]”) the most-celebrated text of a variety of Hindu sacred literature in Sanskrit that is known as the Purana and the specific text that is held sacred by the Bhagavata sect. Scholars are in general agreement that the Bhagavata-purana was

  • bhagavatha mela (Indian dance)

    South Asian arts: Other classical dance forms: …or semiclassical dance forms are bhagavatha mela, mohini attam, and kuravanchi. Performed at the annual Narasimha Jayanti festival in Melatur village in Tamil Nadu, the bhagavatha mela uses classical gesture language with densely textured Karnatak (South Indian classical) music. Its repertoire was enriched by the musician-poet Venkatarama Sastri (1759–1847), who…

  • Bhagīratha (Hindu sage)

    Hinduism: Narratives of culture heroes: Another sage, Bhagiratha, brought the Ganges River down from heaven to sanctify their ashes and, in the process, created the ocean. Agastya, revered as the Brahman who brought Sanskrit-speaking civilization to South India, drank and digested the ocean. When the Vindhya mountain range would not stop growing,…

  • Bhagirathi River (river, India)

    Bhagirathi River, river in West Bengal state, northeastern India, forming the western boundary of the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. A distributary of the Ganges (Ganga) River, it leaves that river just northeast of Jangipur, flows south, and joins the Jalangi at Nabadwip to form the Hugli (Hooghly)

  • Bhagwat, Anjali (Indian rifle shooter)

    Anjali Bhagwat, Indian rifle shooter who won the 2002 International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) Champion of Champions combined-air-rifle event to become the first Indian to win that competition. Bhagwat’s foray into the world of shooting happened by chance while she was training for the

  • Bhagwat, Anjali Vedpathak (Indian rifle shooter)

    Anjali Bhagwat, Indian rifle shooter who won the 2002 International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) Champion of Champions combined-air-rifle event to become the first Indian to win that competition. Bhagwat’s foray into the world of shooting happened by chance while she was training for the

  • Bhagwati, Jagdish (Indian American economist)

    Jagdish Bhagwati, Indian American economist known for his contributions to the theory of international trade and economic development. Bhagwati attended St. Xavier’s High School and Sydenham College in Bombay (now Mumbai). After receiving a B.A. degree in economics and law at the University of

  • Bhāī Je?hā (Sikh Guru)

    Rām Dās, fourth Sikh Gurū and founder of the great Sikh centre of Amritsar, now headquarters or capital of the religion. Rām Dās continued as Gurū (1574–81) the missionary endeavour begun by his predecessor, Amar Dās. On land given to him by the Mughal emperor Akbar, he built a holy tank, or p

  • bhāīband (Indian and Pakistani government)

    Bhāīband, (“brotherhood”), important instrument of caste self-government in India; the bhāīband is the council formed by the heads of families that belong to the same lineage in a particular area, thus constituting an exogamous (those who do not intermarry) unit within the endogamous (those who do

  • Bhairavi (film [1978])

    Rajnikanth: In Bhairavi (1978), however, Rajnikanth was cast as Mookaiyah, a loyal manservant who fails to protect his long-lost sister from his master and later takes revenge upon the man. This role was Rajnikanth’s first as a leading man. Subsequent leading roles in films such as Billa…

  • Bhaironpur (India)

    Bharhut, village, 120 miles (190 km) southwest of Allahabad, in northeastern Madhya Pradesh state, India. It is believed to have been founded by the Bhoro people. Bharhut is famous for the ruins of a Buddhist stupa (shrine) discovered there by Major General Alexander Cunningham in 1873. The stupa’s

  • Bhaishajya-guru (Buddhism)

    Bhaishajya-guru, in Mahayana Buddhism, the healing buddha (“enlightened one”), widely worshipped in Tibet, China, and Japan. According to popular belief in those countries, some illnesses are effectively cured by merely touching his image or calling out his name. More serious illnesses, however,

  • Bhaishajyaguru (Buddhism)

    Bhaishajya-guru, in Mahayana Buddhism, the healing buddha (“enlightened one”), widely worshipped in Tibet, China, and Japan. According to popular belief in those countries, some illnesses are effectively cured by merely touching his image or calling out his name. More serious illnesses, however,

  • Bhaja (India)

    South Asian arts: Early Indian architecture (2nd century bc–3rd century ad): The Bhājā caitya is certainly the earliest, and important examples are to be found at Be?sā, Kondane, Pītalkhorā, Ajantā, and Nāsik. Toward the end of the period, a quadrilateral plan appears more and more frequently, as, for example, at Kuda and Sailarwā?ī.

  • Bhākra-Nāngal project (river project, India)

    Bilaspur: …which was created by the Bhakra Dam (completed in 1962) on the Sutlej, one of the highest dams in the world. The dam generates electricity for much of the region.

  • Bhaktapur (Nepal)

    Bhaktapur, town, central Nepal, in the Nepal Valley, southeast of Kāthmāndu. Said to have been founded by Rājā Ananda Malla in 865, it was for 200 years the most important settlement in the valley. The old palace in Durbar Square, built in 1700, is well preserved and has beautifully carved woodwork

  • Bhaktapur Palace (palace, Nepal)

    Bhaktapur: The old palace in Durbar Square, built in 1700, is well preserved and has beautifully carved woodwork and a finely worked gilt gateway. Opposite, on a stone pillar, is the copper-gilt figure of King Bhūpatīndra Malla. There are other temples in the square.

  • bhakti (Hinduism)

    Bhakti, (Sanskrit: “devotion”) in Hinduism, a movement emphasizing the mutual intense emotional attachment and love of a devotee toward a personal god and of the god for the devotee. According to the Bhagavadgita, a Hindu religious text, the path of bhakti, or bhakti-marga, is superior to the two

  • bhakti yoga

    Hare Krishna: …outgrowth of the popular Bengali bhakti (devotional) yoga tradition, or Krishna Consciousness, which began in the 16th century. Bhakti yoga’s founder, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1485–1534?), advocated the pursuit of mystical devotion through repetitive chanting, especially of the Hare Krishna mantra:

  • bhakti-mārga (Hinduism)

    Hinduism: Dharma and the three paths: …identity with brahman; and the bhakti-marga (“path of devotion”), love for a personal God. These ways are regarded as suited to various types of people, but they are interactive and potentially available to all.

  • Bhaktipada (American religious leader)

    Bhaktipada, American religious leader who led the American branch of the Hare Krishna movement before a criminal investigation resulted in his expulsion and subsequent imprisonment. Ham was raised a Baptist. He earned a B.A. (1959) from Maryville College, Maryville, Tennessee, but he failed to

  • Bhaktivedanta, A. C. (Indian religious leader and author)

    A. C. Bhaktivedanta, Indian religious leader and author who in 1965 founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, commonly known as the Hare Krishna movement. In 1920 Bhaktivedanta completed his B.A. in chemistry at the Scottish Churches’ College in Calcutta; by that time, his family

  • Bhaktivedanta, Abhay Charanaravinda (Indian religious leader and author)

    A. C. Bhaktivedanta, Indian religious leader and author who in 1965 founded the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, commonly known as the Hare Krishna movement. In 1920 Bhaktivedanta completed his B.A. in chemistry at the Scottish Churches’ College in Calcutta; by that time, his family

  • Bhalana (Gujarati poet)

    Gujarati literature: …Narasimha Mahata (or Mehta) and Bhalana (or Purushottama Maharaja). The latter cast the 10th book of the Bhagavata-purana into short lyrics.

  • bhalu (mammal)

    Sloth bear, (Melursus ursinus), forest-dwelling member of the family Ursidae that inhabits tropical or subtropical regions of India and Sri Lanka. Named for its slow-moving habits, the sloth bear has poor senses of sight and hearing but has a good sense of smell. Various adaptations equip this

  • Bhama Kalapam (Indian dance-drama)

    kuchipudi: …Sidhyendra Yogi of the dance-drama Bhama Kalapam, a story of Satyabhāma, the charming but jealous wife of the god Krishna. The dance performance begins with the sprinkling of holy water and the burning of incense. Other rituals are performed, the goddesses of learning, wealth, and energy are invoked, and the…

  • Bhamati school (philosophy)

    Indian philosophy: Shankara’s theory of error and religious and ethical concerns: …followed Vachaspati’s commentary (known as Bhamati) on Shankara’s bhashya. Among the chief issues that divided Shankara’s followers was the question about the locus and object of ignorance. The Bhamati school regarded the individual self as the locus of ignorance and sought to avoid the consequent circularity (arising from the fact…

  • Bhamo (Myanmar)

    Bhamo, town, northeastern Myanmar (Burma), on the Irrawaddy River at the head of navigation. The town stretches along the river’s east bank in a series of villages approached through a narrow passage; the town proper occupies a high ridge running at right angles to the river. It is linked by air

  • bhana (theatre)

    Bhana, (Sanskrit: “monologue”) genre of Sanskrit drama, a one-act, one-man theatrical performance, usually satirical. In the course of his performance, the bhana actor depicts the voice, station, and mannerisms of at least two characters, typically several. Conversation among characters is an

  • bhanaka (Buddhist reciter)

    bhanavara: At first, different groups of bhanakas (“reciters”) were responsible for different parts of the canon; Dighabhanakas, for example, specialized in the Digha Nikaya (“Long Collection”). Later, in Ceylon (Sri Lanka), these groups developed into early schools of interpretation, and their differing views are reflected in some of the commentary literature.

  • bhanavara (Buddhist literature)

    Bhanavara, (Sanskrit and Pali: “recitation section”) any of the units, usually 8,000 syllables in length, into which Pali Buddhist texts were divided in ancient times for purposes of recitation. The system developed as a means of preserving and transmitting canonical material before it was

  • bhand jashna (theatre)

    South Asian arts: Dance and theatre in Kashmir: There is, however, the bhand jashna (“festival of clowns”), a centuries-old genre of folk theatre. Performed in village squares, it satirizes social situations through dance, music and clowning.

  • Bhandara (India)

    Bhandara, town, northeastern Maharashtra state, western India. It lies on the Wainganga River east of Nagpur. Bhandara was a fording place on the river, and it developed as a commercial centre. The town’s industries include the manufacture of brass ware and cigarettes. It houses a college

  • Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (institution, Pune, India)

    Pune: …University of Pune (1948); the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (1917) is renowned for research and instruction in the Sanskrit and Prakrit languages and has more than 20,000 ancient manuscripts. Pune is also the headquarters of the southern command of the Indian army, with the Khadakwasla Academy located nearby.

  • Bhandarkar, Ramakrishna Gopal (Indian scholar)

    Prarthana Samaj: Bhandarkar (1837–1925), a noted scholar of Sanskrit.

  • Bhander Plateau (plateau, India)

    Bhander Plateau, plateau in the south-central highlands of Madhya Pradesh state, north-central India. Having an area of about 4,000 square miles (10,000 square km), it constitutes a transitional zone between the North Deccan plateau to the south, the Eastern plateau to the east, and the alluvial

  • bhang (drug)

    drug use: Types of cannabis preparations: Bhang is the least potent of the cannabis preparations used in India. It does not contain the flowering tops found in ghanja. As a result, bhang contains only a small amount of resin (5 percent). It is either drunk or smoked. When drunk, the leaves…

  • bhangar (soil)

    India: The Indo-Gangetic Plain: …is an important distinction between bhangar—the slightly elevated, terraced land of older alluvium—and khadar, the more fertile fresh alluvium on the low-lying floodplain. In general, the ratio of bhangar areas to those of khadar increases upstream along all major rivers. An exception to the largely monotonous relief is encountered in…

  • bhangra (dance)

    Bhangra, folk dance and music of the Punjab (northwestern India and northeastern Pakistan) and the popular music genre that emerged from it in the mid-to-late 20th century. Cultivated in two separate but interactive styles—one centred in South Asia, the other within the South Asian community of the

  • Bhanji, Krishna (British actor)

    Ben Kingsley, British actor recognized for playing a wide range of roles, including that of the title character in Gandhi (1982), for which he won an Academy Award for best actor. Kingsley, of English and Indian descent, first began acting in amateur theatrical productions in Manchester, England.

  • Bhanna, An (river, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    River Bann, river, the largest in Northern Ireland, falling into two distinct parts. The upper Bann rises in the Mourne Mountains and flows northwest to Lough (lake) Neagh. The lower Bann flows northward through Lough Beg and carries the waters of Lough Neagh to the sea below Coleraine. The total

  • Bhānubhakta (Nepalese author)

    Nepali literature: …were followed in mid-century by Bhānubhakta, whose Nepali version of the Rāmāya?a achieved great popularity for the colloquial flavour of its language, its religious sincerity, and its realistic natural descriptions. The poet Lekhnāth Pau?yāl in the early 20th century also tended to the colloquial and used the rhythms of popular…

  • Bhanudeva IV (Indian ruler)

    Ganga dynasty: The “mad king,” Bhanudeva IV, who succeeded him, left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35. The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu…

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