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  • Democratic Party of Korea (political party, South Korea)

    Democratic Party of Korea (DP), centrist-liberal political party in South Korea. The party supports greater human rights, improved relations with North Korea, and an economic policy described as “new progressivism.” The party was founded by Kim Dae-Jung in 1995 as the National Congress for New

  • Democratic Party of Kosovo (political party, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Self-declared independence: …Minister Hashim Tha?i of the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosov?s; PDK), prompting the dissolution of the body and the scheduling of elections. The fall of the government followed the September resignation of Pres. Fatmir Sejdiu, who in October withdrew his Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e…

  • Democratic Party of Serbia (political party, Serbia)

    Serbia: Political process: …and its offshoot, the centre-right Democratic Party of Serbia (DSS), emerged as leading parties. In 2007 they formed the governing coalition of newly independent Serbia. The nationalist Serbian Radical Party also enjoyed strong support. The Socialists and other smaller parties maintained seats in the parliament as well. The DS-DSS coalition…

  • Democratic Party of Socialists (political party, Montenegro)

    Montenegro: Federation with Serbia: …when the ruling party, the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Demokratska Partija Socijalista Crne Gore; DPS), split into factions that either supported or opposed Milo?evi?, who had ascended from the Serbian to the Yugoslav presidency in July. After Milo?evi?’s protégé and close ally Momir Bulatovi? was defeated by Milorad…

  • Democratic Party of the Left (political party, Italy)

    Democrats of the Left, former Italian political party and historically western Europe’s largest communist party. The party was originally founded in January 1921 as the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano; PCI) by dissidents of the extreme left wing of the Italian Socialist Party

  • democratic peace (political science)

    Democratic peace, the proposition that democratic states never (or almost never) wage war on one another. The concept of democratic peace must be distinguished from the claim that democracies are in general more peaceful than nondemocratic countries. Whereas the latter claim is controversial, the

  • Democratic Progressive Party (political party, Taiwan)

    Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), political party in Taiwan (the Republic of China [ROC]). It was formed in September 1986 by those who initially sought self-determination for people considered to be ethnically Taiwanese, democratic freedoms, the establishment of economic ties with the People’s

  • Democratic Progressive Party (political party, Malawi)

    Joyce Banda: …year she moved to the Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), formed by Pres. Bingu wa Mutharika, under whom she served as minister of gender, child welfare, and community services (2004–06) and as minister of foreign affairs (2006–09). In her various ministerial capacities, she designed the Zero Tolerance Campaign Against Child Abuse…

  • Democratic Queen (American first lady)

    Harriet Lane, acting American first lady (1857–61), niece of bachelor James Buchanan, 15th president of the United States. For both her popularity and her advocacy work, she has been described as the first of the modern first ladies. Harriet Lane was the youngest child of Elliott Tole Lane, a

  • Democratic Rally (political party, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Efforts toward reunification: …2011, gains by the opposition Democratic Rally and a record number of abstentions were interpreted by many as a sign of voter dissatisfaction with the progress of reunification talks.

  • Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

    Sao Tome and Principe, country of central Africa, located on the Equator in the Gulf of Guinea. It consists of two main islands—S?o Tomé and Príncipe—and several rocky islets, including R?las, south of S?o Tomé island, and Caro?o, Pedras, and Tinhosas, south of Príncipe. S?o Tomé, which is oval in

  • Democratic Revolution, Party of the (political party, Mexico)

    Andrés Manuel López Obrador: …Cárdenas’s electoral coalition, the centre-left Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD).

  • Democratic Revolutionary Front (political organization, El Salvador)

    Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front: …the paramilitary arm of the Democratic Revolutionary Front (Frente Democrático Revolucionario; FDR), a coalition of dissident political groups backed by Cuba. Throughout the 1980s its members initiated and engaged in hard-fought battles with Salvadoran government troops who were trained and supplied by the United States. In November 1989 the FMLN…

  • Democratic Revolutionary Party (political party, Panama)

    Ricardo Martinelli: …the candidate of the ruling Democratic Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Democrático; PRD), Balbina Herrera, was considered the favourite, but Martinelli’s campaign promise of “real change” resonated among poor voters. Moreover, he already had the support of many of Panama’s business leaders. He won by a wide margin, garnering some 60…

  • Democratic Socialism, Party of (political party, Germany)

    Germany: The reunification of Germany: …the SED, now renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS), suffered a crushing defeat. The eastern counterpart of Kohl’s CDU, which had pledged a speedy reunification of Germany, emerged as the largest political party in East Germany’s first democratically elected People’s Chamber. A new East German government headed by Lothar…

  • Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (American organization)

    Michael Harrington: Shift to Trotskyism and The Other America: … and after 1972 through the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (DSOC). Both organizations were meant to develop into powerful democratic socialist havens that could attract student activists to nonmilitant social politics and ideologically redirect the Democratic Party.

  • Democratic Socialist Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Democratic Socialist Party, anticommunist reform party advocating the nationalization of some industries. As a centre party, it was able to join many Italian governments in the decades after World War II. In early 1947, socialists who opposed the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) for its

  • Democratic Socialist Party (political party, Japan)

    Democratic Socialist Party, former Japanese political party that was formed in 1960 by moderate socialists who had broken away from the Japan Socialist Party the year before because of its alleged Marxist dogmatism and its definition of itself as a “class” party. The party traditionally was

  • Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka

    Sri Lanka, island country lying in the Indian Ocean and separated from peninsular India by the Palk Strait. It is located between latitudes 5°55′ and 9°51′ N and longitudes 79°41′ and 81°53′ E and has a maximum length of 268 miles (432 km) and a maximum width of 139 miles (224 km). Proximity to the

  • Democratic Socialists of America (American organization)

    Michael Harrington: Harrington’s ethical vision and legacy: …through his new organization, the Democratic Socialists of America, which formed in 1982 as a joint venture by the DSOC and the New America Movement. In 1988 he published the autobiography The Long-Distance Runner.

  • Democratic Union (political party, Poland)

    Poland: Transitioning from communism: The centrist Freedom Union (UW), which bore the brunt of the transition to democracy, failed to communicate its vision to the masses and remained largely a party of the intelligentsia. The rightists, split into several groups, accused Wa??sa and the roundtable negotiators of selling out to communists.

  • Democratic Union for Integration (political party, Macedonia)

    North Macedonia: Independence: …governing coalition with the ethnic-Albanian Democratic Union for Integration (BDI), which took more than 10 percent of the vote and 15 seats. By garnering nearly 33 percent of the vote, the SDSM increased its representation considerably to 42 seats. Two other ethnic-Albanian parties also made their mark: the Democratic Party…

  • Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (political party, Republic of the Congo)

    Republic of the Congo: Congo since independence: …Socialiste Africain; MSA) and the Democratic Union for the Defense of African Interests (Union Démocratique pour la Défense des Intérêts Africains; UDDIA). The two parties pitted the north against the south, an opposition that stemmed from the privileged place occupied by the southern Kongo and Vili in the colonial era.…

  • Democratic Union of Liberation (political organization, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: The Somoza years: …Press”) of Managua, called the Democratic Union of Liberation (Unión Democrática de Liberación; UDEL). In December 1974 the Sandinistas staged a successful kidnapping of Somoza elites, for which ransom and the release of political prisoners were obtained. In response, the regime embarked on a two-and-a-half-year counterinsurgency effort that, in addition…

  • Democratic Union of Scientific Workers (political organization, Hungary)

    Hungary: Political reforms: The Democratic Union of Scientific Workers, supported by a substantial portion of academic and clerical employees of scholarly institutions, was the first independent professional association to challenge the communist-controlled National Council of Trade Unions and to establish contact with the Polish union Solidarity, as well as…

  • Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto (political organization, Algeria)

    Ferhat Abbas: …Démocratique du Manifeste Algérien (UDMA; Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto), which advocated cooperation with France in the formation of the Algerian state. Abbas’ moderate and conciliatory attempts failed to evoke a sympathetic response from the French colonial officials, however, and in 1956 he escaped to Cairo to join the…

  • Democratic Union of the Centre (political party, Switzerland)

    Swiss People’s Party, conservative Swiss political party. The Swiss People’s Party (SVP) was founded in 1971 by the merger of the Farmers, Artisans, and Citizens’ Party—generally known as the Agrarian Party—with the Democratic Party. It has pursued conservative social and economic policies,

  • Democratic Unionist Party (political party, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), unionist political party in Northern Ireland. The DUP was cofounded by Ian Paisley, who led it from 1971 to 2008. The party traditionally competes for votes among Northern Ireland’s unionist Protestant community with the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP). Founded in 1971

  • Democratic Unity Table (political party, Venezuela)

    Henrique Capriles: …candidate for this coalition, the Democratic Unity Table (MUD). Central to the election was the issue of the health of Chávez, whose ongoing battle with cancer had forced him to leave Venezuela several times for treatment but who remained the immensely popular champion of the country’s poor even as others…

  • Democratic Vistas (work by Whitman)

    Democratic Vistas, prose pamphlet by Walt Whitman, published in 1871. The work comprises three essays that outline the author’s ideas about the role of democracy in establishing a new cultural foundation for America. Writing a few years after the American Civil War, Whitman suggested that some

  • Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (political party, United States)

    Minnesota: Constitutional framework: …20th and early 21st centuries—the Democratic–Farmer–Labor (DFL) Party and the Republican Party—are amalgams from this tradition. The DFL Party was formed in 1944 by the more traditional Democrats and the reformist Farmer–Labor Party, founded in 1918. The state’s Republican Party was established in 1855 in an effort to attract more…

  • Democratic-Republican Party (political party, United States)

    Democratic-Republican Party, first opposition political party in the United States. Organized in 1792 as the Republican Party, its members held power nationally between 1801 and 1825. It was the direct antecedent of the present Democratic Party. During the two administrations of President George

  • Democratici di Sinistra (political party, Italy)

    Democrats of the Left, former Italian political party and historically western Europe’s largest communist party. The party was originally founded in January 1921 as the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano; PCI) by dissidents of the extreme left wing of the Italian Socialist Party

  • democratization (political science)

    Democratization, process through which a political regime becomes democratic. The explosive spread of democracy around the world beginning in the mid-20th century radically transformed the international political landscape from one in which democracies were the exception to one in which they were

  • Democratizing the U.S. Supreme Court

    The U.S. Supreme Court is neither democratic nor easily changed, to some Americans’ delight and others’ dismay. No one would seriously propose that we elect justices—just take a look at the tawdry contests in states that put their supreme courts and various judicial posts on the ballot. But is the

  • Democrats (political party, Portugal)

    Portugal: The First Republic, 1910–26: …Manuel de Brito Camacho; and Democrats (the leftist core of the original party), led by Afonso Costa. A number of prominent republicans had no specific party. The whirligig of republican political life offered little improvement on the monarchist regime, and in 1915 the army showed signs of restlessness. General Pimenta…

  • Democrats for the Republic, Union of (political organization, France)

    France: The Fifth Republic: The Gaullist Union of Democrats for the Republic (Union des Démocrates pour la République [UDR]; the former UNR), with its allies, emerged with three-fourths of the seats.

  • Democrats of the Left (political party, Italy)

    Democrats of the Left, former Italian political party and historically western Europe’s largest communist party. The party was originally founded in January 1921 as the Italian Communist Party (Partito Comunista Italiano; PCI) by dissidents of the extreme left wing of the Italian Socialist Party

  • Democrazia Cristiana, Partito della (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party, former centrist Italian political party whose several factions were united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocated programs ranging from social reform to the defense of free enterprise. The DC usually dominated Italian politics from World War II until the

  • Democritus (Greek philosopher)

    Democritus, ancient Greek philosopher, a central figure in the development of philosophical atomism and of the atomic theory of the universe. Knowledge of Democritus’s life is largely limited to untrustworthy tradition. It seems that he was a wealthy citizen of Abdera, in Thrace; that he traveled

  • Demodamas (Seleucid general)

    ancient Iran: The Seleucids: Demodamas, a general to the first two Seleucid kings, crossed the river and even put up altars to Apollo, ancestor of the dynasty. Alexandria in Margiana and Heraclea in Aria, founded by Alexander, were rebuilt by Antiochus I under the names Antioch and Achaea, respectively,…

  • Demodocus (mythological character)

    Homer: Homer as an oral poet: …of Odysseus in Ithaca, and Demodocus, who lived in the town of the semi-mythical Phaeacians and sang both for the nobles in Alcinous’ palace and for the assembled public at the games held for Odysseus. On this occasion he sings of the illicit love affair of Ares and Aphrodite in…

  • demographic transition theory (social science)

    modernization: Population change: …be known as the “demographic transition” (see population: Theory of the demographic transition). The populations of nonindustrial countries are normally stable (and low) because high birth rates are matched by high death rates. With industrialization, improvements in medical knowledge and public health, together with a more regular food supply,…

  • demographics

    Demographics, the particular characteristics of a large population over a specific time interval. The word is derived from the Greek words for “people” (demos) and “picture” (graphy). Examples of demographic characteristics include age, race, gender, ethnicity, religion, income, education, home

  • demography (social science)

    Demography, statistical study of human populations, especially with reference to size and density, distribution, and vital statistics (births, marriages, deaths, etc.). Contemporary demographic concerns include the “population explosion,” the interplay between population and economic development,

  • demoiselle (fish)

    Damselfish, any of about 250 species of small, primarily tropical marine fishes of the family Pomacentridae (order Perciformes) found in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific oceans. Damselfishes are deep-bodied and usually have forked tails. They resemble the related cichlids and, like them, have a single

  • Demoiselles d’Avignon, Les (painting by Picasso)

    Georges Braque: Early life: …disconcerted by Picasso’s recent work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon (1907). “Listen,” he is reported to have said, “in spite of your explanations your painting looks as if you wanted to make us eat tow, or drink gasoline and spit fire.” Despite these reservations, Braque painted his Large Nude (1908), a somewhat…

  • Demokratic ohne Dogma (work by Geiger)

    Theodor Julius Geiger: …creation of mass society; and Demokratic ohne Dogma (1964; “Democracy Without Dogma”) is notable for Geiger’s vision of a society depersonalized by ideology but redeemed by human relationships. Geiger died at sea when he was returning from a year as visiting professor in Toronto.

  • Demokratichesky Tsentralist (political group, Soviet Union)

    Democratic Centralist, in the history of the Soviet Union, member of an opposition group within the Communist Party that objected to the growing centralization of power in party and government organs. The Democratic Centralist group developed during 1919–20 as the central government and party o

  • Demokratischer Verein (German newspaper)

    Gottfried Kinkel: …to journalism, founding the newspaper Demokratischer Verein (“Democratic Union”). Kinkel took an active part in the uprising in Baden in 1849 and was sentenced to imprisonment for life. Through the help of the reformer Carl Schurz, however, he escaped to London, where he became a professor. His journalism in London…

  • demokratizatsiya (Soviet government policy)

    Russia: Government and society: (“restructuring”), glasnost (“openness”), and demokratizatsiya (“democratization”) reform policies—fundamental changes took place in the political system and government structures of the Soviet Union that altered both the nature of the Soviet federal state and the status and powers of the individual republics. In 1988 the Soviet Congress of People’s Deputies…

  • Demolder, Eugène (Belgian author)

    Eugène Demolder, Belgian novelist, short-story writer, and art critic who was a member of the Jeune Belgique (“Young Belgium”) literary renaissance of the late 19th century. Demolder trained as a lawyer, and his memoirs, Sous la robe (1897; “Under the Robe”), provide a record of the professional

  • Demolished Man, The (novel by Bester)

    Horace L. Gold: 451 (1953); Alfred Bester’s novels The Demolished Man (1953), about crime in a telepathic society, and The Stars My Destination (1956), a story of revenge in the 25th century, based on Alexandre Dumas père’s The Count of Monte Cristo; and Isaac Asimov’s The Caves of Steel (1953), a mystery in…

  • demolition bomb (military technology)

    bomb: Conventional bomb types: Demolition bombs rely on the force of the blast to destroy buildings and other structures. They are usually fitted with a time-delay fuze, so that the bomb explodes only after it has smashed through several floors and is deep inside the target building. Fragmentation bombs,…

  • Demolition Man (film by Brambilla [1993])

    Wesley Snipes: …(alias Rambo), his costar in Demolition Man (1993), Snipes’s rapid ascent to the elite Hollywood echelon occurred mainly as a result of his film portrayals of action heroes who consistently outfight, outshoot, and outsmart the “bad guys.” In 1995, however, Snipes starred in a role far different from any others…

  • Demologos (ship)

    Fulton, first steam-powered warship, weighing 2,745 displacement tons and measuring 156 feet (48 metres) in length, designed for the U.S. Navy by the U.S. engineer Robert Fulton. She was launched in October 1814 and her first trial run was in June of the following year. A wooden catamaran

  • demon (Greek religion)

    Demon, in Greek religion, a supernatural power. In Homer the term is used almost interchangeably with theos for a god. The distinction there is that theos emphasizes the personality of the god, and demon his activity. Hence, the term demon was regularly applied to sudden or unexpected supernatural

  • Demon (poem by Lermontov)

    Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel: …drawn to Lermontov’s poem “Demon,” finding in it the kind of heroic figure he himself was drawn to—a rebel and a prophet, at once defiant and doomed to a life of utter loneliness. In his illustrations of Lermontov’s works, Vrubel demonstrated his mastery of graphic arts. His dense strokes…

  • Demon (people)

    Solorese: …into two opposing groups, the Demon and the Padzi, who have different political and religious beliefs.

  • demon (religion)

    angel and demon: demon, demon also spelled daemon, respectively, any benevolent or malevolent spiritual being that mediates between the transcendent and temporal realms.

  • Demon in the Bridal Chamber (Jewish mythology)

    Judaism: Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha: …the “grateful dead” and the demon in the bridal chamber. The former relates how a traveller who gives burial to a dishonoured corpse is subsequently aided by a chance companion who turns out to be the spirit of the deceased. The latter tells how a succession of bridegrooms die on…

  • demon play

    Western theatre: Shamanism: …archetypal genre known as the demon play, a primitive dance drama in which the force of good exorcises the force of evil. The demon play is still performed in various guises in parts of Asia. An interesting component, which also occurs in later Western theatre, is the use of clowns—often…

  • Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark (work by Sagan)

    Carl Sagan: …in his last major book, The Demon-Haunted World (1996), significantly subtitled Science As a Candle in the Dark. Although he denied that he was an atheist, Sagan expressed skepticism about conventional religion, which he wanted to replace with a scientifically based belief system. Some critics claimed that Sagan’s arguments against…

  • Demonesi Insulae (islands, Turkey)

    K?z?l Adalar, group of nine islands (adalar) in the Sea of Marmara a few miles southeast of Istanbul; they are part of Turkey. There are permanent inhabitants on the smallest island, Sedef Adas? (ancient Antirobethos), and on the four larger islands, Büyükada (Prinkipo, ancient Pityoussa), Heybeli

  • demoniac possession (religion)

    mental hygiene: …have supernatural origins such as demonic possession. Even reformers sometimes used harsh methods of treatment; for example, the 18th-century American physician Benjamin Rush endorsed the practice of restraining mental patients with his notorious “tranquilising chair.”

  • demonic possession (religion)

    mental hygiene: …have supernatural origins such as demonic possession. Even reformers sometimes used harsh methods of treatment; for example, the 18th-century American physician Benjamin Rush endorsed the practice of restraining mental patients with his notorious “tranquilising chair.”

  • demonology (religion)

    Judaism: Early stages to the 6th century ce: …angelology (doctrine about angels) and demonology (doctrine about devils); mythical geography and uranography (description of the heavens); contemplation of the divine manifestations, whose background was the Jerusalem Temple worship and the visions of the moving “throne” (merkava, “chariot”) in the prophecy of Ezekiel; reflection on the double origin of human…

  • Demons, The (novel by Doderer)

    Heimito von Doderer: …I Vienna, Die D?monen (1956; The Demons), on which he had worked since 1931. It explores the society and mood of Vienna in 1926–27 in a many-layered web of detail and complex characterization.

  • Demons, The (novel by Dostoyevsky)

    The Possessed, novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, published in Russian in 1872 as Besy. The book, also known in English as The Devils and The Demons, is a reflection of Dostoyevsky’s belief that revolutionists possessed the soul of Russia and that, unless exorcised by a renewed faith in Orthodox

  • Demons, The (novel by Dostoyevsky)

    The Possessed, novel by Fyodor Dostoyevsky, published in Russian in 1872 as Besy. The book, also known in English as The Devils and The Demons, is a reflection of Dostoyevsky’s belief that revolutionists possessed the soul of Russia and that, unless exorcised by a renewed faith in Orthodox

  • demonstration (logic)

    Proof, in logic, an argument that establishes the validity of a proposition. Although proofs may be based on inductive logic, in general the term proof connotes a rigorous deduction. In formal axiomatic systems of logic and mathematics, a proof is a finite sequence of well-formed formulas

  • Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Area Redevelopment Act (United States [1966])

    United States: The Great Society: The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Area Redevelopment Act of 1966 provided aid to cities rebuilding blighted areas. Other measures dealt with mass transit, truth in packaging and lending, beautification, conservation, water and air quality, safety, and support for the arts.

  • Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching (work by Irenaeus)

    Saint Irenaeus: Irenaeus’ writings: conflict with the Gnostics.: A shorter work by Irenaeus, Demonstration of the Apostolic Preaching, also written in Greek, is extant only in an Armenian translation probably intended for the instruction of young candidates for Baptism.

  • Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, A (work by Clarke)

    Samuel Clarke: …sets of lectures, published as A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God (1705) and A Discourse Concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion (1706). In the first set he attempted to prove the existence of God by a method “as near to Mathematical, as the nature of such…

  • Demonstrationes Catholicae (work by Leibniz)

    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Early life and education: …this reunion, worked on the Demonstrationes Catholicae. His research led him to situate the soul in a point—this was new progress toward the monad—and to develop the principle of sufficient reason (nothing occurs without a reason). His meditations on the difficult theory of the point were related to problems encountered…

  • demonstrative compellence (international relations)

    compellence: Demonstrative compellence involves a limited use of force coupled with the threat of escalating violence (which may also include full-scale war) to come if demands are not met. This kind of compellence is what Schelling referred to as the “diplomacy of violence.” A state does…

  • demonstrative evidence (law)

    evidence: Real evidence: The remaining form of evidence is so-called real evidence, also known as demonstrative or objective evidence. This is naturally the most direct evidence, since the objects in question are inspected by the judge or jury themselves. Problems arise in this area over who…

  • demonstrative knowledge (philosophy)

    epistemology: John Locke: Demonstrative knowledge, although certain, is not as certain as intuitive knowledge, according to Locke, because it requires effort and attention to go through the steps needed to recognize the certainty of the conclusion.

  • Demophon (Greek mythology)

    Demophon, in Greek mythology, the son of Celeus, king of Eleusis. According to the Homeric hymn to Demeter, the goddess Demeter, wandering in search of her daughter Persephone, became Demophon’s nurse. As an act of kindness to those who had sheltered her, she attempted to immortalize him by burning

  • Demopolis (Alabama, United States)

    Demopolis, city, Marengo county, western Alabama, U.S. It is situated about 100 miles (160 km) west of Montgomery, at the confluence of the Tombigbee and Black Warrior rivers, which form a navigable waterway. Founded in 1817 by Napoleonic exiles who unsuccessfully tried to raise olives and grapes,

  • demopolitik (political science)

    Rudolf Kjellén: …power of the state; and demopolitik, the nation’s racial elements and the problems that they create. Late in his life he analyzed the different kinds of national constitutions. Kjellén served several terms as a conservative member of the Swedish parliament. His influence was particularly strong in Germany, where his Staten…

  • Demorest, Ellen Louise Curtis (American businesswoman)

    Ellen Louise Curtis Demorest, American businesswoman, widely credited with the invention of the mass-produced paper pattern for clothing. Ellen Curtis graduated from Schuylerville Academy at age 18 and then opened a millinery shop. In 1858 she married William J. Demorest in New York City. During a

  • dēmos (ancient Greek government)

    Deme, in ancient Greece, country district or village, as distinct from a polis, or city-state. Dēmos also meant the common people (like the Latin plebs). In Cleisthenes’ democratic reform at Athens (508/507 bc), the demes of Attica (the area around Athens) were given status in local and state a

  • Demospongiae (invertebrate)

    Siliceous sponge, any sponge in which the main skeletal component is silica as opposed to calcium carbonate or fibrous organic materials only. More than 95 percent of all known sponge species have a siliceous skeleton and belong to the class Demospongiae (phylum Porifera). The siliceous skeleton is

  • Démosthène (work by Clemenceau)

    Georges Clemenceau: Later years: He wrote Démosthène (1926; Demosthenes, 1926), a study of Demosthenes and the fate of Greece, whose political instability had compromised its independence. He also wrote Au soir de la pensée (1927; In the Evening of My Thought, 1929), a sort of philosophic testament. He remained interested in political events…

  • Demosthenes (Greek general)

    Demosthenes , Athenian general who proved to be an imaginative strategist during the Peloponnesian War (Athens versus Sparta, 431–404). In 426 he unsuccessfully besieged the Corinthian colony of Leukas and was severely defeated in an attempted invasion of Aetolia. Demosthenes redeemed these

  • Demosthenes (Greek statesman and orator)

    Demosthenes, Athenian statesman, recognized as the greatest of ancient Greek orators, who roused Athens to oppose Philip of Macedon and, later, his son Alexander the Great. His speeches provide valuable information on the political, social, and economic life of 4th-century Athens. Demosthenes, a

  • Demosthenes (work by Clemenceau)

    Georges Clemenceau: Later years: He wrote Démosthène (1926; Demosthenes, 1926), a study of Demosthenes and the fate of Greece, whose political instability had compromised its independence. He also wrote Au soir de la pensée (1927; In the Evening of My Thought, 1929), a sort of philosophic testament. He remained interested in political events…

  • Demosthenes, Lantern of (building, Athens, Greece)

    Tower of the Winds, building in Athens erected about 100–50 bc by Andronicus of Cyrrhus for measuring time. Still standing, it is an octagonal marble structure 42 feet (12.8 m) high and 26 feet (7.9 m) in diameter. Each of the building’s eight sides faces a point of the compass and is decorated

  • Demotic Chronicle (ancient Egyptian text)

    ancient Egypt: Sources, calendars, and chronology: The Demotic Chronicle, a text of the Ptolemaic period, purports to foretell the bad end that would befall numerous Late period kings as divine retribution for their wicked actions.

  • Demotic Greek language

    Demotic Greek language, a modern vernacular of Greece. In modern times it has been the standard spoken language and, by the 20th century, had become almost the sole language of Greek creative literature. In January 1976, by government order, it became the official language of the state, replacing

  • demotic script (ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing)

    Demotic script, Egyptian hieroglyphic writing of cursive form that was used in handwritten texts from the early 7th century bce until the 5th century ce. Demotic script derived from the earlier pictographic hieroglyphic inscriptions and the cursive hieratic script, and it began to replace hieratic

  • Demotiki

    Demotic Greek language, a modern vernacular of Greece. In modern times it has been the standard spoken language and, by the 20th century, had become almost the sole language of Greek creative literature. In January 1976, by government order, it became the official language of the state, replacing

  • Demotte Shāh-nāmeh (illuminated manuscript)

    Islamic arts: Painting: …14th-century Persian painting, the so-called Demotte Shāh-nāmeh (named for the French dealer Georges Demotte who destroyed the binding in the early 20th century), also called the Great Mongol Shāh-nāmeh. Illustrated between 1320 and 1360, its 56 preserved miniatures have been dispersed all over the world. The compositional complexity of those…

  • demountable (container)

    railroad: Development: …internal COFC traffic used the swapbody, or demountable, which is similar in principle to, but more lightly constructed, cheaper, and easier to transship than the maritime container; the latter has to withstand stacking several deep on board ship and at ports, which is not a requisite for the swapbody. As…

  • Dempo, Mount (volcano, Indonesia)

    South Sumatra: Geography: …8,000 feet (2,400 metres), including Mount Dempo (10,364 feet [3,159 metres]) and Mount Resagi (7,323 feet [2,232 metres]). The highlands descend rapidly to a wide plain that is separated from the northeastern coast by a belt of swamps as much as 150 miles (240 km) wide. Sluggish and swollen rivers,…

  • Dempsey and Firpo (lithograph by Bellows)

    George Wesley Bellows: Among the best known is Dempsey and Firpo (1924; he also produced a painting with this title), a boxing scene that displays the solid modeling of form and geometric approach to design characteristic of Bellows’s later paintings.

  • Dempsey, Henry Maxwell (American writer)

    Harry Harrison, (Henry Maxwell Dempsey), American science-fiction writer (born March 12, 1925, Stamford, Conn.—died Aug. 15, 2012, Brighton, East Sussex, Eng.), was the author of more than 60 books but was best known for his novel Make Room! Make Room! (1966), which was adapted into the film

  • Dempsey, Jack (American boxer)

    Jack Dempsey, American world heavyweight boxing champion, regarded by many as the apotheosis of the professional fighter. He held the title from July 4, 1919, when he knocked out Jess Willard in three rounds in Toledo, Ohio, until September 23, 1926, when he lost a 10-round decision to Gene Tunney

  • Dempsey, Julia (American nurse)

    Sister Mary Joseph Dempsey, American nurse and hospital administrator, remembered for her exceptional medical and administrative abilities and for her contributions to nursing education. Julia Dempsey in August 1878 entered the Third Order Regular of St. Francis of the Congregation of Our Lady of

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