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  • Diário de Notícias (Portuguese newspaper)

    Portugal: Media and publishing: The daily Diário de Notícias (founded 1864) was long Portugal’s most prestigious newspaper. With privatization, however, the position of Diário has been challenged. Leading dailies include Público (founded 1990) and Correio da Manh? (founded 1979), and one of the most widely read newspapers is the weekly Expresso.…

  • Diario de un poeta recién casado (work by Jiménez)

    Juan Ramón Jiménez: …in 1948 under the title Diario de un poeta y mar (“Diary of a Poet and the Sea”). That volume marked his transition to what he called “la poesía desnuda” (“naked poetry”), an attempt to strip his poetry of all extraneous matter and to produce it in free verse, without…

  • Diario de un poeta y mar (work by Jiménez)

    Juan Ramón Jiménez: …in 1948 under the title Diario de un poeta y mar (“Diary of a Poet and the Sea”). That volume marked his transition to what he called “la poesía desnuda” (“naked poetry”), an attempt to strip his poetry of all extraneous matter and to produce it in free verse, without…

  • Diario de un testigo de la guerra de Africa (work by Alarcón y Ariza)

    Pedro Antonio de Alarcón y Ariza: …material for his eyewitness account Diario de un testigo de la guerra de Africa (1859; Diary of a Witness), a masterpiece in its way as a description of campaigning life. On his return Alarcón became editor of the anticlerical periodical El Látigo, but in the years 1868–74 he ruined his…

  • diario del aire, El (Spanish-American magazine)

    Miguel ángel Asturias: …Guatemala, Asturias founded and edited El diario del aire, a radio magazine. During this period he published several volumes of poetry, beginning with Sonetos (1936; “Sonnets”). In 1946 he embarked upon a diplomatic career, continuing to write while serving in several countries in Central and South America. From 1966 to…

  • Diario di un parroco di campagna (work by Lisi)

    Italian literature: Other writings: …Drought”]) and Nicola Lisi (Diario di un parroco di campagna [1942; “Diary of a Country Priest”]) or in some respects back to Federigo Tozzi. Especially typical of Cassola’s works are Il taglio del bosco (1953; The Felling of the Forest), Un cuore arido (1961; An Arid Heart), and Un…

  • Diario in pubblico (work by Vittorini)

    Elio Vittorini: …critical writings are collected in Diario in pubblico (1957; “Public Diary”) and the posthumously published Le due tensione: appunti per una ideologia della letteratura (1967; “The Two Tensions: Notes for an Ideology of Literature”).

  • Diarios de motocicleta (film by Salles [2004])

    Gael García Bernal: … in Diarios de motocicleta (2004; The Motorcycle Diaries), a sexually abused altar boy in Pedro Almodóvar’s La mala educación (2004; Bad Education), and a murderous and incestuous loner in The King (2005). His turn in the eclectic comedy La Science des rêves (2006; The Science of Sleep) showed that García…

  • Diarmuid agus Gráinne (play by MacLiammóir)

    Micheál MacLiammóir: There MacLiammóir’s Diarmuid agus Gráinne (1928), a verse-play version, in Gaelic, of a Celtic myth about two famous lovers, was first produced.

  • Diarra, Cheick Modibo (prime minister of Mali)

    Mali: 2012 coup and warfare in the north: …Traoré reappointed his prime minister, Cheick Modibo Diarra, in August, and a new government was formed later that month.

  • diarrhea (medical condition)

    Diarrhea, abnormally swift passage of waste material through the large intestine, with consequent discharge of loose feces from the anus. Diarrhea may be accompanied by cramping. The disorder has a wide range of causes. It may, for example, result from bacterial or viral infection; from dysentery,

  • diarrheic shellfish poisoning (pathology)

    algae: Toxicity: Diarrheic shellfish poisoning is caused by okadaic acids that are produced by several kinds of algae, especially species of Dinophysis. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, caused by toxins produced in Gymnodinium breve, is notorious for fish kills and shellfish poisoning along the coast of Florida in the…

  • diarrhoea (medical condition)

    Diarrhea, abnormally swift passage of waste material through the large intestine, with consequent discharge of loose feces from the anus. Diarrhea may be accompanied by cramping. The disorder has a wide range of causes. It may, for example, result from bacterial or viral infection; from dysentery,

  • Diarthrognathus (fossil therapsid genus)

    Diarthrognathus, genus of extinct, advanced mammal-like reptiles found as fossils in Early Jurassic terrestrial deposits about 200 million years old in southern Africa. Diarthrognathus was contemporaneous with a host of other mammal relatives but is nearer than many of them to the line leading to

  • Diarthronomyia hypogaea (insect)

    gall midge: …Europe and North America the chrysanthemum midge (Diarthronomyia hypogaea) makes small galls in the leaves. The rose midge (Dasyneura rhodophaga) infests the young buds and shoots of roses and is a serious pest in greenhouses but rarely outside. Some other serious pests are the wheat midge, sorghum midge, rice midge,…

  • diarthrosis (anatomy)

    joint: Structure and elements of synovial joints: The synovial bursas are closed, thin-walled sacs, lined with synovial membrane. Bursas are found between structures that glide upon each other, and all motion at diarthroses entails some gliding, the amount varying from one joint to another. The bursal fluid, exuded by the…

  • Diary (work by Sewall)

    Samuel Sewall: …trials, best remembered for his Diary (Massachusetts Historical Society; 3 vol., 1878–82), which provides a rewarding insight into the mind and life of the late New England Puritan.

  • diary (literature)

    Diary, form of autobiographical writing, a regularly kept record of the diarist’s activities and reflections. Written primarily for the writer’s use alone, the diary has a frankness that is unlike writing done for publication. Its ancient lineage is indicated by the existence of the term in Latin,

  • Diary (work by Pepys)

    Samuel Pepys: …naval administrator, celebrated for his Diary (first published in 1825), which gives a fascinating picture of the official and upper-class life of Restoration London from Jan. 1, 1660, to May 31, 1669.

  • Diary (work by Evelyn)

    John Evelyn: His Diary, kept all his life, is considered an invaluable source of information on the social, cultural, religious, and political life of 17th-century England.

  • Diary (work by Henslowe)

    Philip Henslowe: Henslowe’s famous Diary is one of the most important sources for the English theatrical history of the time. It is actually a manuscript book of miscellaneous accounts and memoranda, playhouse receipts, payments to playwrights, loans or advances to players, payments for materials, costumes, and so on. It…

  • Diary from Dixie, A (work by Chesnut)

    Mary Boykin Miller Chesnut: ), author of A Diary from Dixie, an insightful view of Southern life and leadership during the American Civil War.

  • Diary of a Bad Year (novel by Coetzee)

    J.M. Coetzee: Diary of a Bad Year (2007) employs a literally split narrative technique, with the text on the page divided into concurrent storylines, the main story being the musings of an aging South African writer modeled on Coetzee himself. In The Childhood of Jesus (2013), a…

  • Diary of a Country Priest, The (film by Bresson)

    Robert Bresson: …d’un curé de campagne (The Diary of a Country Priest)—Bresson often fashioned his narratives in the form of a diary or case history. The stories were told exclusively from the viewpoint of the protagonist, revealing only what the central character was experiencing at the moment. One of the most…

  • Diary of a Country Priest, The (work by Bernanos)

    The Diary of a Country Priest, novel by Georges Bernanos, published in French as Journal d’un curé de campagne in 1936. The narrative mainly takes the form of a journal kept by a young parish priest during the last year of his troubled life. He records his spiritual struggle over what he perceives

  • Diary of a Drug Fiend, The (novel by Crowley)

    Aleister Crowley: During this time he wrote The Diary of a Drug Fiend (1922), which was published as a novel but was said to have been based on personal experience. The death of a young follower in Sicily, allegedly after participating in sacrilegious rituals, led to denunciations of Crowley in the British…

  • Diary of a Journey Through Syria and Palestine (work by Nā?er-e Khusraw)

    Nā?er-e Khusraw: Diary of a Journey Through Syria and Palestine), a diary describing his seven-year journey. It is a valuable record of the scenes and events that he witnessed. He also wrote more than a dozen treatises expounding the doctrines of the Ismā?īlīs, among them the Jāmi?…

  • Diary of a Lost Girl (film by Pabst [1929])

    Louise Brooks: …Das Tagebuch einer Verlorenen (1929; Diary of a Lost Girl) marked the summit of her career. Her innocent eroticism, along with her pale beautiful features and bobbed brunette hair, made her both a film icon and a symbol of the disdainful flapper of the 1920s.

  • Diary of a Mad Black Woman (film by Perry [2005])

    Tyler Perry: …in a screen version of Diary of a Mad Black Woman. Its feel-good narrative, in which Madea counsels her granddaughter through a failed marriage, helped Perry gain a wider audience. He reprised the role of Madea in subsequent film adaptations of his plays, which he also produced and directed. A…

  • Diary of a Mad Housewife (film by Perry [1970])

    Alice Cooper: …showcased in the 1970 film Diary of a Mad Housewife before the band decamped for Detroit. They honed their music under the direction of producer Bob Ezrin, and their third album, Love It to Death (1971), found an audience and yielded the hit single “I’m Eighteen.” The follow-up, Killer (1971),…

  • Diary of a Madman (work by Lu Xun)

    Chinese literature: May Fourth period: … of such stories as “Kuangren riji” (“The Diary of a Madman”), a Gogol-inspired piece about a “madman” who suspects that he alone is sane and the rest of the world is mad, and “Yao” (“Medicine”), both by Zhou Shuren. Known by the pseudonym Lu Xun, Zhou had studied in…

  • Diary of a Madman (story by Gogol)

    Diary of a Madman, short story by Nikolay Gogol, published in 1835 as “Zapiski sumasshedshego.” “Diary of a Madman,” a first-person narrative presented in the form of a diary, is the tale of Poprishchin, a government clerk who gradually descends into insanity. At the outset the narrator records his

  • Diary of a Madman (album by Osbourne)

    Ozzy Osbourne: …followed by the equally popular Diary of a Madman (1981), which sold more than five million copies. A defining moment in Osbourne’s career came on the tour for the album, when, thinking that someone in the audience had thrown him a rubber toy, Osbourne bit off the head of a…

  • Diary of a Nobody, The (work by George and Weedon Grossmith)

    biography: Fiction presented as biography: …fictional character Charles Pooter in The Diary of a Nobody (1892). In the form of biography this category includes Graves’s Count Belisarius and Hope Muntz’s Golden Warrior (on Harold II, vanquished at the Battle of Hastings, 1066). Some novels-as-biography, using fictional names, are designed to evoke rather than re-create an…

  • Diary of a Parish Clerk and Other Stories, The (novella by Blicher)

    Steen Steensen Blicher: in The Diary of a Parish Clerk and Other Stories), is written in masterful prose and shows Blicher’s psychological insight into the Jutlanders’ character. In his stories he ranges from resignation to humour to irony. The general feeling of his narrative style is realistic; life is…

  • Diary of a Superfluous Man, The (work by Turgenev)

    Ivan Turgenev: Early life and works: The most famous was “The Diary of a Superfluous Man” (1850), which supplied the epithet “superfluous man” for so many similar weak-willed intellectual protagonists in Turgenev’s work as well as in Russian literature generally.

  • Diary of a Victorian Dandy (work by Shonibare)

    Yinka Shonibare: In such works as Diary of a Victorian Dandy (1998; based on the narrative works of British artist William Hogarth), Shonibare created a series of photographs featuring himself as a dandy in a variety of tableaux. He also portrayed the protagonist of an Oscar Wilde novel in the photographic…

  • Diary of a Writer, The (work by Dostoyevsky)

    Fyodor Dostoyevsky: A Writer’s Diary and other works: In 1873 Dostoyevsky assumed the editorship of the conservative journal Grazhdanin (“The Citizen”), where he published an irregular column entitled “Dnevnik pisatelya” (“The Diary of a Writer”). He left Grazhdanin to write Podrostok (1875; A Raw Youth, also known…

  • Diary of a Young Girl, The (work by Frank)

    The Diary of a Young Girl, journal by Anne Frank, a Jewish teenager who chronicled her family’s two years (1942–44) in hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. The book was first published in 1947—two years after Anne’s death in a concentration camp—and later

  • Diary of a Yuppie (novel by Auchincloss)

    Louis Auchincloss: …Rector of Justin (1964) and Diary of a Yuppie (1987), are studies of a single character, often from many points of view. Auchincloss frequently linked the stories in his collections by theme or geography, as in, for example, Tales of Manhattan (1967) and Skinny Island (1987), which are set exclusively…

  • Diary of an Art Dealer (work by Gimpel)

    art market: Paris: René Gimpel’s Diary of an Art Dealer (1966) provides a first-person account of the heady art scene of the interwar period. Seligmann was, until his death in 1923, the leading dealer in French 18th-century decorative arts.

  • Diary of Anne Frank, The (film by Stevens [1959])

    The Diary of Anne Frank, American dramatic film, released in 1959, that depicts the story of Anne Frank, a German Jewish teenager who died in a World War II concentration camp and whose diary is arguably the most famous work about the Holocaust. The screenplay was written by Frances Goodrich and

  • Diary of Anne Frank, The (play)

    Anne Frank: The Diary was also made into a play that premiered on Broadway in October 1955, and in 1956 it won both the Tony Award for best play and the Pulitzer Prize for best drama. A film version directed by George Stevens was produced in 1959. The…

  • Diary of Anne Frank, The (work by Frank)

    The Diary of a Young Girl, journal by Anne Frank, a Jewish teenager who chronicled her family’s two years (1942–44) in hiding during the German occupation of the Netherlands during World War II. The book was first published in 1947—two years after Anne’s death in a concentration camp—and later

  • Diary of Gideon Welles (work by Welles)

    Gideon Welles: Long after his death the Diary of Gideon Welles (1911) was published, a work highly regarded by historians for its insights into the people and events of the Civil War era.

  • Diary of Izumi Shikibu, The (work by Murasaki Shikibu)

    Japanese literature: Prose: …in Izumi Shikibu nikki (The Diary of Izumi Shikibu), which is less a diary than a short story liberally ornamented with poetry.

  • Diary of My Times, A (work by Bernanos)

    Georges Bernanos: …Cimetières sous la lune (1938; A Diary of My Times, 1938), a fierce attack on Fascist excesses during the Spanish Civil War and on the church dignitaries who supported them.

  • Diary of the Dead (film by Romero [2007])

    George A. Romero: …Land of the Dead (2005), Diary of the Dead (2007), and Survival of the Dead (2009). The Dead series was rife with social commentary, with allusions to the Cold War, consumerism, and class conflict. In addition to zombies, Romero’s films have explored other horror movie staples, including witchcraft in Hungry…

  • Diary of the War of the Pig (work by Bioy Casares)

    Adolfo Bioy Casares: …la guerra del cerdo (1969; Diary of the War of the Pig) is a mixture of science fiction and political satire.

  • diaryl sulfone (chemical compound)

    organosulfur compound: Organic compounds of polyvalent sulfur: sulfoxides and sulfones: The diaryl sulfones (p-H2NC6H4SO2C6H4NH2-p; e.g., dapsone) and related compounds have been used in the treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy. Polysulfone resins, which incorporate the ―SO2C6H4― unit within a polymer, are

  • Días como flechas (work by Marechal)

    Leopoldo Marechal: In Días como flechas (1926; “Days Like Arrows”) and Odas para el hombre y la mujer (1929; “Odes for Man and Woman”), his metaphors and images become more daring in expressing the Ultraista aesthetic. With Cinco poemas australes (1937; “Five Southern Poems”), Sonetos a Sophia (1940;…

  • Días contados (film by Uribe [1994])

    Javier Bardem: …addict in Días contados (1994; Running Out of Time). In Boca a boca (1995; Mouth to Mouth) he garnered laughs and another Goya Award as an aspiring actor who falls in love with a customer while working for a telephone-sex company. Bardem later appeared as a wheelchair-bound policeman in Pedro…

  • Dias d’Avilla, Francisco (Brazilian leader)

    Piauí: One of their leaders was Francisco Dias d’Avilla, who fought bloody battles with the Indians. Piauí was a part of the captaincy of Maranh?o from 1718 until 1811, at which time Piauí became a separate administrative unit. Piauí became a state in the Brazilian republic in 1889.

  • Dias de Novais, Bartolomeu (Portuguese explorer)

    Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese navigator and explorer who led the first European expedition to round the Cape of Good Hope (1488), opening the sea route to Asia via the Atlantic and Indian oceans. He is usually considered to be the greatest of the Portuguese pioneers who explored the Atlantic during

  • Dias de Novais, Paulo (Portuguese general)

    Bartolomeu Dias: Later life: …son, António, and his grandson, Paulo Dias de Novais, governed Angola and founded the first European city in Southern Africa, S?o Paulo de Luanda, in 1576.

  • Días enmascarados, Los (work by Fuentes)

    Carlos Fuentes: His first collection of stories, Los días enmascarados (1954, 2nd ed. 1966; “The Masked Days”), re-creates the past realistically and fantastically. His first novel, La región más transparente (1958; Where the Air Is Clear), which treats the theme of national identity and bitterly indicted Mexican society, won him national prestige.…

  • Dias, Ant?nio Gon?alves (Brazilian poet)

    Ant?nio Gon?alves Dias, Romantic poet generally regarded as the national poet of Brazil. His “Can??o do Exílio” (1843; “Song of Exile”), beginning “Minha terra tem palmeiras” (“My land has palm trees”), is known to every Brazilian schoolchild. Though Gon?alves Dias lived much of the time abroad

  • Dias, Bartholomew (Portuguese explorer)

    Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese navigator and explorer who led the first European expedition to round the Cape of Good Hope (1488), opening the sea route to Asia via the Atlantic and Indian oceans. He is usually considered to be the greatest of the Portuguese pioneers who explored the Atlantic during

  • Dias, Bartolomeu (Portuguese explorer)

    Bartolomeu Dias, Portuguese navigator and explorer who led the first European expedition to round the Cape of Good Hope (1488), opening the sea route to Asia via the Atlantic and Indian oceans. He is usually considered to be the greatest of the Portuguese pioneers who explored the Atlantic during

  • Dias, Dinís (Portuguese explorer)

    Dinís Dias, Portuguese navigator and explorer, one of the sea captains sent along the Atlantic coast of northern Africa by Prince Henry the Navigator. As captain of a caravel in 1445, Dias sailed past the outflooding mouth of the river of Senegal, later discovering Cape Verde, the westernmost point

  • Días, Los (work by Torres Bodet)

    Jaime Torres Bodet: Los días (1923; “The Days”) stressed the poet’s anguish at a dehumanized environment. He employed Japanese verse forms in Biombo (1925; “The Folding Screen”). He was the first editor (1928–31) of Contemporáneos, a cultural and literary magazine influential among Mexican poets.

  • Dias, Mumadona (Portuguese ruler)

    Portugal: The county and kingdom of Portugal to 1383: …the Douro) was held by Mumadona Dias and her husband Hermenegildo Gon?alves and their descendants, one of whom was tutor and father-in-law to the Leonese ruler Alfonso V. However, when this dynasty was overthrown by the Navarrese-Castilian house of Sancho III Garcés (Sancho the Great), the western county lost its…

  • Diasoma (mollusk supraclass)

    mollusk: Evolution and paleontology: …branches called subclades: the supraclass Loboconcha (or Diasoma), including the suspension-feeding bivalves, and the infaunal scaphopods, sharing a common ancestor in the fossil class Rostroconchia. These groups have a mantle with the shell enlarged in width to envelop the soft body as well as an anterior elongated foot to live…

  • diaspora (social science)

    Diaspora, populations, such as members of an ethnic or religious group, that originated from the same place but dispersed to different locations. The word diaspora comes from the ancient Greek dia speiro, meaning “to sow over.” The concept of diaspora has long been used to refer to the Greeks in

  • Diaspora (Judaism)

    Diaspora, (Greek: Dispersion) the dispersion of Jews among the Gentiles after the Babylonian Exile; or the aggregate of Jews or Jewish communities scattered “in exile” outside Palestine or present-day Israel. Although the term refers to the physical dispersal of Jews throughout the world, it also

  • diaspore (mineralogy)

    Diaspore, white or grayish, hard, glassy aluminum oxide mineral (HAlO2) that is associated with corundum in emery and is widespread in laterite, bauxite, and aluminous clays. It is abundant in Hungary, South Africa, France, Arkansas, and Missouri. Diaspore is dimorphous with boehmite (i.e., it has

  • diaspore (plant reproductive body)

    seed: Angiosperm seeds: …together as “dispersal units,” or diaspores. More often, however, the seeds are discrete units attached to the placenta on the inside of the fruit wall through a stalk, or funiculus.

  • diastase (biochemistry)

    Amylase, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis (splitting of a compound by addition of a water molecule) of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules such as maltose (a molecule composed of two glucose molecules). Three categories of amylases, denoted alpha, beta, and

  • diastema (anatomy)

    mammal: Teeth: …development of a gap (diastema) in the tooth row, and exhibit some molarization (expansion and flattening) of premolars to expand the grinding surface of the cheek teeth. Rootless incisors or cheek teeth have evolved frequently, their open pulp cavity allowing continual growth throughout life. Herbivorous specializations have evolved independently…

  • diastereoisomer (chemistry)

    Diastereoisomer, either member of a pair of substances that differ with respect to the configurations of their molecules (i.e., stereoisomers) and that lack a mirror-image relationship (i.e., are not enantiomorphs). An example is the pair consisting of either of the two optically active forms of

  • diastereomer (chemistry)

    Diastereoisomer, either member of a pair of substances that differ with respect to the configurations of their molecules (i.e., stereoisomers) and that lack a mirror-image relationship (i.e., are not enantiomorphs). An example is the pair consisting of either of the two optically active forms of

  • diasteromer (chemistry)

    Diastereoisomer, either member of a pair of substances that differ with respect to the configurations of their molecules (i.e., stereoisomers) and that lack a mirror-image relationship (i.e., are not enantiomorphs). An example is the pair consisting of either of the two optically active forms of

  • diastole (prosody)

    systole and diastole: diastole, in prosody, systole is the shortening of a syllable that is by pronunciation or by position long. Systole is most often used to adjust the rhythm of a line to achieve metrical regularity. The word is from the Greek systol?, meaning, literally, “contraction.”

  • diastole (heart function)

    Diastole, in the cardiac cycle, period of relaxation of the heart muscle, accompanied by the filling of the chambers with blood. Diastole is followed in the cardiac cycle by a period of contraction, or systole (q.v.), of the heart muscle. Initially both atria and ventricles are in diastole, and

  • diastolic blood pressure (physiology)

    pregnancy: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: …Hg) or higher and a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher, which antedate pregnancy. (The systolic is the highest blood pressure after the heart has contracted; the diastolic, the lowest after the heart has expanded.) An elevated blood pressure that first develops during pregnancy and persists beyond…

  • diastolic depolarization (physiology)

    muscle: The frequency of contraction: …potential and the rate of diastolic depolarization in the SA nodal region. The activity of the sympathetic nervous system may be increased by the activation of the sympathetic nerves innervating the heart or by the secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal gland. This decreases the resting potential of…

  • diastolic dysfunction (disease)

    heart failure: …does not relax normally (diastolic dysfunction); in some cases both conditions exist together. With less blood ejected from the heart at each beat, the body attempts to compensate for the decreased circulation to peripheral organs. Perhaps the most important response is the retention of salt and water by the…

  • diastrophic dwarfism (pathology)

    dwarfism: Diastrophic dwarfism is characterized by progressive, crippling skeletal deformities. There is a high risk of death from respiratory failure during early infancy; thereafter the prospect of a normal life span is good. Intelligence is unimpaired in diastrophic dwarfism.

  • diastrophism (geology)

    Diastrophism, large-scale deformation of Earth’s crust by natural processes, which leads to the formation of continents and ocean basins, mountain systems, plateaus, rift valleys, and other features by mechanisms such as lithospheric plate movement (that is, plate tectonics), volcanic loading, or

  • Diatessaron (work by Tatian)

    Diatessaron, the four New Testament Gospels compiled as a single narrative by Tatian (q.v.) about ad 150. It was the standard Gospel text in the Syrian Middle East until about ad 400, when it was replaced by the four separated Gospels. Quotations from the Diatessaron appear in ancient Syriac

  • diathermy (medicine)

    Diathermy, form of physical therapy in which deep heating of tissues is accomplished by the use of high-frequency electrical current. American engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891 first noted that heat resulted from irradiation of tissue with high-frequency alternating current (wavelengths

  • diatom (algae)

    Diatom, (class Bacillariophyceae), any member of the algal class Bacillariophyceae (division Chromophyta), with about 16,000 species found in sediments or attached to solid substances in all the waters of Earth. Diatoms are among the most important and prolific microscopic sea organisms and serve

  • diatom ooze (marine sediment)

    Atlantic Ocean: Bottom deposits: Diatom ooze (formed from microscopic unicellular algae having cell walls consisting of or resembling silica) is the most widespread deposit in the high southern latitudes but, unlike in the Pacific, is missing in northern latitudes. About three-fifths of the bottom itself is covered with mud…

  • diatomaceous earth (mineralogy)

    Diatomaceous earth, light-coloured, porous, and friable sedimentary rock that is composed of the siliceous shells of diatoms, unicellular aquatic plants of microscopic size. It occurs in earthy beds that somewhat resemble chalk, but it is much lighter than chalk and will not effervesce in acid.

  • diatomaceous earth filtration

    filtration: Special techniques: …easily filtered solids such as diatomaceous earth or bone black may be added to the slurry to improve filtration.

  • diatomaceous ooze (marine sediment)

    Atlantic Ocean: Bottom deposits: Diatom ooze (formed from microscopic unicellular algae having cell walls consisting of or resembling silica) is the most widespread deposit in the high southern latitudes but, unlike in the Pacific, is missing in northern latitudes. About three-fifths of the bottom itself is covered with mud…

  • diatomic molecule (chemistry)

    crystal: Structures of nonmetallic elements: Many elements form diatomic gases: hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), and iodine (I). When cooled to low temperature, they form solids of diatomic molecules. Nitrogen has the hcp structure, while oxygen has a more complex

  • diatomite (mineral)

    algae: Ecological and commercial importance: …their fossilized remains are called diatomite. Diatomite contains approximately 3,000 diatom frustules per cubic millimetre (50 million diatom frustules per cubic inch). When geologic uplifting brings deposits of diatomite above sea level, the diatomite is easily mined. A deposit located in Lompoc, California, U.S., for example, covers 13 square kilometres…

  • Diatoms of the United States Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, The (work by Patrick and Reimer)

    Ruth Myrtle Patrick: …published the first volume of The Diatoms of the United States Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii, the classic two-volume series describing the taxonomy of this group of organisms. (The second volume was published in 1975.)

  • diatonic (music)

    Diatonic, in music, any stepwise arrangement of the seven “natural” pitches (scale degrees) forming an octave without altering the established pattern of a key or mode—in particular, the major and natural minor scales. Some scales, including pentatonic and whole-tone scales, are not diatonic

  • diatonic scale (music)

    Diatonic, in music, any stepwise arrangement of the seven “natural” pitches (scale degrees) forming an octave without altering the established pattern of a key or mode—in particular, the major and natural minor scales. Some scales, including pentatonic and whole-tone scales, are not diatonic

  • Diatraea saccharalis (insect)

    sugarcane: Pests: The moth borer, Diatraea saccharalis, which is widely distributed throughout cane-growing areas, is capable of causing extensive damage when out of control. The sugarcane leafhopper and the anomala grub yielded to biological control in Hawaii when other measures were unsuccessful. Various predator animals live on insects…

  • diatreme (geology)

    igneous rock: Intrusive igneous rocks: …such as volcanic necks and diatremes (see Figure 6). A volcanic neck is the “throat” of a volcano and consists of a pipelike conduit filled with hypabyssal rocks. Ship Rock in New Mexico and Devil’s Tower in Wyoming are remnants of volcanic necks, which were exposed after the surrounding sedimentary…

  • diatreta (glass)

    glassware: The Roman Empire: …is seen in the so-called cage cups (diatreta), on which the design—usually a mesh of circles that touch one another, with or without a convivial inscription—is so undercut that it stands completely free of the body of the vessel, except for an occasional supporting strut. These cups were made perhaps…

  • Diatribai (work by Epictetus)

    Marcus Aurelius: Youth and apprenticeship: … declamation and eagerly embraced the Diatribai (Discourses) of a religious former slave, Epictetus, an important moral philosopher of the Stoic school. Henceforth, it was in philosophy that Marcus was to find his chief intellectual interest as well as his spiritual nourishment.

  • diatribe (Greek literary genre)

    Bion of Borysthenes: …credited with originating the Cynic “diatribe,” or popular discourse on morality, whose style may have influenced that of the Christian sermon. Few of his writings survive.

  • Diatribe du docteur Akakia (pamphlet by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Later travels: In a pamphlet entitled Diatribe du docteur Akakia (1752), he covered him with ridicule. The king, enraged, consigned Akakia to the flames and gave its author a thorough dressing down. Voltaire left Prussia on March 26, 1753, leaving Frederick exasperated and determined to punish him. On the journey, he…

  • Diatronic (phototypesetter)

    printing: Functional phototypesetters: Diatronic, a phototypesetter made in Germany with an adjoining keyboard, uses matrix plates with 126 symbols. Selection is made after the beam of light has passed through all the symbols on the plate, through prisms which take up the position necessary to retain only the…

  • diatropic movement (botany)

    tropism: Diatropic movements are at right angles to the direction of stimulus.

  • diatropism (botany)

    tropism: Diatropic movements are at right angles to the direction of stimulus.

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