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  • dust storm

    Mars: Basic atmospheric data: Dust storms are common on Mars. They can occur at any time but are most frequent in southern spring and summer, when Mars is passing closest to the Sun and surface temperatures are at their highest. Most of the storms are regional in extent and…

  • dust tail (comet)

    comet: General considerations: …glowing comae and their long dust tails and ion tails. Comets can appear at random from any direction and provide a fabulous and ever-changing display for many months as they move in highly eccentric orbits around the Sun.

  • Dust Tracks on a Road (autobiography by Hurston)

    Dust Tracks on a Road, autobiography of Zora Neale Hurston, published in 1942. Controversial for its refusal to examine the effects of racism or segregation, Dust Tracks on a Road opens with the author’s childhood in Eatonville, Fla., the site of the first organized African American effort at

  • dust, cosmic (astronomy)

    Interplanetary dust particle (IDP), a small grain, generally less than a few hundred micrometres in size and composed of silicate minerals and glassy nodules but sometimes including sulfides, metals, other minerals, and carbonaceous material, in orbit around the Sun. The existence of interplanetary

  • dust, volcanic (geology)

    volcano: Explosions: Volcanic dust is the finest, usually about the consistency of flour. Volcanic ash is also fine but more gritty, with particles up to the size of grains of rice. Cinders, sometimes called scoriae, are the next in size; these coarse fragments can range from 2…

  • Dustan, Hannah Emerson (American colonial heroine)

    Hannah Emerson Duston, American colonial heroine who survived capture by Native Americans, escaping through her own resources. Hannah Emerson was married to Thomas Duston in 1677. During King William’s War (1689–97) the French under Count Frontenac frequently incited Native Americans to raid the

  • Dustin, Hannah Emerson (American colonial heroine)

    Hannah Emerson Duston, American colonial heroine who survived capture by Native Americans, escaping through her own resources. Hannah Emerson was married to Thomas Duston in 1677. During King William’s War (1689–97) the French under Count Frontenac frequently incited Native Americans to raid the

  • dusting (pest-control method)

    Spraying and dusting, in agriculture, the standard methods of applying pest-control chemicals and other compounds. In spraying, the chemicals to be applied are dissolved or suspended in water or, less commonly, in an oil-based carrier. The mixture is then applied as a fine mist to plants, animals,

  • dusting (zoology)

    dipteran: General appearance: …with a fine coating called tomentum or dusting. Many flies, particularly those of more highly evolved families, are bristly; and the strongest bristles have a precise location, particularly on the thorax. The arrangement of bristles and the identification method based on them is called chaetotaxy.

  • dusting bag (printmaking)

    printmaking: Aquatint: Dusting bags are made of various materials; the finer the material, the finer the dust coming through. The dusting bags have the advantage of allowing the artist to visually control the amount of dust deposited and also to use different textures in different areas.

  • Duston, Hannah Emerson (American colonial heroine)

    Hannah Emerson Duston, American colonial heroine who survived capture by Native Americans, escaping through her own resources. Hannah Emerson was married to Thomas Duston in 1677. During King William’s War (1689–97) the French under Count Frontenac frequently incited Native Americans to raid the

  • dustūr (East African law)

    ?ādah: …?urf, and in East Africa, dustūr. Muslim communities developed their ?ādahs before accepting Islām and did not abandon them entirely afterward. Thus in Indonesian Minangkabau, where many Muslims still retain old Hindu or pagan traditions, a matriarchate is recognized, contrary to the Sharī?ah; in parts of India, Muslims adopt children,…

  • Dustūr al-amal li islah al-khalal (work by Katip ?elebi)

    Katip ?elebi: …history of the Ottoman navy; Dustūr al-amal li islah al-khalal (“Instructions for the Reform of Abuses”) is a treatise suggesting remedies for the economic crisis in the Ottoman Empire of his day; and Mizan al-?aqq fi ikhtijārī al-ahaqq (The Balance of Truth) defends positive sciences and Islāmic doctrine and criticizes…

  • Dusty Answer (work by Lehmann)

    Rosamond Nina Lehmann: …portion of her first novel, Dusty Answer (1927), a finely told story of a girl moving through childhood and adolescence to the complexity of mature emotions. Invitation to the Waltz (1932) is a slight, but wholly realized, work about a girl’s timid confrontation with social demands. The girl appears again,…

  • Dusty Foot Philosopher, The (album by K’naan)

    K'Naan: In 2005 K’Naan released The Dusty Foot Philosopher, a rap album that fused traditional African instrumentation to the familiar structures of American hip-hop. Among its standout tracks, “Soobax” (Somali: “Come Out”) was a direct challenge to the warlords of his native land, rapped and sung in a mix of…

  • Dusty in Memphis (album by Springfield)

    Dusty Springfield: …in 1968 and cut her Dusty in Memphis (1969) album in the famed American Sound Studios with producers Jerry Wexler and Arif Mardin. The album brought her critical acclaim and an international hit with “Son of a Preacher Man.”

  • dusty miller (plant)

    cineraria: …types: the garden species, especially dusty miller (S. cineraria); and the greenhouse varieties of S. cruentus, commonly referred to simply as cinerarias.

  • dusty plasma (physics)

    plasma: The lower atmosphere and surface of the Earth: …has much in common with dusty plasmas in planetary rings and other cosmic systems. Noctilucent clouds have been increasing in frequency throughout the 20th century and may be a forerunner of global change.

  • Dusun (people)

    Kadazan, term embracing a number of peoples that together constitute the largest indigenous ethnic group in the state of Sabah, Malaysia, on the northeastern extremity of the island of Borneo. The Kadazan are grouped along the coastal plain from Kudat to Beaufort and in the hills around Tambunan.

  • dutār (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Lutes: …Asian lutes, such as the dutār, use movable gut or nylon string frets, tied on so they can be adjusted to the mode of the music. The metal frets of the Indian sitar are tied on with strings for the same reason.

  • dutasteride (biochemistry)

    prostate cancer: Prevention: …some instances, a drug called dutasteride may be prescribed to men who, on the basis of PSA level, are at high risk of prostate cancer. This agent, originally approved for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia, works by inhibiting an enzyme called 5-alpha-reductase, which converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. The drug…

  • Dutch (people)

    Netherlands: Ethnic groups: Popular belief holds that the Dutch are a mixture of Frisians, Saxons, and Franks. In fact, research has made plausible the contention that the autochthonous inhabitants of the region were a mixture of pre-Germanic and Germanic population groups who in the course of time had converged on the main deltaic…

  • Dutch auction (business)

    auction: By contrast, in a so-called Dutch auction, the seller offers property at successively lower prices until one of his offers is accepted or until the price drops so low as to force the withdrawal of the offered property.

  • Dutch barge dog (breed of dog)

    Keeshond, breed of dog long kept on Dutch barges as a guard and companion. Originally a dog kept by working-class people, the keeshond was the symbol of the 18th-century Dutch Patriots Party. It derived its present name from a dog, Kees, belonging to Kees de Gyselaer, the leader of the Patriots.

  • Dutch Baroque style (Dutch architecture)

    Pieter Post: …Campen, created the sober, characteristically Dutch Baroque style.

  • Dutch bond (masonry)

    Flemish bond, in masonry, method of bonding bricks or stones in courses. See

  • Dutch cap (contraceptive)

    contraception: Barrier devices: …the uterine cervix with a diaphragm or cervical cap (used with a spermicidal cream or jelly), or by inserting a female condom (vaginal pouch) or a vaginal sponge permeated with a spermicide. The vaginal sponge is less effective than other devices but can be used for 24 hours. Spermicides, which—as…

  • Dutch cheese (food)

    Cottage cheese, fresh, soft, unripened cheese consisting of curds of varying sizes, usually mixed with some whey or cream. It is white and mild but faintly sour in taste. In commercial cheese making, the curds are derived from pasteurized skim milk or reconstituted, low-fat milk products. The whey

  • Dutch collar (harness)

    horse collar: A Dutch collar consists of a broad band across the chest and a narrow band over the withers; traces are attached to the broad band. A hames collar is heavily padded; iron projections (hames) that surround the padding contain eyepieces for the reins and traces.

  • Dutch colonial style (architectural style)

    Western architecture: Colonial architecture in North America: (2) The Dutch colonial, centring in the Hudson River Valley, in western Long Island, and in northern New Jersey, made more use of stone and brick or a combination of these with wood; its prototypes were in Holland and Flanders. The style persisted in this region until…

  • Dutch Courtezan, The (play by Marston)

    John Marston: The Dutch Courtezan (produced 1603–04) as well as The Malcontent earned him his place as a dramatist. The former, with its coarse, farcical counterplot, was considered one of the cleverest comedies of its time. Although Marston used all the apparatus of contemporary revenge tragedy in…

  • Dutch door (construction)

    door: The Dutch door, a door cut in two near the middle, allowing the upper half to open while the lower half remains closed, descends from a traditional Flemish-Dutch type. The half door, being approximately half height and hung near the centre of the doorway, was especially…

  • Dutch East India Company (Dutch trading company)

    Dutch East India Company, trading company founded in the Dutch Republic (present-day Netherlands) in 1602 to protect that state’s trade in the Indian Ocean and to assist in the Dutch war of independence from Spain. The company prospered through most of the 17th century as the instrument of the

  • Dutch East Indies (islands, Southeast Asia)

    Dutch East Indies, one of the overseas territories of the Netherlands until December 1949, now Indonesia. This territory was made up of Sumatra and adjacent islands, Java with Madura, Borneo (except for North Borneo, which is now part of Malaysia and of Brunei), Celebes with Sangihe and Talaud

  • Dutch elm disease (plant disease)

    Dutch elm disease, widespread fungoid killer of elms (Ulmus species) and certain other trees, first described in the Netherlands. Spread by bark beetles, the disease has decimated elm populations throughout much of Europe and North America. Dutch elm disease is caused by three species of ascomycete

  • Dutch gin (alcoholic beverage)

    gin: Netherlands gins, known as Hollands, geneva, genever, or Schiedam, for a distilling centre near Rotterdam, are made from a mash containing barley malt, fermented to make beer. The beer is distilled, producing spirits called malt wine, with 50–55 percent alcohol content by volume. This product is distilled again with…

  • Dutch Guiana

    Suriname, country located on the northern coast of South America. Suriname is one of the smallest countries in South America, yet its population is one of the most ethnically diverse in the region. Its economy is dependent on its extensive supply of natural resources, most notably bauxite, of which

  • Dutch Guiana (national capital, Suriname)

    Paramaribo, largest city, capital, and chief port of Suriname. It lies on the Suriname River 9 miles (15 km) from the Atlantic Ocean. Paramaribo is built on a shingle reef that stands 16 feet (5 metres) above the river at low tide. Access from the ocean is limited by a sandbar that allows a depth

  • Dutch House, The (novel by Patchett)

    Ann Patchett: Her next novel, The Dutch House (2019), is a fairy tale that follows two siblings who are deserted by their mother and left penniless by their stepmother.

  • Dutch Interiors (paintings by Miró)

    Joan Miró: Paris and early work: …on Old Master paintings titled Dutch Interiors (1928). In the 1930s Miró became more experimental, working with techniques of collage and sculptural assemblage and creating sets and costumes for ballets. He designed tapestries in 1934, which led to his interest in the monumental and in murals. His paintings began to…

  • Dutch language

    Dutch language, a West Germanic language that is the national language of the Netherlands and, with French and German, one of the three official languages of Belgium. Although speakers of English usually call the language of the Netherlands “Dutch” and the language of Belgium “Flemish,” they are

  • Dutch literature

    Dutch literature, the body of written works in the Dutch language as spoken in the Netherlands and northern Belgium. The Dutch-language literature of Belgium is treated in Belgian literature. Of the earliest inhabitants of the Netherlands, only the Frisians have survived, and they have maintained a

  • Dutch metal

    Dutch metal, brass with a yellow colour simulating that of gold. The percentage of copper ranges from 85 to 88, the remainder being zinc. As the zinc content becomes higher, the colour becomes paler. Highly ductile and malleable, Dutch metal is used in bronzing and in preparing imitation gold

  • Dutch mordant (printmaking)

    printmaking: Hard-ground etching: …it is common to use Dutch mordant (nine parts of water saturated with potassium chlorate to one part of hydrochloric acid) on copper. For a rugged, irregular bite, nitric acid (one part to nine parts of water) is used on zinc. A plate can be etched in stages by covering…

  • Dutch Nederlands

    Dutch language, a West Germanic language that is the national language of the Netherlands and, with French and German, one of the three official languages of Belgium. Although speakers of English usually call the language of the Netherlands “Dutch” and the language of Belgium “Flemish,” they are

  • Dutch Patriots Party (political party)

    keeshond: …the symbol of the 18th-century Dutch Patriots Party. It derived its present name from a dog, Kees, belonging to Kees de Gyselaer, the leader of the Patriots. Descended from the same ancestors as the Samoyed, Norwegian elkhound, spitz, and Pomeranian, the keeshond has a foxlike face and a plumed tail…

  • Dutch press (machine)

    printing: Improvements after Gutenberg: …automatically; this was the so-called Dutch press, a copy of which was to be the first press introduced into North America, by Stephen Daye at Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1639.

  • Dutch process (food processing)

    cocoa: Dutch process: Dutch-process cocoa powders and chocolate liquors are treated at the nib, liquor, or powder stage. The treatment is frequently referred to as “Dutching” because the process, first applied by C.J. van Houten in the Netherlands, was introduced as “Dutch cocoa.” In this alkalizing…

  • Dutch quay (harbour design)

    harbours and sea works: Structural reinforcement: …increasingly favoured is the so-called Dutch quay. In this design, after the line of sheetpiling has been driven using one of the heavier and stiffer sections, the ground behind is excavated for a distance determined by the natural slope of the material to be used as filling and taken down…

  • Dutch Reformed Church (American Protestant denomination)

    Reformed Church in America, church that developed from the Dutch settlements in New Netherlands (New York) in the 17th century. The Dutch Reformed Church was the first Reformed church of continental European background in North America. During the period of Dutch sovereignty over New Netherlands,

  • Dutch Reformed Church (South African Protestant denomination)

    Dutch Reformed Church, South African denomination that traces its beginnings to the Reformed tradition of the first white settlers who came to South Africa from the Netherlands in the mid-17th century. It is the main church of the Afrikaans-speaking whites, and its present membership covers a large

  • Dutch Reformed Church (Dutch Protestant denomination)

    Netherlands Reformed Church, Protestant church in the Reformed (Calvinist) tradition, the successor of the established Dutch Reformed Church that developed during the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century. In 2004 it merged with two other churches—the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands

  • Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (South African Protestant denomination)

    Dutch Reformed Church in Africa, denomination formed in 1859 by the all-white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa for its black African mission congregations. It has the same structure, doctrine, traditions, and customs as the mother church, which retains extensive control over it by supplying 8

  • Dutch Reformed Mission Church in South Africa (South African Protestant denomination)

    Dutch Reformed Mission Church in South Africa, denomination established in 1881 by three congregations that separated from the white Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa to form the nucleus of a semiautonomous denomination for people of racially mixed parentage (Coloureds). The church parallels

  • Dutch Republic (historical state, Europe)

    Dutch Republic, (1588–1795), state whose area comprised approximately that of the present Kingdom of the Netherlands and which achieved a position of world power in the 17th century. The republic consisted of the seven northern Netherlands provinces that won independence from Spain from 1568 to

  • Dutch Royal Library (library, The Hague, Netherlands)

    library: Other national collections: The Dutch Royal Library in The Hague was founded in 1798, and it, too, is the centre of a well-developed interlibrary loan system. Because the unification of Italy in the 19th century brought together many city-states that had major libraries, the country has a number of…

  • Dutch rush (plant species)

    horsetail: Common scouring rush (E. hyemale), occurring in moist woods and on riverbanks, reaches well over a metre in height. The evergreen shoots often were used for scouring pots and pans in earlier times.

  • Dutch system (furniture design)

    furniture: Fixed and mechanical tables: …a tabletop is the so-called Dutch system, known since the 17th century from Dutch engravings and paintings, in which the extension leaves, when pulled, slide out on sloping runners. When the leaves have been fully extended, the top is lifted and then dropped into place. The table height remains the…

  • Dutch War (1672–1678)

    Dutch War, (1672–78), the second war of conquest by Louis XIV of France, whose chief aim in the conflict was to establish French possession of the Spanish Netherlands after having forced the Dutch Republic’s acquiescence. The Third Anglo-Dutch War (1672–74) formed part of this general war. After h

  • Dutch ware (pottery)

    Dutch ware, principally tin-enameled earthenware, with some porcelain, manufactured in the Netherlands since the end of the 16th century. The earliest pottery wares were painted in the style of Italian majolica with high-temperature colours and are usually called Netherlands majolica. In the early

  • Dutch Wars (European history)

    Anglo-Dutch Wars, (English Wars), the four 17th- and 18th-century naval conflicts between England and the Dutch Republic. The first three wars, stemming from commercial rivalry, established England’s naval might, and the last, arising from Dutch interference in the American Revolution, spelled t

  • Dutch wax-printed fabric (textile)

    Yinka Shonibare: …is his use of so-called Dutch wax-printed fabric, produced by means of a batiklike technique. Exported from the Netherlands and elsewhere in Europe in the late 19th century, the brightly coloured patterned fabric was meant to imitate Indonesian cloth and was enthusiastically adopted in West Africa, so this inauthentic Indonesian…

  • Dutch West India Company (Dutch trading company)

    Dutch West India Company, Dutch trading company, founded in 1621 mainly to carry on economic warfare against Spain and Portugal by striking at their colonies in the West Indies and South America and on the west coast of Africa. While attaining its greatest success against the Portuguese in Brazil

  • Dutch yellow crocus (plant)

    Crocus: Dutch yellow crocus (C. flavus), from stony slopes in southeastern Europe, is another popular spring species, as is C. biflorus, tinged purple and with yellow throat, sometimes striped, from the Mediterranean.

  • Dutchess (county, New York, United States)

    Dutchess, county, southeastern New York state, U.S., bounded by Connecticut to the east and the Hudson River to the west. The land rises from the Hudson valley to the Taconic Range along the Connecticut border and is drained by the Tenmile River and Fishkill, Wappinger, and Little Wappinger creeks.

  • Dutching (food processing)

    cocoa: Dutch process: Dutch-process cocoa powders and chocolate liquors are treated at the nib, liquor, or powder stage. The treatment is frequently referred to as “Dutching” because the process, first applied by C.J. van Houten in the Netherlands, was introduced as “Dutch cocoa.” In this alkalizing…

  • Dutchman (play by Baraka)

    Dutchman, one-act drama by Amiri Baraka, produced and published in 1964 under the playwright’s original name LeRoi Jones. Dutchman presents a stylized encounter that illustrates hatred between blacks and whites in America as well as the political and psychological conflicts facing black American

  • Dutchman’s breeches (plant)

    Dutchman’s breeches, (Dicentra cucullaria), herbaceous plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae) named for its sprays of tremulous, yellow-tipped white flowers that fancifully resemble the wide-legged, traditional pantaloons worn by Dutch men. The plant is native throughout eastern and midwestern

  • Dutchman’s log (navigational instrument)

    navigation: Distance and speed measurements: …the speed is the so-called Dutchman’s log, in which a floating object, the log, was dropped overboard from the bow of the ship; the time elapsing before it passed the stern was counted off by the navigator, who kept it in sight while walking the length of the vessel. This…

  • Dutchman’s-pipe (plant)

    Dutchman’s-pipe, (Aristolochia durior), climbing vine of the birthwort family (Aristolochiaceae), native to central and eastern North America. The heart-shaped or kidney-shaped leaves are about 15 to 35 cm (about 6 to 14 inches) wide. The yellowish brown or purplish brown tubular flowers resemble a

  • Dutert, Ferdinand (French architect)

    Western architecture: Construction in iron and glass: … (at the 1889 exhibition) by Ferdinand Dutert and Victor Contamin, a series of three-hinged trussed arches sprang from small points across a huge space, 385 feet (117 metres) long and 150 feet (45 metres) high. Similar spaces had already been created in railway stations in England such as St. Pancras,…

  • Duterte, Digong (president of the Philippines)

    Rodrigo Duterte, Filipino politician who was elected president of the Philippines in 2016. Duterte’s father served as governor of the province of Davao, and his mother was a community activist who had a prominent role in the “people power” movement that deposed the authoritarian president Ferdinand

  • Duterte, Rodrigo (president of the Philippines)

    Rodrigo Duterte, Filipino politician who was elected president of the Philippines in 2016. Duterte’s father served as governor of the province of Davao, and his mother was a community activist who had a prominent role in the “people power” movement that deposed the authoritarian president Ferdinand

  • Duties of the Heart (work by Bahya)

    Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda: An English translation, Duties of the Heart (1925–47; reprinted 1962), was completed by Moses Hyamson.

  • Dutilleux, Henri (French composer)

    Henri Dutilleux, French composer who produced a relatively small body of carefully crafted compositions that were frequently performed outside France, particularly in Great Britain and the United States. Dutilleux was born into a creative family that had produced painters and musicians. He was

  • Dutilleux, Henri Paul Julien (French composer)

    Henri Dutilleux, French composer who produced a relatively small body of carefully crafted compositions that were frequently performed outside France, particularly in Great Britain and the United States. Dutilleux was born into a creative family that had produced painters and musicians. He was

  • Dutongjian lun (work by Wang Fuzhi)

    Wang Fuzhi: His best-known studies are the Dutongjian lun (“Commentary on Reading the Comprehensive Mirror” of Sima Guang) and the Song lun (“Commentary on the Song”), in which he clearly demonstrated the differences between the institutions of ancient China that were sanctified in the Confucian Classics and the institutions of the Chinese…

  • Dutra, Eurico Gaspar (president of Brazil)

    Eurico Gaspar Dutra, soldier and president of Brazil (1945–50), whose administration was noted for its restoration of constitutional democracy. Dutra was commissioned a second lieutenant in the cavalry in 1910 and received routine assignments and promotions for the next 22 years. He consistently

  • Dutrochet, Henri (French physiologist)

    Henri Dutrochet, French physiologist who discovered and named the phenomenon of osmosis (the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane) and was the first to recognize the importance of green pigment in the use of carbon dioxide by plant cells. Dutrochet studied medicine in Paris (M.D.,

  • Dutrochet, René-Joachim-Henri (French physiologist)

    Henri Dutrochet, French physiologist who discovered and named the phenomenon of osmosis (the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane) and was the first to recognize the importance of green pigment in the use of carbon dioxide by plant cells. Dutrochet studied medicine in Paris (M.D.,

  • Dutroux, Marc (Belgian serial killer)

    Marc Dutroux, Belgian serial killer whose case provoked outrage at the lax response of law enforcement agencies. So intense was the public’s reaction that more than one-third of Belgians with the surname Dutroux changed their names. Dutroux had a lengthy record as a juvenile delinquent and petty

  • Dutse (Nigeria)

    Dutse, market town, capital of Jigawa state, northern Nigeria. It lies north of the road between Kano city and Birnin Kudu. The undulating relief of the area is covered by Sudan savanna. Dutse became the capital of Jigawa state in 1991 when Jigawa was split off from Kano state. Livestock herding is

  • Dutsen Habude (cave, Nigeria)

    Birnin Kudu: …known as the site of Dutsen Habude, a cave containing Neolithic paintings of cattle (which bear strong resemblance to some found in the central Sahara) and rock gongs believed to be more than 2,000 years old. It is a collecting point for peanuts (groundnuts), which are sent to Kano city…

  • Dutt, Balraj (Indian actor and politician)

    Sunil Dutt, Indian actor, producer, director, social activist, and politician who was especially known for his several acting roles as a dacoit (member of an armed gang of bandits). While he continued to act until the time of his death, he assumed other offscreen roles in the film industry and also

  • Dutt, Guru (Indian filmmaker and actor)

    Guru Dutt, Hindi motion-picture producer, director, writer, and actor, whose mastery of such elements as mood and lighting in a group of melodramas made him one of the best-known and most-accomplished stylists of Bollywood’s golden age. Educated in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Dutt trained at Uday

  • Dutt, Michael Madhusudan (Indian author)

    Michael Madhusudan Datta, poet and dramatist, the first great poet of modern Bengali literature. Datta was a dynamic, erratic personality and an original genius of a high order. He was educated at the Hindu College, Calcutta, the cultural home of the Western-educated Bengali middle class. In 1843

  • Dutt, Narendranath (Hindu leader)

    Vivekananda, Hindu spiritual leader and reformer in India who attempted to combine Indian spirituality with Western material progress, maintaining that the two supplemented and complemented one another. His Absolute was a person’s own higher self; to labour for the benefit of humanity was the

  • Dutt, Romesh Chunder (Indian political leader)

    India: Reforms of the British Liberals: …Congress Party leaders, such as Romesh Chunder Dutt (1848–1909), and overriding the bitter opposition of not only the ICS but also his own viceroy and council. Morley believed, as did many other British Liberal politicians, that the only justification for British rule over India was to bequeath to the government…

  • Dutt, Sunil (Indian actor and politician)

    Sunil Dutt, Indian actor, producer, director, social activist, and politician who was especially known for his several acting roles as a dacoit (member of an armed gang of bandits). While he continued to act until the time of his death, he assumed other offscreen roles in the film industry and also

  • Dutt, Utpal (Indian director)

    Utpal Dutt, Indian actor, director, and writer who was a radical figure in Bengali theatre and cinema for more than 40 years. Dutt was educated in Calcutta, where he founded the Calcutta Little Theatre Group in 1947. He twice toured with the Shakespearean International Theatre Company (1947–49;

  • Du??hagāma?ī (king of Sri Lanka)

    Du??hagāma?ī, king of Sri Lanka (101–77 bce or 161–137 bce) who is remembered as a national hero for temporarily ending the domination of the Indian Tamil Hindus over the Sinhalese, most of whom were Buddhist. Though a historical figure, details of his life have become indistinguishable from myth,

  • Dutton, Clarence Edward (American geologist)

    Clarence Edward Dutton, American geologist and pioneer seismologist who developed and named the principle of isostasy. According to this principle, the level of the Earth’s crust is determined by its density; lighter material rises, forming continents, mountains, and plateaus, and heavier material

  • Dutton, Geoffrey Piers Henry (Australian writer, critic, publisher and activist)

    Geoffrey Piers Henry Dutton, Australian writer, critic, publisher, and activist (born Aug. 2, 1922, Anlaby, Australia—died Sept. 17, 1998, Canberra, Australia), was one of the country’s leading literary figures and helped revive support for the republican movement. Dutton studied at the U

  • Dutton, Peter (Australian politician)

    Malcolm Turnbull: …Party from Home Affairs minister Peter Dutton. Turnbull survived a vote of 48 to 35, and Dutton chose to leave the cabinet, but Turnbull’s command of the party’s loyalty appeared tenuous. Moreover, in April 2018 the Liberal Party had finished second to Labor for the 30th consecutive time in party…

  • Duttur (ancient goddess)

    Tammuz: …and his mother, the goddess Duttur, was a personification of the ewe. His own name, Dumu-zid, and two variant designations for him, Ama-ga (Mother Milk) and U-lu-lu (Multiplier of Pasture), suggest that he actually was the power for everything that a shepherd might wish for: grass to come up in…

  • Du?ugümu?u (king of Sri Lanka)

    Du??hagāma?ī, king of Sri Lanka (101–77 bce or 161–137 bce) who is remembered as a national hero for temporarily ending the domination of the Indian Tamil Hindus over the Sinhalese, most of whom were Buddhist. Though a historical figure, details of his life have become indistinguishable from myth,

  • duty (international trade)

    Tariff, tax levied upon goods as they cross national boundaries, usually by the government of the importing country. The words tariff, duty, and customs can be used interchangeably. Tariffs may be levied either to raise revenue or to protect domestic industries, but a tariff designed primarily to

  • duty (moral)

    applied logic: Deontic logic and the logic of agency: …concepts include the notions of obligation (“ought”), permission (“may”), and prohibition (“must not”), and related concepts. The contemporary study of deontic logic was founded in 1951 by G.H. von Wright after the failure of an earlier attempt by Ernst Mally.

  • duty cycle (science)

    mass spectrometry: Resonance photoionization: …pulsed lasers with very short duty cycles, however, making efficient sample use difficult. (The duty cycle is the ratio of the number of atoms irradiated in a given volume to the total number of atoms entering that volume.) For further discussion, see spectroscopy: Resonance-ionization spectroscopy.

  • duumvir (ancient Roman politics)

    Duoviri, in ancient Rome, a magistracy of two men. Duoviri perduellionis were two judges, selected by the chief magistrate, who tried cases of crime against the state. Duoviri navales, at first appointed but later popularly elected (311–178 bc), had charge of a fleet. The two chief magistrates of

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