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  • Deutsche und franz?sische Orgelbaukunst und Orgelkunst (booklet by Schweitzer)

    keyboard instrument: Developments after 1800: …medical missionary, wrote a booklet, Deutsche und franz?sische Orgelbaukunst und Orgelkunst (“The Art of German and French Organ Builders and Players”), in 1906 outlining the inadequacies of the 19th-century organ for the performance of the music of J.S. Bach and his contemporaries. It was not until 1926, however, with Karl…

  • Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte (work by Waitz)

    Georg Waitz: His major work, Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte, 8 vol. (1844–78; “German Constitutional History”), is an exhaustively annotated study of medieval German institutions from the earliest times to the middle of the 12th century, remarkable for its thoroughness. In 1875 he became editor of Monumenta Germaniae Historica. Other studies by Waitz…

  • Deutsche Volkspartei (political party, Germany)

    German People’s Party (Deutsche Volkspartei; DVP), right-liberal political party founded by Gustav Stresemann in 1918, made up largely of the educated and propertied. Since Stresemann was essentially a monarchist, when he decided to cooperate with the Weimar Republic the DVP was at first excluded

  • Deutsche Volksunion (political party, Germany)

    Germany: Fringe parties: …rightist Republican Party and the DVU were the most visible of Germany’s fringe parties. With their tiny memberships, neither of these parties has been able to surmount the 5 percent barrier in national elections. The National Democratic Party of Germany (Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands; NPD), the oldest of the country’s right-wing…

  • Deutsche Welle (German radio)

    Germany: Broadcasting: Two radio stations—Deutschland Radio and Deutsche Welle—are publicly operated to provide a comprehensive German perspective of events; Deutsche Welle is beamed to Europe and overseas. There are also several regional public radio stations that provide localized programming and some 200 private radio stations that are regionally and locally focused.

  • Deutsche Zentral-Genossenschaftsbank (German bank)

    Germany: Public and cooperative institutions: …by the DZ Bank (Deutsche Zentral-Genossenschaftsbank, or “German Central Cooperative Bank”), which serves as a central bank for some 1,500 industrial and agricultural credit cooperatives.There are also public and private mortgage banks, installment credit institutions, and the now-privatized postal check and postal savings systems, which were once operated by…

  • Deutsche-Presse Agentur (German news agency)

    news agency: Germany since 1949 has built Deutsche-Presse Agentur into one of the more important news agencies in Europe, including extensive exchange with other national services. In Canada the Canadian Press is a cooperative news agency with headquarters in Toronto. The oldest and largest news agency operating exclusively in Britain is the…

  • deutschen Kleinst?dter, Die (work by Kotzebue)

    August von Kotzebue: …“The Trapping of Game”) and Die deutschen Kleinst?dter (1803; “The German Small-towner”), which contain admirable pictures of provincial German life. He also wrote some novels as well as historical and autobiographical works.

  • deutschen M?chte und der Fürstenbund, Die (work by Ranke)

    Leopold von Ranke: The search for objectivity.: …and early 19th centuries (Die deutschen M?chte und der Fürstenbund, 1871–72; Ursprung und Beginn der Revolutionskriege 1791 und 1792, 1875; Hardenberg und die Geschichte des preussischen Staates von 1793 bis 1813, 1877) are subtle accounts of complex political events but address themselves only indirectly to the central problems of…

  • Deutschen, Die (book by Moeller van den Bruck)

    Arthur Moeller van den Bruck: …history of the German people, Die Deutschen (1904–10), in which he classified his countrymen according to psychological types (drifting, dreaming, decisive, etc.). He returned to Germany when World War I began and in the same year (1914) completed the editing of the first German edition of the works of Fyodor…

  • Deutschendorf, Henry John, Jr. (American singer)

    John Denver, American singer and songwriter (born Dec. 31, 1943, Roswell, N.M.—died Oct. 12, 1997, Monterey Bay, Calif.), was identified by his wholesome, sentimental music that extolled nature’s and life’s simple pleasures. He began playing folk songs on the 1910 Gibson guitar that his g

  • Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund (German trade union)

    German Trade Union Federation, dominant union organization in Germany. The DGB was founded in Munich in 1949 and soon became the largest labour organization in West Germany, with 16 constituent unions. With the reunification of Germany in 1990, workers of the former East Germany were incorporated

  • Deutscher Monistenbund (quasi-religion)

    Wilhelm Ostwald: Other notable activities: …served as president of the Deutscher Monistenbund, a scientistic quasi-religion founded by the German zoologist and evolutionary proponent Ernst Haeckel.

  • Deutscher Orden (religious order)

    Teutonic Order, religious order that played a major role in eastern Europe in the late Middle Ages and that underwent various changes in organization and residence from its founding in 1189/90 to the present. Its major residences, marking its major states of development, were: (1) Acre, Palestine

  • Deutscher Ritter-Orden (religious order)

    Teutonic Order, religious order that played a major role in eastern Europe in the late Middle Ages and that underwent various changes in organization and residence from its founding in 1189/90 to the present. Its major residences, marking its major states of development, were: (1) Acre, Palestine

  • Deutscher Werkbund (German artists organization)

    Deutscher Werkbund, important organization of artists influential in its attempts to inspire good design and craftsmanship for mass-produced goods and architecture. The Werkbund, which was founded in Munich in 1907, was composed of artists, artisans, and architects who designed industrial,

  • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (laboratory, Hamburg, Germany)

    DESY, the largest centre for high-energy particle-physics research in Germany. DESY, founded in 1959, is located in Hamburg and is funded jointly by the German federal government and the city of Hamburg. Its particle-accelerator facilities are an international resource, serving thousands of

  • Deutsches Jungvolk

    Hitler Youth: …if qualified, inducted into the Deutsches Jungvolk (“German Young People”). At age 13 the youth became eligible for the Hitler Youth, from which he was graduated at age 18. Throughout these years he lived a spartan life of dedication, fellowship, and Nazi conformity, generally with minimum parental guidance. From age…

  • Deutsches Museum (museum, Munich, Germany)

    Deutsches Museum, museum of science and industry established in Munich in 1903 and opened in 1925. Its pattern of organization and administration became the model for such later foundations as the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. The Deutsches Museum owed its existence to the perseverance

  • Deutsches Museum von Meisterwerken der Naturwissenschaft und Technik (museum, Munich, Germany)

    Deutsches Museum, museum of science and industry established in Munich in 1903 and opened in 1925. Its pattern of organization and administration became the model for such later foundations as the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. The Deutsches Museum owed its existence to the perseverance

  • Deutsches Nationaltheater (theatre, Weimar, Germany)

    Germany: Literature and theatre: The old German National Theatre (Deutsches Nationaltheater) in Weimar was the first to be rebuilt after 1945. Understandably, Berlin dominated theatrical developments, especially because of the work of Brecht at the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm. Given a haven in East Germany—a theatre and a company, along with the…

  • Deutsches Privatrecht (work by Gierke)

    Otto Friedrich von Gierke: This controversy inspired his Deutsches Privatrecht, 3 vol. (1895–1917; “German Private Law”).

  • deutsches Requiem, Ein (work by Brahms)

    A German Requiem, Op. 45, requiem by Johannes Brahms, premiered in an initial form December 1, 1867, in Vienna. Revisions led to an expanded work first heard in Leipzig, Germany on February 18, 1869. It represents Brahms’s most ambitious vocal music. By 1861 Brahms is believed to have completed two

  • Deutsches Schiffahrtsmuseum (museum, Bremerhaven, Germany)

    museum: History museums: …in the case of the German Shipping Museum at Bremerhaven; or in a restored waterfront environment, as at South Street, New York City.

  • Deutsches Theater (German drama society)

    Deutsches Theater, (German: “German Theatre”) private dramatic society founded in Berlin in 1883 by the dramatist Adolf L’Arronge in reaction to outmoded theatrical traditions. It presented plays in the ensemble style of the influential Meiningen Company. In 1894 it was affiliated with the Freie

  • Deutsches Wirtschaftsleben im Mittelalter (work by Lamprecht)

    Karl Gotthard Lamprecht: …one of his best works, Deutsches Wirtschaftsleben im Mittelalter, 3 vol., (1885–86; “German Economic Life in the Middle Ages”), appeared. In 1890 he taught at the University of Marburg and a year later was made professor of history at the University of Leipzig.

  • Deutsches W?rterbuch (work by Paul)

    dictionary: Major dictionaries: …standard work was Hermann Paul’s Deutsches W?rterbuch, which first appeared in 1897 but was later reissued in several editions. In addition to the national dictionaries in the Scandinavian countries mentioned above, another work done with special scholarly skill is noteworthy: Einar Haugen, editor in chief, Norwegian English Dictionary (Madison, Wisconsin…

  • Deutsches W?rterbuch (German dictionary)

    Deutsches W?rterbuch, the first German dictionary conceived on scientific lines; initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. The dictionary was designed to give the etymology and history, illustrated by quotations, of all the words in the (New) High German literary language from the time of Martin Luther

  • Deutsches-Gewerbe-Museum zu Berlin (museum, Berlin, Germany)

    Museum of Decorative Arts, museum in Berlin housing an important collection of applied arts and crafts. The museum, among the oldest of its kind in Germany, displays both historical and contemporary pieces. The museum was founded in 1868 as the Deutsches-Gewerbe-Museum zu Berlin—the name by which

  • Deutschland

    Germany, country of north-central Europe, traversing the continent’s main physical divisions, from the outer ranges of the Alps northward across the varied landscape of the Central German Uplands and then across the North German Plain. One of Europe’s largest countries, Germany encompasses a wide

  • Deutschland (German submarine)

    submarine: World War I: The Deutschland itself became the U-155 when fitted with torpedo tubes and deck guns, and, with seven similar submarines, it served in a combat role during the latter stages of the war. In comparison, the “standard” submarine of World War I measured slightly over 200 feet…

  • Deutschland Radio (German radio)

    Germany: Broadcasting: Two radio stations—Deutschland Radio and Deutsche Welle—are publicly operated to provide a comprehensive German perspective of events; Deutsche Welle is beamed to Europe and overseas. There are also several regional public radio stations that provide localized programming and some 200 private radio stations that are regionally and…

  • Deutschland, Deutschland über alles (German national anthem)

    Deutschlandlied, (German: “Song of Germany”) official national anthem of Germany from 1922 to 1945, of West Germany from 1950 to 1990, and of reunified Germany from 1990. The tune of the German national anthem was composed in 1796 by Austrian Joseph Haydn and was first performed in 1797 for the

  • Deutschland, Ein Winterm?rchen (satire by Heine)

    Heinrich Heine: Later life and works: …satire, Deutschland, Ein Winterm?rchen (1844; Germany, a Winter’s Tale), a stinging attack on reactionary conditions in Germany. Though Heine remained on good, if not intimate, terms with Marx in later years, he never was much taken with Communism, which did not fit his ideal of a revolution of joy and…

  • Deutschlandlied (German national anthem)

    Deutschlandlied, (German: “Song of Germany”) official national anthem of Germany from 1922 to 1945, of West Germany from 1950 to 1990, and of reunified Germany from 1990. The tune of the German national anthem was composed in 1796 by Austrian Joseph Haydn and was first performed in 1797 for the

  • Deutschnationale Volkspartei (political party, Germany)

    German National People’s Party, right-wing political party active in the Reichstag (assembly) of the Weimar Republic of Germany from 1919 to 1933. Representing chauvinistic opinion hostile to the republic and to the Allies’ reparation demands following World War I, it supported the restoration of

  • Deutsch?sterreich (name for Germany-Austria)

    Austria: Early postwar years: …should cease to call itself Deutsch?sterreich (German-Austria); it became the Republik ?sterreich (Republic of Austria). The Austrian claim for the German-speaking areas of Bohemia and Moravia was denied by the Saint-Germain peace conference, and Austria also had to recognize the frontiers of Czechoslovakia along slightly rectified historical administrative lines. On…

  • Deutzia (plant genus)

    Cornales: Hydrangeaceae: …orange or sweet syringa, and Deutzia are two other members of the hydrangea family often grown in gardens. These shrubs and their many cultivated varieties are widely planted in shrub borders for the white flowers that appear in late spring.

  • Deux (novel by Rolin)

    Dominique Rolin: Deux (1975; “Two”) dramatizes a conflict between woman and writer represented by two sides of a single narrator. L’Enragé (1978; “The Furious One”) is a fictional biography of Flemish painter Pieter Bruegel the Elder, while in L’Infini chez soi (1980; “The Infinite at Home”) a…

  • Deux Anglaises et le continent, Les (film by Truffaut [1971])

    Jean-Pierre Léaud: …Anglaises et le continent (1971; Two English Girls; Anne and Muriel), and La Nuit américaine (1973; Day for Night).

  • Deux Journées, Les (work by Cherubini)

    Luigi Cherubini: …theme: Les Deux Journées (1800; The Two Days, also known as The Water Carrier from its German title, Der Wassertr?ger). This opera is considered by many to be Cherubini’s masterpiece.

  • Deux jours, une nuit (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [2014])

    Marion Cotillard: …Deux jours, une nuit (2014; Two Days, One Night), she evoked the struggles of a young woman attempting to save her job by persuading her colleagues to forfeit their bonuses. Her moving performance earned her an Academy Award nomination for best actress. Cotillard then portrayed the murderous wife of the…

  • Deux Mères de Guillaume Ismael Dzewatama, futur camionneur, Les (work by Beti)

    Mongo Beti: …of Beti’s later novels, including Les Deux Mères de Guillaume Isma?l Dzewatama, futur camionneur (1983; “The Two Mothers of Guillaume Isma?l Dzewatama, Future Truckdriver”), concern interracial marriage. Among his other works are La France contre l’Afrique (1993; “France Against Africa”), a discussion of the French African policy, and the novel…

  • Deux Sources de la morale et de la religion, Les (work by Bergson)

    Henri Bergson: Later years: …et de la religion (The Two Sources of Morality and Religion). As in the earlier works, he claimed that the polar opposition of the static and the dynamic provides the basic insight. Thus, in the moral, social, and religious life of men he saw, on the one side, the…

  • Deux-Sèvres (department, France)

    Poitou-Charentes: Charente, Charente-Maritime, and Deux-Sèvres. In 2016 the Poitou-Charentes région was joined with the régions of Aquitaine and Limousin to form the new administrative entity of Nouvelle Aquitaine.

  • Deuxième Sexe, Le (work by Beauvoir)

    Western philosophy: The existentialism of Jaspers and Sartre: In The Second Sex (1949), Simone de Beauvoir (1908–86), Sartre’s fellow philosopher and lifelong companion, attempted to mobilize the existentialist concept of freedom for the ends of modern feminism.

  • Dev Ramlal Nikhanj, Kapil (Indian cricketer)

    Kapil Dev, Indian cricketer and the greatest pace bowler in his country’s history. He is the only cricketer to have scored over 5,000 runs and taken more than 400 wickets in Test (international match) cricket. Dev made his debut in first-class cricket playing for his state, Haryana. He joined the

  • Dev Sol (terrorist group, Turkey)

    Revolutionary People’s Liberation Party/Front, left-wing Marxist-Leninist terrorist group in Turkey, formed in 1978 as an offshoot of the Turkish People’s Liberation Party/Front, that is strongly anti-United States and anti-NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). In the 1990s, Dev Sol (renamed

  • Dev, Guru (Indian guru)

    Maharishi Mahesh Yogi: …13 years he studied under Guru Dev, the founder of TM. When Guru Dev died in 1952, the Maharishi organized a movement to spread the teachings of TM throughout the world; his first world tour took place in 1959 and brought him to the United States.

  • Dev, Kapil (Indian cricketer)

    Kapil Dev, Indian cricketer and the greatest pace bowler in his country’s history. He is the only cricketer to have scored over 5,000 runs and taken more than 400 wickets in Test (international match) cricket. Dev made his debut in first-class cricket playing for his state, Haryana. He joined the

  • Deva (Romania)

    Deva, city, capital of Hunedoara jude? (county), west-central Romania, on the banks of the Mure? River, at an elevation of 590 feet (180 m). The town is dominated by Citadel Hill (1,217 feet), shaped like a truncated cone, which affords a commanding view of the Mure? valley. Atop the hill are the

  • Deva (England, United Kingdom)

    Chester, urban area (from 2011 built-up area) and former city (district), Cheshire West and Chester unitary authority, northwestern England. It is situated on a small sandstone ridge at the head of the estuary of the River Dee. The town’s location was chosen by the Romans as headquarters of Legion

  • deva (religious being)

    Deva, (Sanskrit: “divine”) in the Vedic religion of India and in later Hinduism, one of many gods, often roughly divided into sky, air, and earth divinities on the basis of their identification with the forces of nature. In the pantheistic systems that emerged by the Late Vedic period, the devas

  • Déva (Indonesian deity)

    Ngada: …recognized a high god (Déva) and his female component (Nitu), but since 1920 missionaries have worked among the Ngada, and today many Ngada are Roman Catholics.

  • Deva Samaj (atheistic organization)

    Shiv Narayan Agnihotri: …of an atheistic society called Deva Samaj (“Society of God”).

  • Devabhumi (Shunga ruler)

    Kanva dynasty: …stated to have served Shunga Devabhumi (Devabhuti). Bana, the 7th-century Sanskrit author, gives details of an assassination plot that cost Devabhumi his life and brought Vasudeva to power in about 72 bce.

  • Devabhuti (Shunga ruler)

    Kanva dynasty: …stated to have served Shunga Devabhumi (Devabhuti). Bana, the 7th-century Sanskrit author, gives details of an assassination plot that cost Devabhumi his life and brought Vasudeva to power in about 72 bce.

  • devadasi (Indian society)

    Devadasi, (Sanskrit: “female servant of a god”) member of a community of women who dedicate themselves to the service of the patron god of the great temples in eastern and southern India. The order appears to date from the 9th and 10th centuries. Members of the order attended the god by fanning the

  • Devadatta (Buddhist monk)

    Devadatta, Buddhist monk who sought to reform the sangha (monastic community) by imposing upon it a stricter code of life. He was a cousin of the Buddha. Devadatta is said to have joined the sangha along with Ananda, who was possibly his brother, in the 20th year of the Buddha’s ministry. Fifteen

  • Devagiri (India)

    Daulatabad, village and ancient city, north-central Maharashtra state, western India. It is situated in a hilly upland area about 8 miles (13 km) northwest of Aurangabad. The city was founded in the late 12th century by King Bhillam of the Yadava dynasty, and it was a major fortress and

  • devaluation (finance)

    Devaluation, reduction in the exchange value of a country’s monetary unit in terms of gold, silver, or foreign monetary units. Devaluation is employed to eliminate persistent balance-of-payments deficits. For example, a devaluation of currency will decrease prices of the home country’s exports that

  • Devanāgarī (writing system)

    Devanāgarī, (Sanskrit: deva, “god,” and nāgarī (lipi), “[script] of the city”) script used to write the Sanskrit, Prākrit, Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali languages, developed from the North Indian monumental script known as Gupta and ultimately from the Brāhmī alphabet, from which all modern Indian

  • Devānampiya Tissa (king of Sri Lanka)

    Mahavihara: …by the Sinhalese king Devanampiya Tissa not long after his conversion to Buddhism by the Indian monk Mahendra. Until about the 10th century, it was a great cultural and religious centre and the chief stronghold of Theravada Buddhism. Because of the extreme importance of Buddhism in Ceylon, the prestige of…

  • Devant, David (British magician)

    John Nevil Maskelyne: …Maskelyne took as a partner David Devant, the most famous magician in England. Maskelyne’s son Nevil collaborated with Devant on Our Magic (1911), an important source book on the theory of magic.

  • Devanter, Willis Van (United States jurist)

    Willis Van Devanter, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1910–37). After graduating from Cincinnati Law School in 1881, he initially worked for his father’s law firm; but in 1884, he moved to Cheyenne, Wyo., to become a railroad attorney. There he became involved in territorial

  • Devapāla (king of Pāla dynasty)

    India: The tripartite struggle: Meanwhile Devapala (reigned c. 810–850) was reasserting Pala authority in the east and, he claimed, in the northern Deccan. At the end of the 9th century, however, the Pala kingdom declined, with feudatories in Kamarupa (modern Assam) and Utkala (Orissa) taking independent titles. Pala power revived…

  • devarāja (ancient Cambodian religion)

    Devarāja, in ancient Cambodia, the cult of the “god-king” established early in the 9th century ad by Jayavarman II, founder of the Khmer empire of Angkor. For centuries, the cult provided the religious basis of the royal authority of the Khmer kings. The devarāja cult grew out of both Hindu and

  • Devaraya I (Vijayanagar ruler)

    India: Wars and rivalries: …and dethroned was the third, Devaraya I (reigned 1406–22), able to emerge victorious. Continuing instability, however, coupled with the involvement of Vijayanagar and the Bahmanī sultanate as backers of different claimants to the throne of Kondavidu, led to further confrontation between the two powers (each joined by various of the…

  • Devaraya II (Vijayanagar ruler)

    India: Wars and rivalries: Vijaya’s son and successor, Devaraya II (reigned 1432–46), reconquered the lost Reddi territories and incorporated them into his kingdom, thus establishing the Krishna River as the northeastern boundary. Wars with the Bahmanīs in 1435–36 and 1443–44 over control of Raichur and Mudgal forts in the Tungabhadra-Krishna Doab ended inconclusively.…

  • Devarim (biblical literature)

    Deuteronomy, (“Words”), fifth book of the Old Testament, written in the form of a farewell address by Moses to the Israelites before they entered the Promised Land of Canaan. The speeches that constitute this address recall Israel’s past, reiterate laws that Moses had communicated to the people a

  • Devastation (British warship)

    naval ship: Ships: HMS Devastation, 9,330 tons, four 12-inch (30-cm) guns in two turrets, and massively armoured, was completed four years later without sail and was a next step toward the ultimate 20th-century battleship, a ship with an armoured citadel around the propulsion plant, powder magazines, and handling rooms.…

  • Devasuri (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: …great Jaina works, such as Devasuri’s Pramananayatattvalokalamkara (“The Ornament of the Light of Truth of the Different Points of View Regarding the Means of True Knowledge,” 12th century ce) and Prabhachandra’s Prameyakamalamartanda (“The Sun of the Lotus of the Objects of True Knowledge,” 11th century ce), were written during this…

  • devatā (religious being)

    Deva, (Sanskrit: “divine”) in the Vedic religion of India and in later Hinduism, one of many gods, often roughly divided into sky, air, and earth divinities on the basis of their identification with the forces of nature. In the pantheistic systems that emerged by the Late Vedic period, the devas

  • Devaux, Andrew (British officer)

    The Bahamas: British colonization: Andrew Devaux, a loyalist commander, before news of the treaty had been received. On the conclusion of the American Revolution, many loyalists emigrated from the United States to the Bahamas under very favourable terms offered by the crown. Among the newcomers was Lord Dunmore, formerly…

  • Devawongse Varoprakar, Prince (Siamese foreign minister)

    Prince Devawongse Varoprakar, foreign minister of Siam from 1885 to 1923, whose policies enabled the kingdom to survive as an independent state. The 42nd child of King Mongkut, Devawongse was the younger half brother of King Chulalongkorn. After only a smattering of formal Thai and English

  • devayana (Hinduism)

    eschatology: Religions of Asia: …be assigned to redemption, or devayana (“god’s way”).

  • devekut (Judaism)

    Devequt, (Hebrew: “attachment”), in Jewish religious thought, an adherence to or communion with God that stops short of mystical union. The notion of devequt apparently derived from the biblical reference to “loving the Lord your God, walking in all his ways, and holding fast to him” (Deuteronomy

  • developed country (economics)

    carbon footprint: Carbon footprint calculation: In developed countries, transportation and household energy use make up the largest component of an individual’s carbon footprint. For example, approximately 40 percent of total emissions in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century were from those sources. Such emissions are included…

  • developed dye (colouring agent)

    azo dye: …in this way are called developed dyes; para red and primuline red are members of this group that were introduced in the 1880s.

  • developed nation (economics)

    carbon footprint: Carbon footprint calculation: In developed countries, transportation and household energy use make up the largest component of an individual’s carbon footprint. For example, approximately 40 percent of total emissions in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century were from those sources. Such emissions are included…

  • developer (photography)

    technology of photography: Developers and their characteristics: The developer consists typically of one or more developing agents, a preservative (such as sodium sulfite) to prevent oxidation by the air, an alkali (such as sodium carbonate) to activate the developer, and a restrainer or antifoggant to ensure that the…

  • developer (dough making)

    baking: Continuous bread making: The developer is the key equipment in the continuous line. Processing about 50 kilograms (100 pounds) each 90 seconds, it changes the batter from a fluid mass having no organized structure, little extensibility, and inadequate gas retention to a smooth, elastic, film-forming dough. The dough then…

  • Developers of an Islamic Iran (Iranian organization)

    Mahmoud Ahmadinejad: Political beginnings: Ahmadinejad helped establish ābādgarān-e īrān-e Eslāmī (Developers of an Islamic Iran), which promoted a populist agenda and sought to unite the country’s conservative factions. The party won the city council elections in Tehrān in February 2003, and in May the council chose Ahmadinejad to serve as mayor. As…

  • developing (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Film: …came from experience with a developer known as pyro (pyrogallol), once very popular with still photographers. A negative developed with pyro developer has not only a silver image but also a brown stain. Study of the process showed that the stain was caused by oxidation products given off locally by…

  • developing country (economics)

    marketing: Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel: …is, shorter and simpler—in the less industrialized nations. There are notable exceptions, however. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity. Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale…

  • developing nation (economics)

    marketing: Marketing intermediaries: the distribution channel: …is, shorter and simpler—in the less industrialized nations. There are notable exceptions, however. For instance, the Ghana Cocoa Marketing Board collects cacao beans in Ghana and licenses trading firms to process the commodity. Similar marketing processes are used in other West African nations. Because of the vast number of small-scale…

  • developing tank (photography)

    technology of photography: Negative development: Amateurs usually process films in developing tanks. In this type of development roll or miniature film is wound around a reel with a spiral groove, which keeps adjacent turns separated and allows access by the processing solutions. Once the tank is loaded (in the dark), processing takes place in normal…

  • developing-world debt (economics)

    Third World debt, debt accumulated by Third World (developing) countries. The term is typically used to refer specifically to the external debt those countries owe to developed countries and multilateral lending institutions. The rapid growth in the external debt of developing countries first

  • development (chess)

    chess: Morphy and the theory of attack: Morphy appreciated that superior development—getting pieces onto good squares in the first 10 to 15 moves—was relatively unimportant in the semiclosed, blocked pawn structures that Philidor had embraced. But, as the centre or kingside became more open, an advantage in development increased in value. In Morphy’s best-known games, pawns…

  • development

    Biological development, the progressive changes in size, shape, and function during the life of an organism by which its genetic potentials (genotype) are translated into functioning mature systems (phenotype). Most modern philosophical outlooks would consider that development of some kind or other

  • development

    Research and development, in industry, two intimately related processes by which new products and new forms of old products are brought into being through technological innovation. Research and development, a phrase unheard of in the early part of the 20th century, has since become a universal

  • development (music)

    sonata form: Development: The functions of the second and third main sections in sonata form follow naturally from what has been established in the exposition. Their purpose is to discuss and resolve the conflicts of tonality and theme that the exposition has raised. The development is an…

  • Development and Purpose (work by Hobhouse)

    Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse: …The Theory of Knowledge (1896), Development and Purpose (1913), intended as a full statement of his philosophy, and four books collectively entitled The Principles of Sociology. They are The Metaphysical Theory of the State (1918), The Rational Good (1921), The Elements of Social Justice (1922), and Social Development (1924).

  • development anthropology (anthropology)

    anthropology: Development anthropology: The final quarter of the 20th century saw an increasing involvement of social anthropologists with the process of accelerated incorporation of formerly colonial countries into the world economic system. Referred to as development, the process of incorporation involves the transfer to poor countries…

  • Development Assistance Committee (international economic development)

    Development Assistance Committee (DAC), international committee acting under the auspices of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The DAC collects and analyzes development data and provides a forum where the world’s major bilateral aid donors meet to discuss, review,

  • development association (business organization)

    Chamber of commerce, any of various voluntary organizations of business firms, public officials, professional people, and public-spirited citizens. They are primarily interested in publicizing, promoting, and developing commercial and industrial opportunities in their areas; they also seek to

  • development bank (economics)

    Development bank, national or regional financial institution designed to provide medium- and long-term capital for productive investment, often accompanied by technical assistance, in poor countries. The number of development banks has increased rapidly since the 1950s; they have been encouraged by

  • Development Bank of Southern Africa (bank, South Africa)

    South Africa: Finance: One such bank, the Development Bank of Southern Africa, is a quasi-governmental company created to promote development projects. Private pension and provident funds and more than two dozen insurance companies play significant roles in the financial sector. An active capital market exists, organized around the Johannesburg Stock Exchange.

  • Development Bank of the Republic of Niger (bank, Niger)

    Niger: The economy: …through the agency of the Development Bank of the Republic of Niger, which is funded partly by aid from abroad, has promoted the establishment of many companies, including real estate, road transport, air transport, and agricultural processing enterprises.

  • Development Board (Iraqi government organization)

    Iraq: Postwar reconstruction and social upheavals, 1945–58: …to the establishment of the Development Board. The original oil agreement between the Iraqi government and the IPC had heretofore yielded relatively modest royalties, owing to certain technical limitations (such as the need for pipelines) and to war conditions. It was not until 1952 that construction of pipelines to Bāniyās…

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