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  • Dhalgren (novel by Delany)

    Samuel R. Delany: Dhalgren (1975) is the story of a young bisexual man searching for identity in a large decaying city. In Triton (1976), in which the main character undergoes a gender-reassignment operation, Delany examines bias against women and homosexuals. Delany’s Nèver?on series (Tales of Nevèr?on [1979]; Neveryóna;…

  • Dhalkisor River (river, India)

    Rupnarayan River, river in West Bengal state, northeastern India. It rises as the Dhaleshwari (Dhalkisor) in the Chota Nagpur plateau foothills northeast of the city of Purulia and follows a tortuous southeasterly course past the city of Bankura, where it is known as the Dwarkeswar. It is joined by

  • Dhamār (Yemen)

    Dhamār, town, western Yemen, lying in the Yemen Highlands, in a valley 12 miles (19 km) wide between two volcanic peaks at 8,000 feet (2,400 metres) above sea level. Although local tradition dates many of the sites in the district to biblical times, the first certain historical mention of Dhamār is

  • dhamar (Indian music)

    South Asian arts: North India: The vocal forms dhrupad and dhamar resemble the ragam-tanam-pallavi. They begin with an elaborate alapa followed by the more rhythmic but unmeasured non-tom using meaningless syllables such as te, re, na, nom, and tom. Then follow the four composed sections of the dhrupad or dhamar, the latter being named after…

  • dhamma (religious concept)

    Dharma, key concept with multiple meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. In Hinduism, dharma is the religious and moral law governing individual conduct and is one of the four ends of life. In addition to the dharma that applies to everyone (sadharana dharma)—consisting of truthfulness,

  • dhamma (Buddhist metaphysics)

    dharma: …term in the plural (dharmas) is used to describe the interrelated elements that make up the empirical world.

  • dhamma (Jainist metaphysics)

    ajiva: …into: (1) ākā?a, “space,” (2) dharma, “that which makes motion possible,” (3) adharma, “that which makes rest possible,” and (4) pudgala, “matter.” Pudgala consists of atoms; is eternal yet subject to change and development; is both gross (that which it is possible to see) and subtle (that which cannot be…

  • dhamma-mahamatta (Mauryan government official)

    Buddhism: Expansion of Buddhism: …system of dhamma officers (dhamma-mahamattas) in order to help govern the empire. And he sent diplomatic emissaries to areas beyond his direct political control.

  • Dhammakaya (Buddhist organization)

    Buddhism: From Myanmar to the Mekong delta: …Santi Asoke (founded 1975) and Dhammakaya, are especially interesting. Santi Asoke, a lay-oriented group that advocates stringent discipline, moral rectitude, and political reform, has been very much at odds with the established ecclesiastical hierarchy. The Dhammakaya group has been much more successful at gathering a large popular following but has…

  • Dhammakitti (Buddhist monk)

    Cūlava?sa: …written by the Buddhist monk Dhammakitti in the 13th century. Succeeding portions, although they have not been assigned definite authorship, are generally considered inferior—both in style and in factual reliability—to Dhammakitti’s portion.

  • Dhammapada (Buddhist literature)

    Dhammapada, (Pali: “Words of Doctrine” or “Way of Truth”) probably the best-known book in the Pali Buddhist canon. It is an anthology of basic Buddhist teachings (primarily ethical teachings) in a simple aphoristic style. As the second text in the Khuddaka Nikaya (“Short Collection”) of the Sutta

  • Dhammapāla (Indian author)

    Buddhism: Early noncanonical texts in Pali: Dhammapala, who probably came from southern India, is credited with the writing of numerous commentaries, including the Paramattha dipani (Pali: “Elucidation of the True Meaning”), a commentary on several books of the Khuddaka nikaya. In the Paramattha manjusa (Pali: “Jewel Box of the True Meaning”),…

  • dhammas (Buddhist metaphysics)

    dharma: …term in the plural (dharmas) is used to describe the interrelated elements that make up the empirical world.

  • Dhammasangani (Buddhist text)

    Abhidhamma Pitaka: …following texts, or pakaranas: (1) Dhammasangani (“Summary of Dharma”), a psychologically oriented manual of ethics for advanced monks but long popular in Sri Lanka, (2) Vibhanga (“Division” or “Classification”—not to be confused with a Vinaya work or with several suttas bearing the same name), a kind of supplement to the…

  • Dhammayut (Thai Buddhist sect)

    monasticism: Other organizational or institutional types: The Dhammayut, the smaller and more highly ascetic of the two sections of the Thai sangha, prescribes minimum periods of three months to a year; the Mahasanghikas, who form the monastic majority, do not specify any duration. Lifelong monastic vows are, in those regions, a matter…

  • Dhamtari (India)

    Dhamtari, town, central Chhattisgarh state, east-central India. It is located in the southern part of the Chhattisgarh Plain, just west of the Mahanadi River. The town is a rail-spur terminus and a trade centre for agricultural and forest products. Rice and flour milling and shellac manufacture are

  • Dhanabhūti (king of ?u?ga dynasty)

    Bharhut: …assigns the work to King Dhanabhuti during the rule of the Shungas (i.e., before 72 bce). The sculptures adorning the shrine are among the earliest and finest examples of the developing style of Buddhist art in India. See Bharhut sculpture.

  • Dhanananda (ruler of Magadha)

    Nanda dynasty: Dhanananda, the last of this list, possibly figures as Agrammes, or Xandrames, in classical sources, a powerful contemporary of Alexander the Great. The Nanda line ended with him in about 321 bce when Chandragupta laid the foundation for Mauryan power.

  • Dhanbad (India)

    Dhanbad, city, eastern Jharkhand state, northeastern India. It lies in the Damodar River valley near the Jharia coalfield and is an important agricultural trade centre. Dhanbad is a major junction point for roads and rail lines in the region. The Indian School of Mines, affiliated with the

  • Dha?ga (Chandelā king)

    India: The Rajputs: Among the important rulers was Dhanga (reigned c. 950–1008), who issued a large number of inscriptions and was generous in donations to Jain and Hindu temples. Dhanga’s grandson Vidyadhara (reigned 1017–29), often described as the most powerful of the Candella kings, extended the kingdom as far as the Chambal and…

  • Dhanvantari (Hindu mythology)

    Dhanvantari, in Hindu mythology, the physician of the gods. According to legend, the gods and the demons sought the elixir amrita by churning the milky ocean, and Dhanvantari rose out of the waters bearing a cup filled with the elixir. The Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine, is also

  • Dhanwantari (Hindu mythology)

    Dhanvantari, in Hindu mythology, the physician of the gods. According to legend, the gods and the demons sought the elixir amrita by churning the milky ocean, and Dhanvantari rose out of the waters bearing a cup filled with the elixir. The Ayurveda, a traditional system of medicine, is also

  • Dhanya Mā?ikya (king of Tripura)

    Tripura: History: …and that of his successor, Dhanya Manikya (reigned c. 1463–1515), Tripura suzerainty was extended over much of Bengal, Assam, and Myanmar (Burma) in a series of remarkable military conquests. It was not until the beginning of the 17th century that the Mughal empire extended its sovereignty over much of Tripura.

  • Dhar (India)

    Dhar, town, western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is situated on the northern slopes of the Vindhya Range and commands one of the gaps leading to the Narmada River valley to the south. Dhar is an ancient town. It served (9th–14th century) as the capital of the Paramara Rajputs and was a

  • Dharamsala (India)

    Dharmshala, town, western Himachal Pradesh state, northwestern India. It is located on a lower slope of the Himalayas. Dharmshala is a scenic health resort. Aerated water is bottled there, and slate is quarried nearby. The town was virtually destroyed by an earthquake in 1905, but it was then

  • dharana (Indian philosophy)

    Yoga: Dharana (“holding on”) is the ability to hold and confine awareness of externals to one object for a long period of time (a common exercise is fixing the mind on an object of meditation, such as the tip of the nose or an image of…

  • Dharani (Hindu mythology)

    Lakshmi: …class, she was his wife Dharani; when he was King Rama, she was his queen Sita. In the most widely received account of Lakshmi’s birth, she rose from the churning of the ocean of milk (an important event in Hinduism), seated on a lotus and holding another blossom in her…

  • dharani (Buddhism and Hinduism)

    Dharani, in Buddhism and Hinduism, a sacred Sanskrit phrase of great efficacy, used as a verbal protective device or talisman and as a support or instrument for concentration. The dharani is a short summary of the essential doctrine contained in a much longer sacred text and serves as an aid to its

  • dharma (Jainist metaphysics)

    ajiva: …into: (1) ākā?a, “space,” (2) dharma, “that which makes motion possible,” (3) adharma, “that which makes rest possible,” and (4) pudgala, “matter.” Pudgala consists of atoms; is eternal yet subject to change and development; is both gross (that which it is possible to see) and subtle (that which cannot be…

  • dharma (religious concept)

    Dharma, key concept with multiple meanings in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. In Hinduism, dharma is the religious and moral law governing individual conduct and is one of the four ends of life. In addition to the dharma that applies to everyone (sadharana dharma)—consisting of truthfulness,

  • dharma (Buddhist metaphysics)

    dharma: …term in the plural (dharmas) is used to describe the interrelated elements that make up the empirical world.

  • Dharma Bums, The (novel by Kerouac)

    The Dharma Bums, autobiographical novel by Jack Kerouac, published in 1958. The story’s narrator, Raymond Smith, is based on Kerouac himself, and the poet-woodsman-Buddhist, Japhy Ryder, is a thinly disguised portrait of the poet Gary Snyder. The book contains a number of other characters who are

  • Dharma Mā?ikya (king of Tripura)

    Tripura: History: …reign of the great king Dharma Manikya (reigned c. 1431–62). The Rajamala, written in Bengali verse, was compiled by the Brahmans in the court of Dharma Manikya. During his reign and that of his successor, Dhanya Manikya (reigned c. 1463–1515), Tripura suzerainty was extended over much of Bengal, Assam, and…

  • dharma raja (Bhutani title)

    Bhutan: The emergence of Bhutan: …and acquired the title of dharma raja. Bhutan probably became a distinct political entity about this period. La-Pha was succeeded by Doopgein Sheptoon, who consolidated Bhutan’s administrative organization through the appointment of regional penlops (governors of territories) and jungpens (governors of forts). Doopgein Sheptoon exercised both temporal and spiritual authority,…

  • dharma sūtra (Hinduism)

    Dharma-sutra, (Sanskrit: “righteousness thread”) any of several manuals of human conduct that form the earliest source of Hindu law. They consist chiefly of sutras (“threads” or “strings”) of terse rules containing the essentials of law concerning interpersonal relations and the relationship

  • Dharma, Wheel of (Buddhism)

    religious symbolism and iconography: Concepts of symbolization: , the dharmachakra, or wheel of the law, of Buddhism). Other nonreligious types of symbols achieved increasing significance in the 19th and 20th centuries, especially those dealing with human beings’ relationship to and conceptualization of the material world. Rational, scientific-technical symbols have assumed an ever increasing importance…

  • dharma-dhātu (Buddhism)

    Buddhism: Avatamsaka (Huayan/Kegon): …in a quest to realize dharma-dhatu (“totality” or “universal principle”). Three Chinese versions and one Sanskrit original (the Gandavyuha), which contains the last section only, are extant. There is no trace of an Indian sectarian development, and the school is known only in its Chinese and Japanese forms.

  • Dharma-mangal (Bengali literature)

    Dharma-Thakur: …in Bengali literature known as Dharma-mangal.

  • Dharma-puja (religious festival)

    Dharma-Thakur: …Dharma-Thakur’s annual worship, known as Dharma-puja, has been described as a kind of sympathetic magic to make the monsoon rains begin to fall. Among the neighbouring tribal peoples there are a number of practices and deities that share some of the characteristics of Dharma-Thakur. The majesty and exploits of Dharma-Thakur…

  • Dharma-Rāj (Indian deity)

    Dharma-Thakur, folk deity of eastern India whose origins are obscure. Dharma-Thakur is worshipped as the “high god” of a large number of villages of the Rahr Plains, a region that comprises the greater part of modern West Bengal state. Dharma-Thakur has no prescribed form; he is worshipped in the

  • Dharma-Ray (Indian deity)

    Dharma-Thakur, folk deity of eastern India whose origins are obscure. Dharma-Thakur is worshipped as the “high god” of a large number of villages of the Rahr Plains, a region that comprises the greater part of modern West Bengal state. Dharma-Thakur has no prescribed form; he is worshipped in the

  • Dharma-?āstra (Hinduism)

    Dharma-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Righteousness Science”) ancient Indian body of jurisprudence that is the basis, subject to legislative modification, of the family law of Hindus living in territories both within and outside India (e.g., Pakistan, Malaysia, East Africa). Dharma-shastra is primarily

  • Dharma-shastra (Hinduism)

    Dharma-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Righteousness Science”) ancient Indian body of jurisprudence that is the basis, subject to legislative modification, of the family law of Hindus living in territories both within and outside India (e.g., Pakistan, Malaysia, East Africa). Dharma-shastra is primarily

  • Dharma-sutra (Hinduism)

    Dharma-sutra, (Sanskrit: “righteousness thread”) any of several manuals of human conduct that form the earliest source of Hindu law. They consist chiefly of sutras (“threads” or “strings”) of terse rules containing the essentials of law concerning interpersonal relations and the relationship

  • Dharma-Thakur (Indian deity)

    Dharma-Thakur, folk deity of eastern India whose origins are obscure. Dharma-Thakur is worshipped as the “high god” of a large number of villages of the Rahr Plains, a region that comprises the greater part of modern West Bengal state. Dharma-Thakur has no prescribed form; he is worshipped in the

  • dharmachakra (Buddhism)

    religious symbolism and iconography: Concepts of symbolization: , the dharmachakra, or wheel of the law, of Buddhism). Other nonreligious types of symbols achieved increasing significance in the 19th and 20th centuries, especially those dealing with human beings’ relationship to and conceptualization of the material world. Rational, scientific-technical symbols have assumed an ever increasing importance…

  • Dharmakara (Buddhism)

    Amitabha, (Sanskrit: “Infinite Light”) in Mahayana Buddhism, and particularly in the so-called Pure Land sects, the great saviour buddha. As related in the Sukhavati-vyuha-sutras (the fundamental scriptures of the Pure Land sects), many ages ago a monk named Dharmakara made a number of vows, the

  • dharmakaya (Buddhist concept)

    Christianity: Evidentialist approach: …the ultimacy of the nonpersonal dharma-kaya. The idea of the immortal soul is challenged by the anatta (“no soul”) doctrine, with its claim that the personal mind or soul is not an enduring substance but a succession of fleeting moments of consciousness. And yet Buddhism, teaching as it does doctrines…

  • dharmakaya (Buddhist concept)

    Christianity: Evidentialist approach: …the ultimacy of the nonpersonal dharma-kaya. The idea of the immortal soul is challenged by the anatta (“no soul”) doctrine, with its claim that the personal mind or soul is not an enduring substance but a succession of fleeting moments of consciousness. And yet Buddhism, teaching as it does doctrines…

  • Dharmakirti (Indian philosopher)

    Dharmakīrti, Indian Buddhist philosopher and logician. He asserted that inference and direct perception are the only valid kinds of knowledge and that, in the processes of the mind, cognition and the cognized belong to distinct moments. According to him, the object of inference, either analytical

  • Dharmala?sa?a (Buddhist school)

    Fa-hsiang, school of Chinese Buddhism derived from the Indian Yogācāra school. See

  • dharmameghā (Buddhism)

    bhūmi: …(9) sādhumatī (“good-minded”), and (10) dharmameghā (showered with “clouds of dharma,” or universal truth).

  • Dharmanagar Valley (valley, India)

    Tripura: Relief and drainage: …valleys—from east to west, the Dharmanagar, the Kailashahar, the Kamalpur, and the Khowai, all carved by northward-flowing rivers (the Juri, Manu and Deo, Dhalai, and Khowai, respectively). North-south-trending ranges separate the valleys. East of the Dharmanagar valley, the Jampai Tlang range rises to elevations between 2,000 and 3,000 feet (600…

  • Dharmapāla (king of Pāla dynasty)

    India: The tripartite struggle: …conflict with the Pala king, Dharmapala (reigned c. 770–810), who had by this time advanced up the Ganges valley. The Rashtrakuta king Dhruva (reigned c. 780–793) attacked each in turn and claimed to have defeated them. This initiated a lengthy tripartite struggle. Dharmapala soon retook Kannauj and put his nominee…

  • Dharmapāla (king of Kotte)

    Sri Lanka: The expansion of Portuguese control: …succeeded by his grandson Prince Dharmapala, who was even more dependent on Portuguese support. An agreement between Bhuvanaika Bahu and the king of Portugal in 1543 had guaranteed the protection of the prince on the throne and the defense of the kingdom; in return the Portuguese were to be confirmed…

  • dharmapāla (Tibetan Buddhist deity)

    Dharmapāla, (Sanskrit: “defender of the religious law”) in Tibetan Buddhism, any one of a group of eight divinities who, though benevolent, are represented as hideous and ferocious in order to instill terror in evil spirits. Worship of dharmapālas was initiated in the 8th century by the

  • Dharmapāla (Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: Yogachara/Vijnanavada (Faxiang/Hossō): …he studied the works of Dharmapala (died 561) and taught at the Vijnanavada centre at Valabhi. When he returned to China, he translated Dharmapala’s Vijnapti-matrata-siddhi and many other works and taught doctrines that were based on those of Dharmapala and other Indian teachers. Xuanzang’s teachings were expressed systematically in Fayuanyilinzhang…

  • Dharmapuri (India)

    Dharmapuri, town, northwestern Tamil Nadu state, southern India. It is situated on an upland plateau, about 15 miles (24 km) southwest of the Ponnaiyar River. Dharmapuri was known in early Tamil shangam literature as the home of the poet Avvaiyar (2nd century ce). It is now an agricultural trade

  • Dharmarāja-ratha (temple, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: South Indian style of Tamil Nadu (7th–18th century): …which is the massive three-storied Dharmarāja-ratha (c. 650). The finest temple at this site and of this period is an elegant complex of three shrines called the Shore Temple (c. 700), not cut out of rock but built of stone. The Tālapurī?vara temple at Panamalai is another excellent example. The…

  • Dharmarajika stupa (stupa, Taxila, Pakistan)

    Taxila: Archaeology: The Dharmarajika stupa, popularly known as Chir Tope, is a circular structure with a raised terrace around its base. A circle of small chapels surround the great stupa. Three distinctive types of masonry in the buildings around the main stupa suggest the contributions of different periods…

  • dharmas (Buddhist metaphysics)

    dharma: …term in the plural (dharmas) is used to describe the interrelated elements that make up the empirical world.

  • dharmasastra (Hinduism)

    Dharma-shastra, (Sanskrit: “Righteousness Science”) ancient Indian body of jurisprudence that is the basis, subject to legislative modification, of the family law of Hindus living in territories both within and outside India (e.g., Pakistan, Malaysia, East Africa). Dharma-shastra is primarily

  • Dharmavamsa (king of Java)

    Dharmavamsa, king of eastern Java from about 985 and the first historical Javanese whose life is known in any detail. Dharmavamsa was a Saivite king whose reign is noted for its literary achievements, including a translation of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata into Javanese. A legal code that the king

  • Dharmavanca (king of Java)

    Dharmavamsa, king of eastern Java from about 985 and the first historical Javanese whose life is known in any detail. Dharmavamsa was a Saivite king whose reign is noted for its literary achievements, including a translation of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata into Javanese. A legal code that the king

  • Dharmawangsa (king of Java)

    Dharmavamsa, king of eastern Java from about 985 and the first historical Javanese whose life is known in any detail. Dharmavamsa was a Saivite king whose reign is noted for its literary achievements, including a translation of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata into Javanese. A legal code that the king

  • Dharmawangsja (king of Java)

    Dharmavamsa, king of eastern Java from about 985 and the first historical Javanese whose life is known in any detail. Dharmavamsa was a Saivite king whose reign is noted for its literary achievements, including a translation of the Hindu epic Mahābhārata into Javanese. A legal code that the king

  • Dharmottara (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Contributions of Vasubandhu and Asanga: …object through its mark, but Dharmottara, an 8th-century commentator, pointed out that this is not a definition of the essence of inference but only of its origin.

  • Dharmshala (India)

    Dharmshala, town, western Himachal Pradesh state, northwestern India. It is located on a lower slope of the Himalayas. Dharmshala is a scenic health resort. Aerated water is bottled there, and slate is quarried nearby. The town was virtually destroyed by an earthquake in 1905, but it was then

  • dharmshala (housing)

    India: Rural settlement: …post office, or perhaps a dharmshala (a free guest house for travelers). The village school is usually on the edge of the village in order to provide pupils with adequate playing space. Another common feature along the margin of a village is a grove of mango or other trees, which…

  • Dharwad (India)

    Hubballi-Dharwad: …affiliated with Karnatak University in Dharwad.

  • Dhārwār craton (geological region, India)

    Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: …cratons in southern Africa; the Dharwar craton in India; the Aldan and Anabar shields in Siberia in Russia; the Baltic Shield that includes much of Sweden, Finland, and the Kola Peninsula of far northern Russia; the

  • dhātu (Buddhist doctrine)

    Buddhism: Classification of dhammas: …sensory elements (Pali and Sanskrit: dhatus). The 5 skandhas are rupa (Pali and Sanskrit), materiality, or form; vedana, feelings of pleasure or pain or the absence of either; sanna (Pali), cognitive perception; sankhara (Pali and Sanskrit), the forces that condition the psychic activity of an individual; and vinnana (Sanskrit:

  • Dhatukatha (Buddhist text)

    Abhidhamma Pitaka: …of the same topics, (3) Dhatukatha (“Discussion of Elements”), another supplementary work, (4) Puggalapannatti (“Designation of Person”), largely a collection of excerpts from the Anguttara Nikaya of the Sutta Pitaka, classifying human characteristics in relation to stages on the Buddhist path and generally considered the earliest Abhidhamma text, (5) Kathavatthu…

  • Dhatusena (king of Sri Lanka)

    Sri Lanka: The Anuradhapura period: Dhatusena (reigned 459–477) defeated the Pandyas and reestablished Sinhalese rule with the line of Moriya kings. His son Kashyapa I (reigned 477–495) moved the capital from Anuradhapura to the rock fortress of Sigiriya. After Kashyapa’s dethronement the capital was returned to Anuradhapura.

  • Dhaulagiri (mountains, Nepal)

    Dhaulagiri, mountain massif of the Himalayas in west-central Nepal. It is situated on the western side of the deep Kali (Kali Gandak) River gorge, about 40 miles (65 km) northwest of Annapurna. Many of Dhaulagiri’s snow- and glacier-covered peaks exceed 25,000 feet (7,620 metres), including

  • Dhaulagiri I (mountain peak, Nepal)

    Dhaulagiri: …25,000 feet (7,620 metres), including Dhaulagiri I, II, III, and IV. The tallest, Dhaulagiri I, reaches an elevation of 26,795 feet (8,167 metres) and is the world’s seventh highest mountain. With a south wall that rises vertically some 15,000 feet (4,600 metres), the peak’s steep sides and bitterly cold climate…

  • Dhauli (India)

    South Asian arts: Mauryan period (c. 3rd century bce): At Dhauli in Orissa, the fore part of an elephant is carved out of rock on a terrace above a boulder that carries several of Ashoka’s edicts. The modelling here is soft and gentle, and the plump, fleshy qualities of the young animal’s body, seen as…

  • Dhaulī Ganga (river, India)

    Ganges River: Physiography: the Alaknanda, the Mandakini, the Dhauliganga, and the Pindar—all rise in the mountainous region of northern Uttarakhand state. Of those, the two main headstreams are the Alaknanda (the longer of the two), which rises about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Himalayan peak of Nanda Devi, and the Bhagirathi,…

  • Dhaulī River (river, India)

    Ganges River: Physiography: the Alaknanda, the Mandakini, the Dhauliganga, and the Pindar—all rise in the mountainous region of northern Uttarakhand state. Of those, the two main headstreams are the Alaknanda (the longer of the two), which rises about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Himalayan peak of Nanda Devi, and the Bhagirathi,…

  • Dhaulīganga (river, India)

    Ganges River: Physiography: the Alaknanda, the Mandakini, the Dhauliganga, and the Pindar—all rise in the mountainous region of northern Uttarakhand state. Of those, the two main headstreams are the Alaknanda (the longer of the two), which rises about 30 miles (50 km) north of the Himalayan peak of Nanda Devi, and the Bhagirathi,…

  • Dhaulpur (India)

    Dhaulpur, city, eastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated just north of the Chambal River, about 30 miles (48 km) south-southeast of Agra (Uttar Pradesh). The original town was founded by Raja Dholan Deo in the 11th century, when it was called Dhawalpur, a name since contracted to

  • Dhaun, Leopold Joseph, Graf von (Austrian general)

    Leopold Joseph, Graf (count) von Daun, field marshal who was the Austrian commander in chief during the Seven Years’ War against Prussia (1756–63). Daun gained field experience during Austrian operations in Sicily (1719), in Italy and on the Rhine (1734–35), against Turkey (1737–39), and during the

  • Dhawalpur (India)

    Dhaulpur, city, eastern Rajasthan state, northwestern India. It is situated just north of the Chambal River, about 30 miles (48 km) south-southeast of Agra (Uttar Pradesh). The original town was founded by Raja Dholan Deo in the 11th century, when it was called Dhawalpur, a name since contracted to

  • Dhebar Lake (lake, India)

    Dhebar Lake, large reservoir lake in the southeastern Aravalli Range, south-central Rajasthan state, northwestern India. The lake, about 20 square miles (50 square km) in area when full, was originally named Jai Samand and was formed by a marble dam built across the Gomati River in the late 17th

  • Dheepan (film by Audiard [2015])

    Jacques Audiard: Dheepan (2015), which won the Palme d’Or at the Cannes film festival, tells the story of a former Tamil Tiger who immigrates to France. In 2018 Audiard helmed Les Frères Sisters (The Sisters Brothers), a crime comedy set in the American West during the 1850s.

  • Dhegiha (people)

    Osage: Like other members of the Dhegiha—the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, and Quapaw—the Osage migrated westward from the Atlantic coast, settling first in the Piedmont Plateau between the James and Savannah rivers in the present states of Virginia and the Carolinas. After a time they moved to the Ozark Plateau and the…

  • Dhegiha language (language)

    Omaha: It is thought that Dhegiha speakers, which include the Osage, Ponca, Kansa, and Quapaw as well as the Omaha, migrated westward from the Atlantic coast at some point in prehistory and that their early settlements were in the present U.S. states of Virginia and the Carolinas. After a time…

  • Dhekélia (British military enclave, Cyprus)

    Dhekélia, British military enclave in southeast Cyprus, retained as a “sovereignty base area” by the United Kingdom under the 1959 London Agreement granting independence to Cyprus. It is located northeast of Larnaca on the northern shore of Larnaca Bay, and its northern boundary formed part of the

  • Dhelkī (people)

    Kha?iā: The Dhelkī are concentrated near Gāngpur. Both live in settled villages, and intervillage federations enforce the feeling of social solidarity. They traditionally build separate large dormitories for unmarried men and women, but this practice has been abandoned by Christian Kha?iā. The Kha?iā’s traditional religion includes a…

  • Dhenkanal (India)

    Dhenkanal, town, east-central Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. It is situated on a low plain, about 5 miles (8 km) south of the Brahmani River. The town is named for Dhenka, a medieval chieftain of the Savara people. It is a marketplace for rice, oilseeds, and timber and is a centre of

  • dhess (pedology)

    Morocco: Soils: Dhess is the main soil type of the Sebou basin. A silt-rich alluvial soil, it provides the foundation for much of Morocco’s modern irrigated agriculture. Other major soil types, less suitable for agriculture, are rmel, a sandy soil found in the Mamora Forest region east…

  • DHF (disease)

    dengue: …a more severe form, called dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), which is characterized by hemorrhaging blood vessels and thus bleeding from the nose, mouth, and internal tissues. Untreated DHF may result in blood vessel collapse, causing a usually fatal condition known as dengue shock syndrome. Dengue is caused by one of…

  • Dhībān (ancient city, Jordan)

    Dibon, ancient capital of Moab, located north of the Arnon River in west-central Jordan. Excavations conducted there since 1950 by the archaeologists affiliated with the American School of Oriental Research in Jerusalem have uncovered the remains of several city walls, a square tower, and numerous

  • dhikr (Islam)

    Dhikr, (Arabic: “reminding oneself,” or “mention”), ritual prayer or litany practiced by Muslim mystics (?ūfīs) for the purpose of glorifying God and achieving spiritual perfection. Based on the Qur?ānic injunctions “Remind thyself [udhkur] of thy Lord when thou forgettest” (18:24) and “O ye who b

  • Dhíkti Mountains (mountains, Greece)

    Greece: The islands of Greece: …(2,456 metres) high; the east-central Díkti Mountains; and the far eastern Tryptí (Thriptís) Mountains. Another range, the Asteroúsia (Kófinas) Mountains, runs along the south-central coast between the Mesarás Plain and the Libyan Sea. Of Crete’s 650 miles (1,050 km) of rocky coastline, it is the more gradual slope on the…

  • Dhiliyiánnis, Theódoros (prime minister of Greece)

    Theódoros Dhiliyiánnis, politician who was prime minister of Greece five times (1885–86, 1890–92, 1895–97, 1902–03, 1904–05). He was a resolute advocate of aggressive and often irresponsible territorial expansion. His bitter rivalry with the reformist politician Kharílaos Trikoúpis dominated Greek

  • Dhillon, Parkash Singh (Indian politician)

    Parkash Singh Badal, Indian politician and government official who rose to become president (1996–2008) of the Shiromani Akali Dal (SAD), a Sikh-focused regional political party in Punjab state, northwestern India. He also served five terms as the chief minister (head of government) of Punjab

  • Dhílos (island, Greece)

    Delos, island, one of the smallest of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes), Greece, an ancient centre of religious, political, and commercial life in the Aegean Sea. Now largely uninhabited, it is a rugged granite mass about 1.3 square miles (3.4 square km) in area. Also called Lesser Delos, it

  • dhimmah (Islam)

    Islamic world: The ummah’s allies and enemies: …to pay for protection (dhimmah). Muhammad thus set a precedent for another major characteristic of Islamicate civilization, that of qualified religious pluralism under Muslim authority.

  • Dhir Mal (Sikh rebel leader)

    Sikhism: Guru Hargobind: A new direction for the Panth: The older son of Gurditta, Dhir Mal, was rejected because, from his seat in Jalandhar district, he had formed an alliance with Emperor Shāh Jahān. This meant that the younger son of Gurditta, Har Rai, would become the seventh Guru. But Dhir Mal continued to make trouble for the orthodox…

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