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  • Dovzhenko, Aleksandr Petrovich (Soviet director)

    Aleksandr Dovzhenko, a motion-picture director who brought international recognition to the Soviet film industry during the 1930s. Emotional intensity and mystical symbolism often took precedence over narrative structure in his films, many of which concerned the Russian Civil War (1918–20) and the

  • Dovzhenko, Oleksander (Soviet director)

    Aleksandr Dovzhenko, a motion-picture director who brought international recognition to the Soviet film industry during the 1930s. Emotional intensity and mystical symbolism often took precedence over narrative structure in his films, many of which concerned the Russian Civil War (1918–20) and the

  • dow (Arab sailing vessel)

    Dhow, one- or two-masted Arab sailing vessel, usually with lateen rigging (slanting, triangular sails), common in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean. On the larger types, called baggalas and booms, the mainsail is considerably bigger than the mizzensail. Bows are sharp, with a forward and upward

  • Dow Chemical Company (American company)

    Dow Chemical Company, American chemical and plastics manufacturer that is one of the world’s leading suppliers of chemicals, plastics, synthetic fibres, and agricultural products. Headquarters are in Midland, Michigan. Dow Chemical Company was founded in 1897 by chemist Herbert H. Dow of Midland to

  • Dow Corning (American company)

    Dow Chemical Company: In 1995 Dow Corning (a joint venture of Dow Chemical and materials manufacturer Corning, Inc.) declared bankruptcy following an overwhelming number of lawsuits claiming that silicone breast implants manufactured by Dow Corning and other companies were responsible for a variety of health problems. Dow Corning remained under…

  • Dow Jones & Company (American company)

    Charles Henry Dow: ), American journalist who cofounded Dow Jones & Company, a financial news service, and The Wall Street Journal. His original contributions include the compilation in 1884 of the first average of selected U.S. stock prices that, with some modification, developed into what are known as the Dow Jones averages.

  • Dow Jones average (stock market)

    Dow Jones average, stock price average computed by Dow Jones & Company, Inc. The averages are among the most commonly used indicators of general trends in the prices of stocks and bonds in the United States. Dow Jones & Company, a financial news publisher founded by Charles Henry Dow and Edward D.

  • Dow Jones Composite Average (stock market)

    Dow Jones average: …on 15 utility stocks; the Dow Jones Composite Average, comprising the stocks of the DJIA, DJTA, and DJUA; and several bond averages. Other popular gauges of the American securities markets are the S&P 500 and the Russell 2000 indexes.

  • Dow Jones Industrial Average (stock market)

    Dow Jones average: …most commonly quoted is the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), which is based on the prices of 30 industrial stocks. Other Dow Jones averages include the Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA), based on 20 transportation stocks; the Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA), based on 15 utility stocks; the Dow Jones…

  • Dow Jones Transportation Average (stock market)

    Dow Jones average: …Dow Jones averages include the Dow Jones Transportation Average (DJTA), based on 20 transportation stocks; the Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA), based on 15 utility stocks; the Dow Jones Composite Average, comprising the stocks of the DJIA, DJTA, and DJUA; and several bond averages. Other popular gauges of the American…

  • Dow Jones Utility Average (stock market)

    Dow Jones average: …on 20 transportation stocks; the Dow Jones Utility Average (DJUA), based on 15 utility stocks; the Dow Jones Composite Average, comprising the stocks of the DJIA, DJTA, and DJUA; and several bond averages. Other popular gauges of the American securities markets are the S&P 500 and the Russell 2000 indexes.

  • Dow process (phenol)

    phenol: Hydrolysis of chlorobenzene (the Dow process): Benzene is easily converted to chlorobenzene by a variety of methods, one of which is the Dow process. Chlorobenzene is hydrolyzed by a strong base at high temperatures to give a phenoxide salt, which is acidified to phenol.

  • Dow process (magnesium)

    magnesium processing: Electrolysis: …can be obtained by the Dow process, in which seawater is mixed in a flocculator with lightly burned reactive dolomite. An insoluble magnesium hydroxide precipitates to the bottom of a settling tank, whence it is pumped as a slurry, filtered, converted to magnesium chloride by reaction with hydrochloric acid, and…

  • Dow Process Company (American company)

    Herbert H. Dow: In 1895 Dow founded the Dow Process Company to electrolyze brine for chlorine (producing caustic soda and sodium hypochlorite) at Navarre, Ohio, soon moving the company to Midland and creating the Dow Chemical Company (1897) to absorb the Midland Chemical and Dow Process. Dow’s chlorine products found application in insecticides…

  • Dow, Arthur Wesley (American artist and educator)

    Arthur Wesley Dow, American painter, printmaker, photographer, and educator known for his teachings based on Japanese principles of art and for his significant artistic and intellectual contributions to the Arts and Crafts movement. Before he started any formal training, Dow made sketches of

  • Dow, Charles Henry (American journalist)

    Charles Henry Dow, American journalist who cofounded Dow Jones & Company, a financial news service, and The Wall Street Journal. His original contributions include the compilation in 1884 of the first average of selected U.S. stock prices that, with some modification, developed into what are known

  • Dow, Herbert H. (American chemist)

    Herbert H. Dow, pioneer in the American chemical industry and founder of the Dow Chemical Company. Dow first became interested in brines (concentrated solutions of salts and water) while attending Case School of Applied Science (now Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland (B.S.; 1888). His

  • Dow, Herbert Henry (American chemist)

    Herbert H. Dow, pioneer in the American chemical industry and founder of the Dow Chemical Company. Dow first became interested in brines (concentrated solutions of salts and water) while attending Case School of Applied Science (now Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland (B.S.; 1888). His

  • Dow, Neal (American politician)

    Neal Dow, American politician and temperance advocate whose Maine Law of 1851 presaged national prohibition in the United States. His Quaker parents and his own observations as Portland city overseer of the poor, as well as the excess of drunkenness that was then commonplace, influenced his

  • Dowa Highlands (hills, Mala?i)

    Dowa Highlands, central Mala?i, rectangular formation covering an area of about 360 square miles (930 sq km); they comprise rolling hills crowned by high ridges including the heights of Dowa (5,571 feet [1,698 m]) and Ntchisi peaks. The highlands are bounded on three sides by steep slopes, f

  • Dōwakai (Japanese organization)

    burakumin: …rival national organization, Dōwakai (Society for Integration), was founded; it came to be led by Liberal Democratic politicians, some of whom were elected to the national Diet. A third organization, the Zenkoku Buraku Kaihō Undō (All-Japan Buraku Liberation Movement), was formed in 1976.

  • Dowd, Charles F. (American educator)

    time: Standard time: In 1869 Charles F. Dowd, principal of a school in Saratoga Springs, N.Y., proposed the use of time zones, within which all localities would keep the same time. Others, including Sir Sandford Fleming, a Canadian civil engineer, strongly advocated this idea. Time zones were adopted by U.S.…

  • Dowd, Maureen (American reporter and columnist)

    Maureen Dowd, American reporter and Pulitzer Prize-winning op-ed columnist for The New York Times. Dowd was well-known for her sardonic, humorous, and disputatious writing style. Dowd attended Catholic University in Washington, D.C., where she graduated with a B.A. in English in 1973. The following

  • Dowd, Michael (American police officer)

    Mollen Commission: …was formed one month after Michael Dowd and five other NYPD officers assigned to two Brooklyn precincts were arrested by suburban Suffolk county police on charges of conspiracy to sell narcotics. Shortly after his arrest, various media outlets reported that Dowd had been the subject of 15 internal corruption complaints…

  • Dowd, Michael Delaney, Jr. (American television personality and singer)

    Mike Douglas, (Michael Delaney Dowd, Jr.), American television personality and singer (born Aug. 11, 1925, Chicago, Ill.—died Aug. 11, 2006, Palm Beach Gardens, Fla.), was the laid-back host of the daytime The Mike Douglas Show (1961–82), which featured musical acts, top celebrities of the day, a

  • Dowd, Nancy (American author and screenwriter)
  • Dowd, Tom (American recording engineer)

    rhythm and blues: …and, owing to its engineer, Tom Dowd, paid particular attention to the sound quality of their recordings. It introduced some of the top female names in rhythm and blues—most notably Ruth Brown and LaVern Baker—and signed Ray Charles, who had been imitating Charles Brown, and helped him find a new…

  • Dowden, Edward (Irish critic)

    Edward Dowden, Irish critic, biographer, and poet, noted for his critical work on Shakespeare. Educated at Queen’s College, Cork, and Trinity College, Dublin, Dowden became professor of English literature at Trinity in 1867 and lectured at Oxford (1890–93) and Cambridge (1893–96). His Shakspere: A

  • Dowding, Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron (British air chief marshal)

    Hugh Caswall Tremenheere Dowding, 1st Baron Dowding, British air chief marshal and head of Fighter Command during the Battle of Britain (1940) in World War II; he was largely responsible for defeating the German Air Force in its attempt to gain control of British skies in preparation for a German

  • Dowding, Peter McCallum (Australian politician)

    Western Australia: Western Australia since c. 1950: Peter McCallum Dowding took over the premiership in 1988 in the wake of the WA Inc fiasco and Burke’s imprisonment. Dowding resigned in 1990, and Labor replaced him with Carmen Lawrence, who thus became the first woman premier in Australia. Lawrence inherited the negative fallout…

  • dowel pin (tool)

    pin fastener: Hardened and precisely shaped dowel pins are used to keep machine components in accurate alignment; they are also used as location guides for adjacent machine parts and to keep the two sections of a punch and die in alignment.

  • dowelled joint (carpentry)

    joint: …sides of a drawer; the dowelled joint, in which dowelling is employed to impart mechanical strength; and the mortise and tenon, used to join a horizontal member with the vertical member of a frame.

  • dower (law)

    Dower, in common law, the life interest of a widow of a percentage (typically one-third) of the legal estates in real property owned by her husband at any time during the marriage. Originally there were varieties of dower (not to be confused with dowry) such as dower ad ostium ecclesiae ("at the

  • Dowie, John Alexander (American religious leader)

    John Alexander Dowie, U.S. evangelist and faith healer who founded the Christian Catholic Church and the City of Zion. Dowie moved with his family to Australia as a boy but returned to Edinburgh to study theology. He entered the Congregational ministry in 1870 as a pastor in Alma, Australia, and

  • dowitcher (bird)

    Dowitcher, any of three species of shorebirds belonging to the genus Limnodromus, family Scolopacidae. The dowitcher has a chunky appearance and a long bill like a snipe and, in breeding plumage, has reddish underparts, giving rise to the alternative names red-breasted snipe and robin snipe (given

  • Dowiyogo, Bernard (Nauruan politician)

    Bernard Dowiyogo, Nauruan politician (born Feb. 14, 1946, Nauru—died March 9, 2003, Washington, D.C.), served six times (1976–78, 1989–95, 1996, 1998–99, 2000–01, 2003) as president of the Pacific islet nation of Nauru. Dowiyogo was twice removed from office by a no-confidence vote—once, in 1996, a

  • Dowlaiswaram (India)

    Dowlaiswaram, town, northeast-central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It lies on the Godavari River delta, just south of Rajahmundry. Dowlaiswaram is located at the source of the great delta. It was there that the British civil engineer Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton built a dam more than 2 miles

  • Dowland, John (English musician)

    John Dowland, English composer, virtuoso lutenist, and skilled singer, one of the most famous musicians of his time. Nothing is known of Dowland’s childhood, but in 1580 he went to Paris as a “servant” to Sir Henry Cobham, the ambassador to the French court. In 1588 he received a bachelor of music

  • Dowlat-e Eslāmī-ye Afghānestān

    Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted

  • Dowlatshāh (Muslim author)

    Islamic arts: Eclecticism of ?Abd al-Ra?mān Jāmī: …Timurid court of Herāt, where Dowlatshāh (died 1494) composed his much-quoted biographical work on Persian poets. The leading figure in this circle was ?Abd al-Ra?mān Jāmī (died 1492), who is sometimes considered the last and most comprehensive of the “seven masters” in Persian literature, because he was a master of…

  • Dowleswaram (India)

    Dowlaiswaram, town, northeast-central Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It lies on the Godavari River delta, just south of Rajahmundry. Dowlaiswaram is located at the source of the great delta. It was there that the British civil engineer Sir Arthur Thomas Cotton built a dam more than 2 miles

  • Dowling, Doris (actress)

    The Blue Dahlia: …find his wife, Helen (Doris Dowling), in the midst of a torrid affair with the owner of the Blue Dahlia nightclub, Eddie Harwood (Howard Da Silva). Johnny and Helen have a fight, and Johnny leaves after threatening her with a gun. He is offered a ride by a beautiful…

  • down (sports)

    gridiron football: Walter Camp and the creation of American football: …or lose 10 in three downs (plays), or it would be obliged to surrender the ball to the other side. Camp was also responsible for having 11 players on a side, for devising a new scoring system in 1883 with two points for a touchdown, four points for the goal…

  • Down (former county, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Down, former (until 1973) county, eastern Northern Ireland. It was bounded by Belfast Lough (inlet of the sea; north), the Irish Sea (east), Carlingford Lough (south), former County Armagh (west), and former County Antrim (northwest). Down had an area of 952 square miles (2,466 square km), and it

  • Down (former district, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Down, former district (1973–2015) within the former County Down, now part of Newry, Mourne and Down district, situated on Northern Ireland’s eastern coast fronting Strangford Lough (inlet of the sea) and the Irish Sea. It was bordered by the former districts of Ards to the north; Castlereagh,

  • Down and Out in Beverly Hills (film by Mazursky [1986])

    Paul Mazursky: Films of the 1980s: The same is true of Down and Out in Beverly Hills (1986), but this time Mazursky and writing partner Leon Capetanos replaced the sentiment with laughs. The film—a reworking of Boudu Saved from Drowning (1932) by Jean Renoir, a director to whom Mazursky is often compared—was a merciless lampooning of…

  • Down and Out in Paris and London (work by Orwell)

    Down and Out in Paris and London, autobiographical work by George Orwell, published in 1933. Orwell’s first published book, it contains essays in which actual events are recounted in a fictionalized form. The book recounts that to atone for the guilt he feels about the conditions under which the

  • Down Argentine Way (film by Cummings [1940])

    Irving Cummings: Cummings had greater success with Down Argentine Way (1940), the splashy Technicolor musical that made Betty Grable a star and featured the American film debut of Carmen Miranda. That Night in Rio (1941) repeated the formula with less success; Ameche and Miranda (who sang “Chica Chica Boom Chic”) were joined…

  • Down at the Cross: Letter from a Region in My Mind (essay by Baldwin)

    The Fire Next Time: In the second essay, “Down at the Cross: Letter from a Region in My Mind,” Baldwin recounts his coming-of-age in Harlem, appraises the Black Muslim (Nation of Islam) movement, and gives a statement of his personal beliefs.

  • Down Below (book by Carrington)

    Leonora Carrington: …endured there in her book Down Below (1944). She managed to escape further psychiatric treatment and, through a marriage of convenience with Mexican diplomat Renato Leduc, secured passage to New York in 1941. She stayed in New York City about a year, and in that time she continued to write…

  • Down by Law (film by Jarmusch [1986])

    Jim Jarmusch: …such as the offbeat comedies Down by Law (1986), Mystery Train (1989), and Night on Earth (1992).

  • Down by the Old Mill Stream (song by Taylor)

    Findlay: …compose the popular song “Down by the Old Mill Stream.” During the 1880s Findlay was a booming centre of oil and natural gas production, and its Gas Jubilee of 1887 was one of the most spectacular celebrations ever staged in the area; the supply of petroleum had dwindled by…

  • Down by the River (song by Young)

    Neil Young: Early career: Buffalo Springfield and Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young: …about established forms, and “Down by the River,” a long, raw-edged guitar blitzkrieg around lyrics about murder, the album made Young an icon.

  • down feather (feather)

    bird: Feathers: Down feathers have loose-webbed barbs, all rising from the tip of a very short shaft. Their function is insulation, and they may be found in both pterylae and apteria in adult birds. They also constitute the first feather coat of most young birds. Filoplumes are…

  • down hair (mammalian hair)

    hair: …hairs called down hair, or vellus. Vellus covers every part of the body except the palms of the hands, the soles of the feet, undersurfaces of the fingers and toes, and a few other places. At and following puberty, this hair is supplemented by longer, coarser, more heavily pigmented hair…

  • Down Hearted Blues (recording by Smith)

    Bessie Smith: …recordings, including the classic “Down Hearted Blues,” which became an enormous success, selling more than two million copies. She made 160 recordings in all, in many of which she was accompanied by some of the great jazz musicians of the time, including Fletcher Henderson, Benny Goodman, and Louis Armstrong.…

  • Down in My Heart (work by Stafford)

    William Stafford: …thesis, which was published as Down in My Heart (1947). In 1968 he joined the faculty of Lewis and Clark College in Portland, Oregon, serving as English professor from 1960 to 1980. Stafford also was poetry consultant to the Library of Congress (1970–71; now poet laureate consultant in poetry) and…

  • Down in the Delta (film by Angelou [1998])

    Wesley Snipes: …featured Tommy Lee Jones; and Down in the Delta (1998), the directorial debut of Maya Angelou.

  • Down in the Valley (opera by Weill)

    Kurt Weill: Weill’s American folk opera Down in the Valley (1948) was much performed. Two of his songs, the “Moritat von Mackie Messer” (“Mack the Knife”) from Die Dreigroschenoper and “September Song” from Knickerbocker Holiday, have remained popular. Weill’s Concerto for violin, woodwinds, double bass, and percussion (1924), Symphony No. 1…

  • down quark (physics)

    quark: Quark flavours: down quark (charge ?13e) make up protons and neutrons and are thus the ones observed in ordinary matter. Strange quarks (charge ?13e) occur as components of K mesons and various other extremely short-lived subatomic particles that were first observed in cosmic rays

  • Down Second Avenue (work by Mphahlele)

    Es'kia Mphahlele: …writer, and teacher whose autobiography, Down Second Avenue (1959), is a South African classic. It combines the story of a young man’s growth into adulthood with penetrating social criticism of the conditions forced upon black South Africans by apartheid.

  • Down Stream (work by Huysmans)

    Joris-Karl Huysmans: …first was à vau-l’eau (1882; Down Stream), a tragicomic account of the misfortunes, largely sexual, of a humble civil servant, Folantin. à rebours (1884; Against the Grain), Huysmans’s best-known novel, relates the experiments in aesthetic decadence undertaken by the bored survivor of a noble line. The ambitious and controversial Là-bas…

  • Down syndrome (congenital disorder)

    Down syndrome, congenital disorder caused by the presence in the human genome of extra genetic material from chromosome 21. The affected individual may inherit an extra part of chromosome 21 or an entire extra copy of chromosome 21, a condition known as trisomy 21. British physician John Langdon

  • Down the River unto the Sea (novel by Mosley)

    Walter Mosley: Down the River unto the Sea (2018) centres on a New York City police investigator who tries to rebuild his life after being wrongly convicted of assault.

  • Down There (work by Huysmans)

    black mass: Joris-Karl Huysmans’s novel Là-bas (1891; Down There) describes a black mass celebrated in late 19th-century France.

  • Down to Earth (film by Chris and Paul Weitz [2001])

    Louis C.K.: …writer on the Rock-starring films Down to Earth (2001) and I Think I Love My Wife (2007).

  • Down’s syndrome (congenital disorder)

    Down syndrome, congenital disorder caused by the presence in the human genome of extra genetic material from chromosome 21. The affected individual may inherit an extra part of chromosome 21 or an entire extra copy of chromosome 21, a condition known as trisomy 21. British physician John Langdon

  • Down, John Langdon (British physician)

    Down syndrome: British physician John Langdon Down first described the physical features of Down syndrome in 1866, and thus the disorder was later named for him.

  • down-the-line shooting (sport)

    Trapshooting, sport in which participants use shotguns for shooting at saucer-shaped clay targets flung into the air from a spring device called a trap. A later variant, skeet shooting, is also included in trapshooting. Trapshooting originated in England in the late 18th century when marksmen, to

  • downburst (meteorology)

    thunderstorm: Downbursts: Sometimes thunderstorms will produce intense downdrafts that create damaging winds on the ground. These downdrafts are referred to as macrobursts or microbursts, depending on their size. A macroburst is more than 4 km (2.5 miles) in diameter and can produce winds as high as…

  • downdraft (meteorology)

    updraft and downdraft: downdraft, in meteorology, upward-moving and downward-moving air currents, respectively, that are due to several causes. Local daytime heating of the ground causes surface air to become much warmer than the air above, and, because warmer air is less dense, it rises and is replaced by…

  • downdraw process (glassmaking)

    industrial glass: Tubes and rods: In the downdraw process, molten glass is allowed to flow vertically downward through a defined orifice and is pulled by traction from below. The orifice controls the thickness of the tube wall and the shape of the bore. The process allows the forming of complex cross sections,…

  • Downer, Alexander (Australian politician)

    Alexander Downer, Australian Liberal Party politician who led his party for a brief period in 1994–95 and who served as minister of foreign affairs (1996–2007) and as Australia’s high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2014–18). Downer came from a well-connected political family. His father, Sir

  • Downer, Alexander John Gosse (Australian politician)

    Alexander Downer, Australian Liberal Party politician who led his party for a brief period in 1994–95 and who served as minister of foreign affairs (1996–2007) and as Australia’s high commissioner to the United Kingdom (2014–18). Downer came from a well-connected political family. His father, Sir

  • Downes v. Bidwell (law case)

    Henry Billings Brown: …a controversial opinion concurring in Downes v. Bidwell (one of the Insular Cases), in which he declared that peoples of annexed territories were not entitled to constitutionally guaranteed rights and privileges.

  • Downes, Sir Edward (British conductor)

    Sir Edward Downes, British conductor (born June 17, 1924, Birmingham, Eng.—died July 10, 2009, Zürich, Switz.), was a leading figure for decades at opera houses around the world. Downes was most noted for his long associations with the Royal Opera House (ROH) in London—initially as a french horn

  • Downey (California, United States)

    Downey, city, Los Angeles county, southern California, U.S. Situated about 10 miles (16 km) east of the Pacific Ocean, it lies just southeast of central Los Angeles. The area became part of Rancho Los Nietos, a Spanish land grant to Manuel Nieto, in 1784, and, when Nieto’s lands were subdivided

  • Downey, June Etta (American psychologist)

    June Etta Downey, American psychologist and educator whose studies centred on the psychology of aesthetics and related philosophical issues. Downey graduated from the University of Wyoming in 1895. After a year of teaching school in Laramie, she resumed her education at the University of Chicago,

  • Downey, Morton, Jr. (American talk show host)

    Morton Downey, Jr., American television talk-show host (born Dec. 9, 1933, New York, N.Y.—died March 12, 2001, Los Angeles, Calif.), pioneered tabloid-style television as the abrasive host of The Morton Downey Jr. Show, which aired from 1987 to 1989. Downey worked as an actor, singer-songwriter, a

  • Downey, Robert John, Jr. (American actor)

    Robert Downey, Jr., American actor considered one of Hollywood’s most gifted and versatile performers. Downey was raised in an artistic household in New York City’s Greenwich Village; his father was a noted underground filmmaker who gave the five-year-old Downey his first part. After dropping out

  • Downey, Robert, Jr. (American actor)

    Robert Downey, Jr., American actor considered one of Hollywood’s most gifted and versatile performers. Downey was raised in an artistic household in New York City’s Greenwich Village; his father was a noted underground filmmaker who gave the five-year-old Downey his first part. After dropping out

  • Downhill (film by Faxon and Rash [2020])

    Will Ferrell: His later film credits included Downhill (2020), a dramedy about a struggling couple on a family vacation.

  • Downhill Racer (film by Ritchie [1969])

    Michael Ritchie: Films: Ritchie’s first feature was Downhill Racer (1969), with Robert Redford as an arrogant, talented star of an Olympic ski team; Gene Hackman played his coach. Competition became a common theme in the director’s later films, a number of which were set in the world of sports. Prime Cut (1972)…

  • downhill skiing (winter sport)

    Downhill skiing, ski race for speed on an adjusted downhill course that is marked by gates formed by paired poles, set at least 8 metres (26 feet) apart, through which the racer must pass. Contestants make at least one timed practice run, then compete singly in an order set by previous performance

  • Downing Street Declaration (United Kingdom-Ireland [1993])

    the Troubles: The Anglo-Irish Agreement and Downing Street Declaration: …Declaration , which established a framework for all-party peace talks. A cease-fire declared by the Provos in 1994 and joined by the principal loyalist paramilitary groups fell apart in 1996 because Sinn Féin, which had replaced the more moderate Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) as the leading nationalist party,…

  • Downing Street memo (United Kingdom-United States history)

    blog: Political blogs: …the substance of the so-called Downing Street memo, which purportedly showed that the Bush administration had deliberately “juiced up” military intelligence to support war against Iraq. Criticism of the mainstream media has come not only from the left. Dan Rather, a news anchor for CBS TV, was no doubt ushered…

  • Downing, A. M. W. (British astronomer)

    Simon Newcomb: Accomplishments: …was his inauguration, jointly with A.M.W. Downing, then superintendent of the British Nautical Almanac Office, of a worldwide unified system of astronomical constants, which was later to lead to the outstandingly successful scheme of international collaboration among the principal almanac makers of the world that survived two World Wars with…

  • Downing, Andrew Jackson (American horticulturalist and landscape architect)

    Andrew Jackson Downing, American horticulturist, landscape gardener, and architect, the first great landscape designer in the United States. Downing was born into horticulture, his father being a nurseryman. After finishing his schooling at 16, he worked in his father’s nursery and gradually became

  • Downing, Major Jack (fictional character)

    Seba Smith: …humorist, creator of the fictional Major Jack Downing.

  • Downing, Sir George (English diplomat)

    Sir George Downing, English diplomat and financial administrator who helped precipitate two wars with the Dutch and who instituted major reforms in public finance. Downing Street, London, where the residence of the British prime minister is located, is named for him. The son of a Puritan lawyer,

  • downlink (communications)

    telecommunications media: Satellite links: …to satellite receiver) and a downlink (a link from satellite transmitter to terrestrial receiver). Most telecommunications satellites have been placed in geostationary orbit (GEO), a circular orbit 35,785 km (22,235 miles) above the Earth in which the period of their revolution around the Earth equals the period of the Earth’s…

  • Downpatrick (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Downpatrick, town, Newry, Mourne, and Down district, southeastern Northern Ireland. Downpatrick is located where the River Quoilé broadens into its estuary in Strangford Lough (inlet of the sea). The town takes its name from dún (fortress) and from its association with St. Patrick. It is the

  • Downs (hills, England, United Kingdom)

    Downs, rounded and grass-covered hills in southern England that are typically composed of chalk. The name comes from the Old English dūn (“hill”). The main areas of chalk downs lie in Berkshire, Wiltshire, and northern Hampshire, with spurs running eastward into West Sussex, Surrey, and Kent.

  • Downs herring (fish)

    migration: Oceanodromous fish: …Sea between Denmark and Norway; Downs herring spawn from November to January off the French coast, mainly between Dunkirk and Fécamp, then feed in summer in the middle and northern parts of the North Sea, sharing the feeding grounds with other populations. The diversity of migration and of reproductive seasons…

  • Downs, Anthony (American political scientist)

    political science: Theory of rational choice: …work in rational choice theory, Anthony Downs claimed that significant elements of political life could be explained in terms of voter self-interest. Downs showed that in democracies the aggregate distribution of political opinion forms a bell-shaped curve, with most voters possessing moderate opinions; he argued that this fact forces political…

  • Downs, Battle of the (European history)

    Maarten Tromp: In the Battle of the Downs, the armada was completely defeated, suffering severe losses in both ships and manpower. Tromp was knighted by Louis XIII in 1640 and by Charles I in 1642 when he visited Dover to escort Queen Henrietta Maria and Princess Mary to Holland.…

  • Downs, Cathy (American actress)

    My Darling Clementine: …former fiancée Clementine Carter (Cathy Downs), whose presence causes a rivalry between the two men. When the Clantons kill Virgil, Doc joins Wyatt and Morgan in a violent showdown against the Clantons at the O.K. Corral. The Clantons are defeated, though Doc is also killed. Wyatt and Morgan opt…

  • Downs, Hugh (American television host)

    Barbara Walters: …named cohost of Today with Hugh Downs. The following year she won an Emmy for her work on the show.

  • Downs, Thomas Nelson (American magician)

    conjuring: In 1903, Okito, T. Nelson Downs, the Great Lafayette, Servais LeRoy, Paul Valadon, Howard Thurston, and Horace Goldin, a veritable all-star team of renowned conjurers, appeared simultaneously in different London theatres. At the same time, Max Malini (1873–1942) traveled the globe giving impromptu performances in private settings for…

  • Downs-cell process (chemistry)

    alkali metal: History: …replaced in 1926 by the Downs cell process. This process, in which a molten sodium chloride–calcium chloride mixture (to reduce the melting point) is electrolyzed, produces both sodium metal and chlorine.

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