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  • Detterer, Ernst F. (American calligrapher)

    calligraphy: Revival of calligraphy (19th and 20th centuries): Ernst Detterer, who had studied with Edward Johnston in England in 1913, taught lettering and calligraphy at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago from 1921 to 1931. He later became custodian of the John M. Wing Foundation on the History of Printing at…

  • Detti Falls (waterfall, Iceland)

    Detti Falls, waterfall, northeastern Iceland, on the island’s second longest river, J?kulsá á Fj?llum. The Detti Falls have a vertical drop of 144 feet (44 m). It is the largest Icelandic waterfall in volume and has the greatest hydroelectric-power potential of any location in Iceland. Its scenic

  • Dettifoss (waterfall, Iceland)

    Detti Falls, waterfall, northeastern Iceland, on the island’s second longest river, J?kulsá á Fj?llum. The Detti Falls have a vertical drop of 144 feet (44 m). It is the largest Icelandic waterfall in volume and has the greatest hydroelectric-power potential of any location in Iceland. Its scenic

  • Dettingen Te Deum (work by Handel)

    George Frideric Handel: Life: …and Hercules (1745), and the Dettingen Te Deum (1743), celebrating the English victory over the French at the Battle of Dettingen. Handel had by this time made oratorio and large-scale choral works the most popular musical forms in England. He had created for himself a new public among the rising…

  • Dettingen, Battle of (1743)

    Adrien-Maurice, 3e duke de Noailles: …by the English at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743. He married Fran?oise d’Aubigné, a niece of Mme de Maintenon, Louis XIV’s mistress and later wife; and two of his sons also attained the rank of marshal of France.

  • Deuba, Sher Bahadur (prime minister of Nepal)

    Nepal: Fall of the monarchy: …alternated between Bhattarai, Koirala, and Sher Bahadur Deuba, another prominent member of the NC. Meanwhile, a group of Maoist rebels emerged in the 1990s and rapidly grew in number and strength and established their own breakaway party, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), or CPN (M). The rebels often used…

  • Deucalion (Greek mythology)

    Deucalion, in Greek legend, the Greek equivalent of Noah, the son of Prometheus (the creator of humankind), king of Phthia in Thessaly, and husband of Pyrrha; he was also the father of Hellen, the mythical ancestor of the Hellenic race. When Zeus, the king of the gods, resolved to destroy all

  • deuce (tennis)

    tennis: Principles of play: …is said to be “deuce,” and the game continues until a player achieves first “advantage” and then the two-point margin for “game.” There is no limit to the number of times a game can go to deuce before it is decided, but in some competitions a so-called “no-ad” system…

  • Deuce, The (American television series)

    David Simon: …next project was the series The Deuce (2017–19), which he cocreated with frequent collaborator George Pelecanos. The drama, which aired on HBO and was also cowritten by Simon, centres on the pornography industry in 1970s New York City. He then created (with Burns) the HBO miniseries The Plot Against America…

  • Deuces Wild (album by King [1997])

    B.B. King: On Deuces Wild (1997), King enlisted such artists as Van Morrison, Bonnie Raitt, and Eric Clapton to create a fusion of blues, pop, and country that dominated the blues charts for almost two years. Clapton and King collaborated on the more straightforward blues album

  • Deulino, Truce of (Russia-Poland [1618])

    Truce of Deulino, (December 1618), agreement suspending for 14 and a half years the hostilities between Poland and Russia that had their beginning with the death of Ivan IV (the Terrible) in 1584 and continued through a prolonged dispute over the Russian throne. The truce placed Smolensk, as well

  • Deus Creator omnium (hymn by Saint Ambrose)

    St. Ambrose: Literary and musical accomplishments: …earth and sky”) and “Deus Creator omnium” (“Maker of all things, God most high”). He spared no pains in instructing candidates for baptism. He denounced social abuses (notably in the sermons De Nabuthe [“On Naboth”]) and frequently secured pardon for condemned men. He advocated the most austere asceticism: noble…

  • deus ex machina (ancient Greek and Roman drama)

    Deus ex machina, (Latin: “god from the machine”) a person or thing that appears or is introduced into a situation suddenly and unexpectedly and provides an artificial or contrived solution to an apparently insoluble difficulty. The term was first used in ancient Greek and Roman drama, where it

  • Deus Nogueira Ramos, Jo?o de (Portuguese poet)

    Jo?o de Deus, lyric poet who fashioned a simple, direct, and expressive language that revitalized Portuguese Romantic poetry. He was a major influence on Portuguese literature of the early 20th century. As a student at Coimbra, Deus led a bohemian life and spent much time composing poems that he

  • deus otiosus (religion)

    Deus otiosus, (Latin: “neutral god,” or “hidden god”), in the history of religions and philosophy, a high god who has withdrawn from the immediate details of the governing of the world. The god has delegated all work on Earth to ancestors or nature spirits, who act as mediators between the god and

  • Deus, Jo?o de (Portuguese poet)

    Jo?o de Deus, lyric poet who fashioned a simple, direct, and expressive language that revitalized Portuguese Romantic poetry. He was a major influence on Portuguese literature of the early 20th century. As a student at Coimbra, Deus led a bohemian life and spent much time composing poems that he

  • Deusdedit I (pope)

    Saint Deusdedit, feast day November 8; pope from 615 to 618. His pontificate is chiefly noteworthy for an unsuccessful resumption of the Byzantine war against the Lombards in Italy and for a reversal of the policy of popes Gregory I and Boniface IV, who favoured monks over the secular clergy.

  • Deusdedit, Saint (pope)

    Saint Deusdedit, feast day November 8; pope from 615 to 618. His pontificate is chiefly noteworthy for an unsuccessful resumption of the Byzantine war against the Lombards in Italy and for a reversal of the policy of popes Gregory I and Boniface IV, who favoured monks over the secular clergy.

  • Deusdetit II (pope)

    Adeodatus II, pope (672–676) who was the first pontiff to date events in terms of his reign, which began with his election on April 11, 672. Adeodatus played no known role in the political events of the day or in the liquidation of monothelitism (a heresy teaching that Christ had only one will),

  • Deutch, John M. (American government official)

    John M. Deutch, Belgian-born U.S. federal government official, educator, and consultant who served as the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1995 to 1996. Deutch received bachelor’s degrees from Amherst (Massachusetts) College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

  • Deutch, John Mark (American government official)

    John M. Deutch, Belgian-born U.S. federal government official, educator, and consultant who served as the director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1995 to 1996. Deutch received bachelor’s degrees from Amherst (Massachusetts) College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

  • deuteragonist (theatre)

    Aeschylus: Dramatic and literary achievements: …adding a second actor (the deuteragonist, or second actor) with whom the first could converse, Aeschylus vastly increased the drama’s possibilities for dialogue and dramatic tension and allowed more variety and freedom in plot construction. Although the dominance of the chorus in early tragedy is ultimately only hypothesis, it is…

  • deuteranomaly (physiology)

    colour blindness: Types of colour blindness: In deuteranomaly, in which sensitivity to green is reduced, the green cones are functionally limited. Two forms of blue-yellow colour blindness are known: tritanopia (blindness to blue, usually with the inability to distinguish between blue and yellow), which occurs when blue cones are absent; and tritanomaly…

  • deuteranopia (physiology)

    colour blindness: Types of colour blindness: …to green is known as deuteranopia, wherein green cones are lacking and blue and red cones are functional. Some persons experience anomalous dichromatic conditions, which involve only minor reductions or weaknesses in colour sensitivity. In protanomaly, for example, sensitivity to red is reduced as a result of abnormalities in the…

  • deuterium (chemical isotope)

    Deuterium, isotope of hydrogen with a nucleus consisting of one proton and one neutron, which is double the mass of the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen (one proton). Deuterium has an atomic weight of 2.014. It is a stable atomic species found in natural hydrogen compounds to the extent of about 0.0156

  • deuterium excess (chemistry)

    glacier: Information from deep cores: …hydrogen isotopic ratios, termed the deuterium excess, is useful for inferring conditions at the time of evaporation and precipitation. The temperature scale derived from isotopic measurements can be calibrated by the observable temperature-depth record near the surface of ice sheets.

  • deuterium oxide (chemical compound)

    Heavy water (D2O), water composed of deuterium, the hydrogen isotope with a mass double that of ordinary hydrogen, and oxygen. (Ordinary water has a composition represented by H2O.) Thus, heavy water has a molecular weight of about 20 (the sum of twice the atomic weight of deuterium, which is 2,

  • deuterium-tritium pellet (nuclear reaction)

    fusion reactor: Magnetic confinement: However, in 1991 the first tritium-deuterium reaction was carried out. The “burn” lasted for two seconds and released a record amount of energy, approximately 20 times that released in deuterium-deuterium experiments.

  • Deutero-Isaiah (biblical literature)

    Deutero-Isaiah, section of the Old Testament Book of Isaiah (chapters 40–55) that is later in origin than the preceding chapters, though not as late as the following chapters. See Isaiah, Book

  • Deutero-Zechariah (biblical literature)

    Book of Zechariah: Deutero- and Trito-Zechariah, each of which has an introduction setting it apart from the rest (9:1 and 12:1), are separate collections of sayings usually dated to the 4th and 3rd centuries bc, respectively. They further develop Zechariah’s eschatological themes and provide many images of a…

  • deuterocanonical book (biblical literature)

    Apocrypha, (from Greek apokryptein, “to hide away”), in biblical literature, works outside an accepted canon of scripture. The history of the term’s usage indicates that it referred to a body of esoteric writings that were at first prized, later tolerated, and finally excluded. In its broadest

  • deuteromycetes (fungus)

    Deuteromycetes, fungi (kingdom Fungi) in which a true sexual state is uncommon or unknown. Many of these fungi reproduce asexually by spores (conidia or oidia) or by budding. Conidial stages are similar to those in the phylum Ascomycota, but those of some species show affinities to lower

  • deuteron (deuterium nucleus)

    Deuteron, nucleus of deuterium (heavy hydrogen) that consists of one proton and one neutron. Deuterons are formed chiefly by ionizing deuterium (stripping the single electron away from the atom) and are used as projectiles to produce nuclear reactions after accumulating high energies in particle

  • Deuteronomic Code (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: The fall of Judah: …the young prophet Jeremiah, the Deuteronomic Code—or Covenant—as it has been called, became the basis for a far-reaching reform of the social and religious life of Judah. Though the reform was short-lived, because of the pressure of international turmoil, it left an indelible impression on the religious consciousness of the…

  • Deuteronomic Reform (history of religion)

    Deuteronomic Reform, great religious reformation instituted in the reign of King Josiah of Judah (c. 640–609 bc). It was so called because the book of the Law found in the Temple of Jerusalem (c. 622 bc), which was the basis of the reform, is considered by scholars to be the same as the law code

  • Deuteronomist (biblical criticism)

    Deuteronomist, (D), one of the supposed sources of a portion of the Hebrew canon known as the Pentateuch, in particular, the source of the book of Deuteronomy, as well as of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings. (The other sources are the Yahwist [J], the Elohist [E], and the Priestly code [P].) D

  • Deuteronomy (biblical literature)

    Deuteronomy, (“Words”), fifth book of the Old Testament, written in the form of a farewell address by Moses to the Israelites before they entered the Promised Land of Canaan. The speeches that constitute this address recall Israel’s past, reiterate laws that Moses had communicated to the people a

  • deuterostome (animal group)

    Deuterostomia, (Greek: “second mouth”), group of animals—including those of the phyla Echinodermata (e.g., starfish, sea urchins), Chordata (e.g., sea squirts, lancelets, and vertebrates), Chaetognatha (e.g., arrowworms), and Brachiopoda (e.g., lamp shells)—classified together on the basis of

  • Deuterostomia (animal group)

    Deuterostomia, (Greek: “second mouth”), group of animals—including those of the phyla Echinodermata (e.g., starfish, sea urchins), Chordata (e.g., sea squirts, lancelets, and vertebrates), Chaetognatha (e.g., arrowworms), and Brachiopoda (e.g., lamp shells)—classified together on the basis of

  • deuterotoky (zoology)

    hymenopteran: Reproduction: three forms: arrhenotoky, thelytoky, and deuterotoky. In arrhenotoky, males are produced from unfertilized eggs laid by mated (impregnated) females or by so-called secondary, or supplementary, queens, which have not been impregnated. In thelytoky, which occurs in many species of the suborder Symphyta, unmated females produce males. In deuterotoky, unmated females…

  • deutocerebrum (animal anatomy)

    nervous system: Arthropods: …three main regions: the protocerebrum, deutocerebrum, and tritocerebrum. The anterior protocerebrum, which receives the nerves of the eyes and other organs, contains centres, or neuropils, such as the optic centres and bodies known as corpora pedunculata. The neuropils function as integrative systems for the anterior sense organs, especially the eyes,…

  • deutoplasm (embryology)

    Yolk, the nutritive material of an egg, used as food by a developing, embryonic animal. Eggs with relatively little, uniformly distributed yolk are termed isolecithal. This condition occurs in invertebrates and in all but the lowest mammals. Eggs with abundant yolk concentrated in one hemisphere

  • Deutsch (Swiss artist, author, and statesman)

    Niklaus Manuel, painter, soldier, writer, and statesman, notable Swiss representative of the ideas of the Italian and German Renaissance and the Reformation. The art of Albrecht Dürer and Hans Baldung-Grien and of the painters of northern Italy prompted Manuel to eschew the prevailing late medieval

  • Deutsch

    German language, official language of both Germany and Austria and one of the three official languages of Switzerland. German belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family, along with English, Frisian, and Dutch (Netherlandic, Flemish). The recorded history of Germanic

  • Deutsch, Adolph (American composer, songwriter, conductor, and arranger)

    Father of the Bride: Production notes and credits:

  • Deutsch, Albert (American author)

    mental hygiene: National agencies: …and the United States, notably Albert Deutsch’s The Shame of the States in 1948. Published in 1946, Mary Jane Ward’s book The Snake Pit became a Hollywood film success and was followed by many more honestly realistic portrayals of mental problems on screen and television. A psychodynamic approach to the…

  • Deutsch, Babette (American poet, critic, translator, and novelist)

    Babette Deutsch, American poet, critic, translator, and novelist whose volumes of literary criticism, Poetry in Our Time (1952) and Poetry Handbook (1957), were standard English texts in American universities for many years. Deutsch published poems in magazines such as the North American Review and

  • Deutsch, Martin (Austrian-American physicist)

    Martin Deutsch, Austrian-born American physicist (born Jan. 29, 1917, Vienna, Austria—died Aug. 16, 2002, Cambridge, Mass.), discovered positronium, a fleeting hydrogen-like atom that contains a particle of antimatter. Building on the work of physicists Paul Dirac and Carl Anderson, Deutsch s

  • Deutsch-Franz?sische Jahrbücher (yearbook)

    Friedrich Engels: Conversion to communism: …contributed two articles to the Deutsch-Franz?sische Jahrbücher (“German-French Yearbooks”), which were edited by Marx in Paris. In them Engels put forth an early version of the principles of scientific socialism. He revealed what he regarded as the contradictions in liberal economic doctrine and set out to prove that the existing…

  • Deutsch-Ostafrika (former German dependency, Africa)

    German East Africa, former dependency of imperial Germany, corresponding to present-day Rwanda and Burundi, the continental portion of Tanzania, and a small section of Mozambique. Penetration of the area was begun in 1884 by German commercial agents, and German claims were recognized by the other

  • Deutsch-Südwestafrika (historical state, Namibia)

    German South West Africa, a former German colony (1884–1919) that is now the nation of Namibia, in southwestern Africa. In 1883 Franz Adolf Lüderitz, a merchant from Bremen, Germany, established a trading post in southwest Africa at Angra Pequena, which he renamed Lüderitzbucht. He also acquired

  • Deutsche (dance)

    L?ndler, traditional couple dance of Bavaria and Alpine Austria. To lively music in 34 time, the dancers turn under each other’s arms using complicated arm and hand holds, dance back to back, and grasp each other firmly to turn around and around. These figures and the triple rhythm have appeared in

  • Deutsche Aerospace AG (German company)

    Airbus Industrie: …from Germany’s Deutsche Airbus (later DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Airbus), a joint venture in which Messerschmitt-B?lkow-Blohm had a 65 percent stake and VFW-Fokker a 35 percent stake. Spain’s Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A. (CASA) joined in 1971 with a 4.2 percent share. Hawker Siddeley and other British companies were nationalized in 1977 into a…

  • Deutsche Airbus (German company)

    Airbus Industrie: …50 percent came from Germany’s Deutsche Airbus (later DaimlerChrysler Aerospace Airbus), a joint venture in which Messerschmitt-B?lkow-Blohm had a 65 percent stake and VFW-Fokker a 35 percent stake. Spain’s Construcciones Aeronáuticas S.A. (CASA) joined in 1971 with a 4.2 percent share. Hawker Siddeley and other British companies were nationalized in…

  • Deutsche Angestellten-Gewerkschaft (German labour organization)

    German Salaried Employees’ Union, white-collar labour organization in Germany. The DAG was organized in 1945, shortly after the end of World War II, and became established throughout West Germany; after 1990, workers joined from the former East Germany. The original belief was that white-collar

  • Deutsche Bahn AG (railway system, Germany)

    Deutsche Bahn AG, the railway system of Germany created in 1994 by the merger of the Deutsche Bundesbahn (German Federal Railway), the state rail system in the former West Germany, with the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German State Railway), the state system in the former East Germany. At the time of

  • Deutsche Bank AG (German bank)

    Deutsche Bank AG, German banking house founded in 1870 in Berlin and headquartered since 1957 in Frankfurt am Main. One of the world’s largest banks, it has a number of foreign offices and has acquired controlling interests in several foreign banks in Europe, North and South America, and Australia.

  • Deutsche Bank Aktiengesellschaft (German bank)

    Deutsche Bank AG, German banking house founded in 1870 in Berlin and headquartered since 1957 in Frankfurt am Main. One of the world’s largest banks, it has a number of foreign offices and has acquired controlling interests in several foreign banks in Europe, North and South America, and Australia.

  • Deutsche Bibliothek, Die (national library, Germany)

    Die Deutsche Bibliothek, the national library of Germany. It was created by the merger (1990) of the Deutsche Bibliothek (founded 1947) in Frankfurt am Main and the Deutsche Bücherei (1912) in Leipzig, which until the reunification of Germany had functioned as the national libraries of West and

  • deutsche Blumen (pottery decoration)

    Deutsche Blumen, in pottery, floral decoration consisting of naturalistically painted “German” (i.e., European) flowers appearing individually or in bouquets. Although Viennese potters had produced a type of naturalistic floral decoration about 1730, deutsche Blumen became popular only after they

  • Deutsche Bücherei (library, Leipzig, Germany)

    Die Deutsche Bibliothek: …Frankfurt am Main and the Deutsche Bücherei (1912) in Leipzig, which until the reunification of Germany had functioned as the national libraries of West and East Germany, respectively. The system also includes the Deutsche Musikarchiv (German Music Archive) in Berlin. The library is the depository for all books published in…

  • Deutsche Bundesbahn (railway, Germany)

    Deutsche Bahn AG: …by the merger of the Deutsche Bundesbahn (German Federal Railway), the state rail system in the former West Germany, with the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German State Railway), the state system in the former East Germany. At the time of German reunification, the system route length totaled about 25,800 miles (41,500 km),…

  • Deutsche Bundesbank (German bank)

    Germany: Economy: …II Germany is the Frankfurt-based Deutsche Bundesbank (German Federal Bank). With memories of the runaway inflation of 1922–23, the West German government decided that it should never again have a license to print money and that the central bank should be independent of political control. Consequently, Germany’s adoption of the…

  • Deutsche Christen (German religious group)

    German Christian, any of the Protestants who attempted to subordinate church policy to the political initiatives of the German Nazi Party. The German Christians’ Faith Movement, organized in 1932, was nationalistic and so anti-Semitic that extremists wished to repudiate the Old Testament (Hebrew

  • Deutsche Demokratische Republik (historical nation, Germany)

    German Democratic Republic, former country (1949–90) that constitutes the northeastern section of present-day Germany

  • Deutsche Dogge (breed of dog)

    Great Dane, breed of working dog developed at least 400 years ago in Germany, where it was used for boar hunting. The Great Dane is typically a swift, alert dog noted for courage, friendliness, and dependability. It has a massive, square-jawed head and body lines that give it an elegant appearance.

  • Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft (German company)

    AEG AG, former German electronics and electrical-equipment company. As one of Germany’s leading industrial companies through much of the 19th and 20th centuries, AEG manufactured products for industrial and domestic use. The company was founded in Berlin in 1883 when the industrialist Emil

  • Deutsche Film-Akademie (German film company)

    UFA, German motion-picture production company that made artistically outstanding and technically competent films during the silent era. Located in Berlin, its studios were the best equipped and most modern in the world. It encouraged experimentation and imaginative camera work and employed such

  • Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German organization)

    Alfred Hermann Fried: In 1892 he founded the Deutsche Friedensgesellschaft (German Peace Society), which became the focus for the German pacifist movement before World War I. Fried advocated “fundamental pacifism” and believed that “international anarchy” should be met by both legislative measures and spiritual regeneration.

  • deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht, Das (work by Gierke)

    Otto Friedrich von Gierke: …translation of Gierke’s longest work, Das deutsche Genossenschaftsrecht, 4 vol. (1868–1913; “The German Law of Associations”).

  • Deutsche Geschichte (work by Lamprecht)

    Karl Gotthard Lamprecht: …master work was the massive Deutsche Geschichte, 12 vol. (1891–1901; “German History”). It was a major contribution to the development of the Kulturgeschichte (History of Civilization) school in Germany and the centre of a heated controversy over the meaning of “scientific history.” While he put special emphasis on economic groups…

  • Deutsche Geschichte im 19. Jahrhundert (work by Treitschke)

    Heinrich von Treitschke: …evident in his magnum opus, Deutsche Geschichte im 19. Jahrhundert, 5 vol. (1879–94; Treitschke’s History of Germany in the Nineteenth Century), which covers the period from 1800 to 1848. Treitschke did not live to finish writing this work. His most important other works are the essays collected in Historische und…

  • Deutsche Grammatik (work by Grimm)

    Brothers Grimm: Beginnings and Kassel period: …extensive work on grammar, the Deutsche Grammatik (1819–37). The word deutsch in the title does not mean strictly “German,” but it rather refers to the etymological meaning of “common,” thus being used to apply to all of the Germanic languages, the historical development of which is traced for the first…

  • Deutsche Grammophon (Dutch record company)

    Philips Electronics NV: …in record labels such as Deutsche Grammophon, Decca, and Motown through its PolyGram subsidiary (sold in 1998). Philips was much less successful in entering the computer business. By the time the company released its P-1000 mainframe system in the mid-1960s, the IBM 360 was well established as the market standard.…

  • deutsche Grandison, Der (work by Mus?us)

    Johann Karl August Mus?us: (1760–62), revised as Der deutsche Grandison (1781–82; “The German Grandison”), was a satire of Samuel Richardson’s hero Sir Charles Grandison, who had many sentimental admirers in Germany. In 1763 Mus?us was made master of the court pages at Weimar and later (1770) became professor at the Weimar Gymnasium.

  • deutsche Heldensage, Die (work by Grimm)

    Brothers Grimm: Beginnings and Kassel period: Wilhelm’s outstanding contribution was Die deutsche Heldensage (“The German Heroic Tale”), a collection of themes and names from heroic legends mentioned in literature and art from the 6th to the 16th centuries, together with essays on the art of the saga.

  • deutsche Ideologie, Die (work by Marx and Engels)

    Marxism: Historical materialism: …Die deutsche Ideologie (written 1845–46; The German Ideology) and the ?konomisch-philosophische Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 (Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844).

  • deutsche Katastrophe, Die (work by Meinecke)

    Friedrich Meinecke: …work, Die deutsche Katastrophe (1946; The German Catastrophe), Meinecke criticized forces and entities such as the Prussian state for preparing the groundwork for Hitler and the Nazis. After World War II he became the first president of the Free University of Berlin. In his later years he wrote a number…

  • Deutsche Kommunistische Partei (political party, Germany)

    Friedrich Ebert: …the SPD to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The leftists who had withdrawn from the SPD sought a social revolution, while Ebert and his party wanted to establish a German parliamentary democracy. Even in the midst of the war, the Catholic Centre Party, the Democratic Party (previously the…

  • Deutsche Lesegesellschaft (literary society)

    Adolf Ludwig Follen: …1814, he founded the democratic Deutsche Lesegesellschaft (German Reading Society). Expelled for his political views in 1815, he went to Heidelberg, where he was among the founders of the political student association Teutonia. With his brother, Karl, he was also the leader of the Unbedingten (Uncompromising Ones), or Schwarzen (Blacks),…

  • Deutsche Luft Hansa (German airline)

    Lufthansa: It was the successor to Deutsche Luft Hansa, or DLH, which was founded in 1926, suspended service at war’s end in 1945, and was formally liquidated in 1951. The new airline, initially called Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf, or Luftag, adopted the old name, run together, in 1954; but, whereas the old…

  • Deutsche Lufthansa AG (German airline)

    Lufthansa, German airline organized in Cologne, W.Ger., on Jan. 6, 1953, jointly by the federal government, the German National Railway, and the state of North Rhine–Westphalia; later it accepted private investors. It was the successor to Deutsche Luft Hansa, or DLH, which was founded in 1926,

  • Deutsche Luftschiffahrts-Aktien-Gesellschaft (German airship line)

    Ferdinand, Graf von Zeppelin: A passenger service known as Delag (Deutsche-Luftschiffahrts AG) was established in 1910, but Zeppelin died before attaining his goal of transcontinental flight.

  • deutsche mark (German currency)

    Mark, former monetary unit of Germany. The early history of the term can be traced back at least to the 11th century, when the mark was mentioned in Germany as a unit of weight (approximately eight ounces) most commonly used for gold and silver. As a unit of account, it was employed during the

  • Deutsche Messe (religion)

    The Protestant Heritage: The community of the baptized and the political community: …soon devised (in 1526) a Deutsche Messe (“German Mass”), a vernacular worship service. At about the same time, Zwingli produced a worship service with liturgies for the Word and the Lord’s Supper in 1525 that was followed by Martin Bucer’s work on Psalms and church practice in 1539 and Calvin’s…

  • Deutsche Mythologie (work by Grimm)

    Brothers Grimm: The G?ttingen years: Jacob Grimm’s Deutsche Mythologie, written during this period, was to be of far-reaching influence. From poetry, fairy tales, and folkloristic elements, he traced the pre-Christian faith and superstitions of the Germanic people, contrasting the beliefs to those of classical mythology and Christianity. The Mythologie had many successors…

  • Deutsche Nationalversammlung (German history)

    Frankfurt National Assembly, German national parliament (May 1848–June 1849) that tried and failed to create a united German state during the liberal Revolutions of 1848. A preliminary parliament (Vorparlament) met in Frankfurt am Main in March 1848 at the instigation of liberal leaders from all

  • Deutsche Oper Berlin (building, West Berlin, Berlin, Germany)

    Berlin: Cultural life: The new Opera House (Deutsche Oper Berlin) was opened in West Berlin in 1961, and it quickly established a position as one of the leading opera houses of the Western world. The Opera House in East Berlin, destroyed in World War II, was rebuilt in 1951; it…

  • Deutsche Politik (work by Hasse)

    Ernst Hasse: …and wrote the three-volume study Deutsche Politik (1905–07; “German Politics”) in which he made explicit the determination of the Pan-German movement: “We want territory, even if it be inhabited by foreign peoples, so that we may shape their future in accordance with our needs.”

  • Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer (work by Grimm)

    Brothers Grimm: Beginnings and Kassel period: …practices and beliefs published as Deutsche Rechtsaltertümer (1828), providing systematic source material but excluding actual laws. The work stimulated other publications in France, the Netherlands, Russia, and the southern Slavic countries.

  • Deutsche Reichsbahn (railway, Germany)

    Deutsche Bahn AG: …former West Germany, with the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German State Railway), the state system in the former East Germany. At the time of German reunification, the system route length totaled about 25,800 miles (41,500 km), of which two-thirds was in western Germany; about one-third of the track was electrified.

  • Deutsche Sagen (work by Grimm brothers)

    Brothers Grimm: Beginnings and Kassel period: …and local legends of Germany, Deutsche Sagen (1816–18), which never gained wide popular appeal, though it influenced both literature and the study of the folk narrative. The brothers then published (in 1826) a translation of Thomas Crofton Croker’s Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, prefacing the edition…

  • Deutsche Schaubühne (work by Gottsched)

    Johann Christoph Gottsched: Gottsched’s Deutsche Schaubühne, 6 vol. (1741–45; “German Theatre”), containing chiefly translations from the French, provided the German stage with a classical repertory to replace the improvisations and melodramas previously popular. His own dramatic efforts (e.g., Sterbender Cato [1732; “The Dying Cato”]), however, are considered to be…

  • Deutsche Schauspielhaus (theatre, Hamburg, Germany)

    Hamburg: Cultural life: The Deutsche Schauspielhaus, a leading theatre, enjoyed a particularly high reputation from 1955 to 1963, when Gustaf Gründgens directed and performed there. The Thalia-Theater, founded in 1843, with a multifaceted program that includes plenty of light entertainment, is popular with local audiences. All three establishments are…

  • deutsche Staat auf nationaler und sozialer Grundlage, Der (work by Feder)

    Gottfried Feder: …as in Feder’s own book, Der deutsche Staat auf nationaler und sozialer Grundlage (1923; “National and Social Bases of the German State”), considered by Hitler to be “the catechism of the [Nazi] movement.” Between 1924 and 1936 Feder sat in the German Reichstag and served as chairman of the Nazi…

  • Deutsche Staatsbibliothek (library, Berlin, Germany)

    library: Other national collections: …1990, after the reunification of Germany, the Deutsche Bibliothek in Frankfurt am Main was merged with the Deutsche Bücherei in Leipzig and the Deutsche Musikarchiv to form the national library of Germany. The Austrian National Library, founded by the emperor Maximilian I in 1493, has rich collections—notably of manuscripts from…

  • Deutsche Staatsoper

    Berlin: Cultural life: …the long-established Deutsche Staatsoper (German National Opera). East Berlin’s Comic Opera also gained fame. Classical music in general finds a distinguished home in Berlin. Foremost among many notable musical ensembles is the world-famous Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, founded in 1882; it reached new heights in the second half of the…

  • Deutsche Syntax (work by Behaghel)

    Otto Behaghel: …the German language and whose Deutsche Syntax, 4 vol. (1923–32; “German Syntax”), is a massive compilation and classification of examples of German linguistic usage from the 8th to the early 20th century.

  • Deutsche Telekom AG (German company)

    Germany: Telecommunications: …leading German telecommunications company is Deutsche Telekom AG. During the late 1990s the entire sector was liberalized, increasing the number of telecommunications firms and competition for Deutsche Telekom from companies such as Vodafone and Telefónica Germany. The adoption of telecommunications services by German consumers has been widespread, particularly for cellular…

  • Deutsche Turnkunst, Die (work by Jahn and Eiselen)

    gymnastics: History: …of Die Deutsche Turnkunst (1816; The German Gymnastic Art), carefully noted and explained the various exercises developed on the playground. The pommel horse was used for leg-swinging exercises and for vaulting. Jahn invented the parallel bars to increase the upper-body strength of his students, and immense towers were erected to…

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