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  • Fronsberg, Georg von (German military officer)

    Georg von Frundsberg, German soldier and devoted servant of the Habsburgs who fought on behalf of the Holy Roman emperors Maximilian I and Charles V. In 1499 Frundsberg took part in Maximilian’s struggle against the Swiss, and, in the same year, he was among the imperial troops sent to assist

  • front (meteorology)

    Front, in meteorology, interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density and temperature; the sporadic flareups of weather along this zone, with occasional thunderstorms and electrical activity, was, to the Norwegian meteorologists who gave it its name during World War I,

  • front (military)

    tactics: The growing scale of battle: …dispersal took place, it caused fronts to grow much longer and less cohesive. From the middle of the 19th century, this tendency was reinforced by the larger number of troops produced by conscription. As battles took up more space, the number of men within a given area declined very sharply.…

  • Front de Libération Nationale (political party, Algeria)

    National Liberation Front, the only constitutionally legal party in Algeria from 1962 to 1989. The party was a continuation of the revolutionary body that directed the Algerian war of independence against France (1954–62). The FLN was created by the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action

  • Front de Libération Nationale de la Corse (political organization, Corsica)

    Corsican National Liberation Front, largest and most violent of a number of Corsican nationalist movements. It was formed in 1976 from two smaller groups that sought autonomy for Corsica through armed struggle. The main method of the FLNC was bomb attacks, and the main targets were the property of

  • Front de Seine (section, Paris, France)

    Paris: Modern business quarters: The Front de Seine is on the Left Bank, between the Eiffel Tower and the southern city limits. Here a neighbourhood of factories and substandard housing was replaced by a spread of high-rise buildings used for offices and apartments.

  • Front for the Defense of Constitutional Institutions (Moroccan government)

    Morocco: Independent Morocco: …to be known as the Front for the Defense of Constitutional Institutions. This included a new, predominantly Amazigh, rural group opposed to the Istiqlāl. The ensuing near deadlock caused the king to dissolve Parliament after only one year, and, with himself or his nominee as prime minister, a form of…

  • Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (political organization, Yemen [Aden])

    Aden: …rival nationalist organizations, the Egyptian-supported Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen (FLOSY) and the Marxist-oriented National Liberation Front (NLF), for eventual control of the country. It was as a part of the NLF-ruled People’s Republic of Southern Yemen that Aden achieved its independence on Nov. 30, 1967, and…

  • Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (Angolan organization)

    Cabinda: …of various factions of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) as well as other groups, which were fighting for Cabindan independence from Angola. In 2004 some of the groups formed an umbrella organization, Cabinda Forum for Dialogue (which also included civil and religious groups), and…

  • Front for the National Liberation of Chad (Chadian military organization)

    Chad: Civil war: The Front for the National Liberation of Chad (Frolinat) was established in 1966 and operated primarily in the north from its headquarters at the southern Libyan oasis of Al-Kufrah, while the smaller Chad National Front (FNT) operated in the east-central region. Both groups aimed at the…

  • Front for Victory (political party, Argentina)

    Argentina: The Menem era and the 21st century: …that month, Fernández de Kirchner’s Front for Victory (FPV) faction of the Peronist party and its allies won enough seats to capture an absolute majority in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate.

  • Front Islamique du Salut (political party, Algeria)

    Islamic Salvation Front, Algerian Islamist political party. Known best by its French acronym, the organization was founded in 1989 by Ali Belhadj and Abbasi al-Madani. The party won a majority of the seats contested in local elections in 1990 and most of the seats in the National Assembly in the

  • Front National (political party, France)

    National Front, right-wing French political party founded in 1972 by Fran?ois Duprat and Fran?ois Brigneau but most commonly associated with Jean-Marie Le Pen, who was its leader from 1972 to 2011. Since its beginnings, the party has strongly supported French nationalism and controls on

  • Front National pour la Défense de la Révolution (Madagascan political organization)

    Madagascar: The Second Republic: …the core of the broader National Front for the Defense of the Revolution (Front National pour la Défense de la Révolution; FNDR). Only parties admitted to this umbrella organization were allowed to participate in political activities.

  • front of house (theatre)

    theatre design: The house and front of house: …as with the word backstage, front of house does not necessarily indicate an actual physical location within a theatre building). Ensuring that as many members of the audience as is practical can see the stage well seems always to have been a priority in the design of theatres. In the…

  • Front of National Liberation (political party, Algeria)

    National Liberation Front, the only constitutionally legal party in Algeria from 1962 to 1989. The party was a continuation of the revolutionary body that directed the Algerian war of independence against France (1954–62). The FLN was created by the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action

  • Front Page, The (play by Hecht and MacArthur)

    The Front Page: …was adapted from a hit play of the same name by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur, with much of their witty rapid-fire dialogue kept intact. Menjou, who often played high-class debonair characters, was honoured with an Academy Award nomination (one of three the film received) for his against-type performance. The…

  • Front Page, The (film by Milestone [1931])

    The Front Page, American screwball comedy, released in 1931, that is still widely regarded as one of Hollywood’s most accomplished farces. The film centres on star newspaper reporter Hildy Johnson (played by Pat O’Brien), who is quitting his job in Chicago to move to New York City with his fiancée

  • Front Page, The (film by Wilder [1974])

    Billy Wilder: Last films: …Lemmon and Matthau paired in The Front Page (1974), but few critics thought Wilder’s remake of the Ben Hecht–Charles MacArthur play was the equal of Lewis Milestone’s 1931 original or Howard Hawks’s version, His Girl Friday (1940). More interesting but little seen was the German-financed Fedora

  • Front Patriotique Rwandais (political party, Rwanda)

    Juvénal Habyarimana: …a rebellion by the Tutsi-led Rwandan Patriotic Front (Front Patriotique Rwandais; FPR) began in October 1990. The rebellion further inflamed the country’s long-standing ethnic tensions, and Hutu mobs, incited by local authorities, killed hundreds of Tutsi civilians. Intermittent peace talks yielded little success until Aug. 4, 1993, when, at peace…

  • Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie (political party, Djibouti)

    Djibouti: Multiparty politics and civil war: …and in late 1991 the Afar Front for the Restoration of Unity and Democracy (Front pour la Restauration de l’Unité et de la Démocratie; FRUD) took up arms against the Issa-dominated government; the conflict quickly developed into civil war. By mid-1992 FRUD forces occupied some two-thirds of the country, although…

  • Front Range (mountains, Colorado, United States)

    Front Range, easternmost section of the Southern Rocky Mountains in the west-central United States. It extends about 300 miles (500 km) south-southeastward from near Casper in southeastern Wyoming to Fremont county in south-central Colorado. The Front Range is 40 to 50 miles (65 to 80 km) wide and

  • Front Range (mountains, Lesotho)

    Maloti Mountains: …Maloti Mountains is properly the Front Range of the Maloti, sometimes called the Blue Mountains. It is a broad southwesterly spur from the Drakensberg Range near the northern tip of Lesotho and a few miles from its highest point, Mont aux-Sources. The Front Range is extended almost to Lesotho’s southwestern…

  • Front Runner, The (film by Reitman [2018])

    Hugh Jackman: He then starred in The Front Runner (2018), the true story of former U.S. senator Gary Hart, whose 1988 presidential bid ended amid news reports alleging that he was having an extramarital affair. In 2019 Jackman voiced a British adventurer in the stop-motion animated film Missing Link and starred…

  • front tooth

    tooth: Tooth form and function: …thus made up of four incisors, two canines, four premolars, and six molars in each jaw.

  • front vowel (linguistics)

    vowel: A front vowel is pronounced with the highest part of the tongue pushed forward in the mouth and somewhat arched. The a in “had,” the e in “bed,” and the i in “fit” are front vowels. A back vowel—e.g., the u in “rule” and the o…

  • Front, The (film by Ritt [1976])

    Woody Allen: The 1970s: …performance as the protagonist in The Front (1976), Martin Ritt’s fine drama about Hollywood blacklisting, Allen made Annie Hall (1977), a breakthrough work that dramatically elevated his status as a filmmaker. An elliptical account of the rise and fall of a romance between the quirky title character (played by Keaton)…

  • front-loading (American politics)

    presidency of the United States of America: The primary and caucus season: ” Such “front-loading” of primaries and caucuses continued during the 1990s, prompting Iowa and New Hampshire to schedule their contests even earlier, in January, and causing the Democratic Party to adopt rules to protect the privileged status of the two states. By 2008 some 40 states had…

  • front-wheel drive (engineering)

    automobile: European postwar designs: Front-wheel-drive had largely been abandoned after the 1930s, although the French had great success with the “Traction Avant” Citro?n. Swedish aircraft manufacturer Saab AB used it too, for its entry into the automobile market in 1950. It was the British Mini, designed by Sir Alec…

  • frontal bone (anatomy)

    skull: …of the cranium, and the frontal bone forms the forehead; the cranial floor consists of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones. The facial area includes the zygomatic, or malar, bones (cheekbones), which join with the temporal and maxillary bones to form the zygomatic arch below the eye socket; the palatine bone;…

  • frontal cortex (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Executive functions of the frontal lobes: The frontal lobes are the part of the brain most remote from sensory input and whose functions are the most difficult to capture. They can be thought of as the executive that controls and directs the operation of brain systems dealing with cognitive…

  • frontal fog (meteorology)

    fog: Frontal fog forms near a front when raindrops, falling from relatively warm air above a frontal surface, evaporate into cooler air close to the Earth’s surface and cause it to become saturated.

  • frontal inversion (meteorology)

    temperature inversion: A frontal inversion occurs when a cold air mass undercuts a warm air mass and lifts it aloft; the front between the two air masses then has warm air above and cold air below. This kind of inversion has considerable slope, whereas other inversions are nearly…

  • frontal lobe (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Executive functions of the frontal lobes: The frontal lobes are the part of the brain most remote from sensory input and whose functions are the most difficult to capture. They can be thought of as the executive that controls and directs the operation of brain systems dealing with cognitive…

  • frontal lobotomy (surgery)

    Lobotomy, surgical procedure in which the nerve pathways in a lobe or lobes of the brain are severed from those in other areas. The procedure formerly was used as a radical therapeutic measure to help grossly disturbed patients with schizophrenia, manic depression and mania (bipolar disorder), and

  • frontal nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Ophthalmic nerve: …the nose, and (3) the frontal nerve, serving the skin on the upper eyelid, the forehead, and the scalp above the eyes up to the vertex of the head.

  • frontal sinus (anatomy)

    human respiratory system: The nose: …is the largest cavity; the frontal sinus; the ethmoid sinuses; and the sphenoid sinus, which is located in the upper posterior wall of the nasal cavity. The sinuses have two principal functions: because they are filled with air, they help keep the weight of the skull within reasonable limits, and…

  • frontal zone (meteorology)

    Front, in meteorology, interface or transition zone between two air masses of different density and temperature; the sporadic flareups of weather along this zone, with occasional thunderstorms and electrical activity, was, to the Norwegian meteorologists who gave it its name during World War I,

  • Frontenac Axis (region, Canada)

    Canada: The Great Lakes–St. Lawrence lowlands: …of the Canadian Shield, the Frontenac Axis, which extends across the St. Lawrence River to form the Thousand Islands.

  • Frontenac, Chateau (hotel, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada)

    Chateau Frontenac, chateau-style hotel in historic Old Québec, built by the Canadian Pacific Railroad Company in 1893 and designed by American architect Bruce Price. The Chateau Frontenac is an excellent example of the grand hotels developed by railway companies in Canada in the late 1800s.

  • Frontenac, Fort (fort, Ontario, Canada)

    Louis de Buade, count de Palluau et de Frontenac: …had founded a fur-trading post, Fort Frontenac, on Lake Ontario. Shortly afterward he became associated with the French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, who, with Frontenac’s support, obtained royal consent to continue the explorations of Louis Jolliet down the Mississippi River to its mouth. La Salle took advantage…

  • Frontenac, Louis de Buade, comte de Palluau et de (French colonial governor)

    Louis de Buade, count de Palluau et de Frontenac, French courtier and governor of New France (1672–82, 1689–98), who, despite a record of misgovernment, managed to encourage profitable explorations westward and to repel British and Iroquois attacks on New France. Frontenac’s father, Henri de Buade,

  • Frontera (city, Mexico)

    Villa Frontera, city, east-central Coahuila estado (state), northeastern Mexico. It is on the Salado River, 1,926 feet (587 metres) above sea level, northwest of Monterrey. In the 20th century the city grew from a small rail junction to an important communications and industrial centre. Cereals

  • Frontespizio (Italian periodical)

    Italian literature: The return to order: …the Florentine literary reviews Solaria, Frontespizio, and Letteratura, while having to tread carefully with the authorities, provided an outlet for new talent. Carlo Emilio Gadda had his first narrative work (La Madonna dei filosofi [1931; “The Philosophers’ Madonna”]) published in Solaria, while the first part of his masterpiece, La cognizione…

  • frontier (border)

    United Kingdom: Army and frontier: …Wall was the most impressive frontier work in the Roman Empire. Despite a period in the following two reigns when another frontier was laid out on the Glasgow–Edinburgh line—the Antonine Wall, built of turf—the wall of Hadrian came to be the permanent frontier of Roman Britain. The northern tribes only…

  • Frontier (dance by Graham)

    Martha Graham: Early life and works: …those for the now historic Frontier (1935), a solo dance, and Primitive Mysteries, written for Graham and a company of female dancers.

  • frontier adelantado (Spanish governor)

    adelantado: …the frontiers, becoming known as frontier adelantados (adelantados fronterizos), and figured prominently in the military conquest of the Americas. In the 16th century the office was replaced by that of alcalde (magistrate).

  • Frontier Days (rodeo show, Cheyenne, Wyoming, United States)

    Cheyenne: Frontier Days, featuring one of America’s oldest and largest rodeos, is a six-day celebration held each July, recalling the spirit of the Wild West and the cattle kingdom days. Among the city’s attractions are the Cheyenne Botanic Gardens, and the city is home to the…

  • frontier humour (American literature)

    James Kirke Paulding: …1831; first published 1954), introduced frontier humour to the stage by depicting a character resembling Davy Crockett and helped during the 1830s to contribute to the growing legend of Crockett. His Life of Washington (1835) illustrates Paulding’s Americanism. Plain, even at times vulgar in style, he yet possessed a playful…

  • Frontier in American History, The (work by Turner)

    Frederick Jackson Turner: …best essays were collected in The Frontier in American History (1920) and The Significance of Sections in American History (1932), for which he was posthumously awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1933. In these writings Turner promoted new methods in historical research, including the techniques of the newly founded social sciences,…

  • Frontier Nursing Service (American organization)

    Kentucky: Health and welfare: …care in Kentucky is the Frontier Nursing Service, founded in 1925, which provides general nursing and obstetric service in the isolated mountain area of eastern Kentucky. A variety of programs throughout the state provide care for the elderly and the handicapped. Most social welfare programs are administered from the county…

  • frontier school (historiography)

    Frederick Jackson Turner: … best known for the “frontier thesis.” The single most influential interpretation of the American past, it proposed that the distinctiveness of the United States was attributable to its long history of “westering.” Despite the fame of this monocausal interpretation, as the teacher and mentor of dozens of young historians,…

  • Frontiere, Georgia Irwin (American sports executive)

    Georgia Irwin Frontiere, American sports executive (born Nov. 21, 1927, St. Louis, Mo.—died Jan. 18, 2008, Los Angeles, Calif.), became the first female owner of a National Football League team when she inherited the Los Angeles Rams following the death in 1979 of her husband, Carroll Rosenbloom.

  • Frontiers, Battle of the (European history [1914])

    Battle of the Frontiers, (4 August–6 September 1914), collective name for the first great clashes on the Western Front of World War I. It encompasses the initial battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the beginning of the war that resulted in a

  • Frontinus, Sextus Julius (Roman governor and author)

    Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman soldier, governor of Britain, and author of De aquis urbis Romae (“Concerning the Waters of the City of Rome”), a history and description of the water supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance and other matters of importance in the history

  • Fronto, Marcus Cornelius (Roman orator)

    Marcus Cornelius Fronto, prominent Roman orator, rhetorician, and grammarian whose high reputation—equal in ancient times to those of Cato, Cicero, and Quintilian—was based chiefly on his orations, all of which are lost. His most famous lost speech is Against the Christians, which was answered in

  • fronton (sport arena)

    jai alai: The court and the fronton: The entire plant is the fronton; some Basque frontons date from as early as 1785. The game is played professionally in 10 frontons in Spain: 5 in the Basque country, of which the one in Guernica is the finest; 2 in Barcelona; and one each in Palma de Mallorca, Zaragoza,…

  • Frontoniani (Roman scholastic group)

    Marcus Cornelius Fronto: …number of followers, called the Frontoniani. Modern evaluations of Fronto’s mastery of language are based on the information contained in the Noctes Atticae of Aulus Gellius, a member of Fronto’s circle; on a collection of Fronto’s letters (principally to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus); and on miscellaneous pieces discovered with…

  • Froome, Chris (British cyclist)

    Chris Froome, Kenyan-born British cyclist who was a four-time winner of the Tour de France (2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017). Froome was born in Nairobi to British parents who later divorced when his father filed for bankruptcy. He and his mother, who encouraged his riding, moved to South Africa, where

  • Froome, Christopher Clive (British cyclist)

    Chris Froome, Kenyan-born British cyclist who was a four-time winner of the Tour de France (2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017). Froome was born in Nairobi to British parents who later divorced when his father filed for bankruptcy. He and his mother, who encouraged his riding, moved to South Africa, where

  • Frosinone (Italy)

    Frosinone, city, Lazio (Latium) regione, central Italy, on a hill above the Cosa River, on the Via Casilina. It originated as Frusino, a town of the ancient Volsci people, and became a colonia (colony) of the Roman Empire. There are traces of ancient walls and a Roman amphitheatre, but Frosinone,

  • Froskeslottet (work by Gaarder)

    Jostein Gaarder: …in 1987 and Froskeslottet (The Frog Castle) in 1988. In both books Gaarder set a fantasy world against the real world, giving the central characters the opportunity to explore and question ideas and values. In 1990 came Kabalmysteriet (The Solitaire Mystery), featuring a boy, Hans Thomas, and his father…

  • Frossard, André (French journalist)

    André Frossard, French Roman Catholic journalist (b. Jan. 14, 1915--d. Feb. 2,

  • frost (meteorology)

    Frost, atmospheric moisture directly crystallized on the ground and on exposed objects. The term also refers to the occurrence of subfreezing temperatures that affect plants and crops. Frost crystals, often called hoarfrost in the aggregate, form when the invisible water vapour of the atmosphere

  • Frost at Midnight (poem by Coleridge)

    Frost at Midnight, poem by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, published in Lyrical Ballads (1798), in which Coleridge pioneered a new, informal mode of poetry unified by conversational tone and rhythm. In the winter of 1798 Coleridge composed the four-stanza poem in the presence of his sleeping infant son,

  • Frost Eureka (fruit)
  • frost feather (meteorology)

    rime: …the wind and are called “frozen fog deposits,” or “frost feathers.” Rime is composed of small ice particles with air pockets between them; this structure causes its typical white appearance and granular structure. Because of the rapid freezing of each individual supercooled droplet, there is relatively poor cohesion between the…

  • Frost Lisbon (fruit)
  • Frost Medal (American poetry award)

    Frost Medal, annual poetry award presented by the Poetry Society of America in recognition of the lifetime achievements of an American poet. The medal was first awarded in 1930. The award was originally called the Gold Medal for Distinguished Achievement, but the name was later changed to honour

  • frost point (meteorology)

    Frost point, temperature, below 0° C (32° F), at which moisture in the air will condense as a layer of frost on any exposed surface. The frost point is analogous to the dew point, the temperature at which the water condenses in liquid form; both the frost point and the dew point depend upon the

  • frost quake (seismology)

    Cryoseism, the sudden fracturing of soil or rock caused by rapid freezing of water in saturated ground. Such seismic events are sometimes mistaken for true earthquakes because they produce seismic vibrations, loud booms, jolts, and shaking at the ground surface. Cryoseisms may also occur in polar

  • frost wedging (hydrology)

    iceberg: Antarctic icebergs: This phenomenon, known as frost wedging, caused the shelf to splinter in several places and brought about the disintegration of the shelf.

  • Frost, A. B. (American illustrator)

    A.B. Frost, American illustrator, famous for his drawings of Uncle Remus, Brer Rabbit, and other characters created by Joel Chandler Harris, an American writer of Southern dialect folktales. In his teens Frost learned something of wood engraving and lithography before moving to New York, where he

  • Frost, Arthur Burdett (American illustrator)

    A.B. Frost, American illustrator, famous for his drawings of Uncle Remus, Brer Rabbit, and other characters created by Joel Chandler Harris, an American writer of Southern dialect folktales. In his teens Frost learned something of wood engraving and lithography before moving to New York, where he

  • Frost, John (British social reformer)

    John Frost, hero of Chartism (the first mass political reform movement) and leader of the Newport rising of November 4, 1839, in which about 20 Chartists were killed by troops. A prosperous draper and tailor in Newport, Frost served as a member of Newport’s first elected town council (from 1835),

  • Frost, Mark (American novelist, screenwriter, and film producer)

    Twin Peaks: Twin Peaks was created by Mark Frost and David Lynch (director of the motion picture Blue Velvet [1986]), the latter already well known for making strange films with macabre motifs. The show began with the discovery of the body of a murdered teenage prom queen, Laura Palmer (played by Sheryl…

  • Frost, Nancy (American psychologist)

    human intelligence: Cognitive theories: Hunt, Nancy Frost, and Clifford E. Lunneborg, who in 1973 showed one way in which psychometrics and cognitive modeling could be combined. Instead of starting with conventional psychometric tests, they began with tasks that experimental psychologists were using in their laboratories to study the basic phenomena…

  • Frost, Robert (American poet)

    Robert Frost, American poet who was much admired for his depictions of the rural life of New England, his command of American colloquial speech, and his realistic verse portraying ordinary people in everyday situations. Frost’s father, William Prescott Frost, Jr., was a journalist with ambitions of

  • Frost, Robert Lee (American poet)

    Robert Frost, American poet who was much admired for his depictions of the rural life of New England, his command of American colloquial speech, and his realistic verse portraying ordinary people in everyday situations. Frost’s father, William Prescott Frost, Jr., was a journalist with ambitions of

  • Frost, Sarah Frances (American actress)

    Julia Marlowe, English-born American actress, one of the great romantic actresses of her day, known especially for her interpretations of William Shakespeare. Her family immigrated to the United States in 1870, and at the age of 11 she toured the Midwest in a juvenile production of Gilbert and

  • Frost, Sir David (British talk show host and journalist)

    Sir David Frost, English talk-show host, journalist, and writer who was noted for his interviews of public figures, notably former U.S. president Richard Nixon, who, under Frost’s skillful questioning, apologized for the Watergate scandal. Frost studied history at the University of Cambridge, where

  • Frost, Sir David Paradine (British talk show host and journalist)

    Sir David Frost, English talk-show host, journalist, and writer who was noted for his interviews of public figures, notably former U.S. president Richard Nixon, who, under Frost’s skillful questioning, apologized for the Watergate scandal. Frost studied history at the University of Cambridge, where

  • Frost, Sir Terry (British artist)

    Sir Terry Frost, (Terence Ernest Manitou Frost), British abstract artist and teacher (born Oct. 13, 1915, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Sept. 1, 2003, Hayle, Cornwall, Eng.), created works in abstract shapes grounded in natural forms that used colour and light to produce a sense of d

  • Frost, Terence Ernest Manitou (British artist)

    Sir Terry Frost, (Terence Ernest Manitou Frost), British abstract artist and teacher (born Oct. 13, 1915, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, Eng.—died Sept. 1, 2003, Hayle, Cornwall, Eng.), created works in abstract shapes grounded in natural forms that used colour and light to produce a sense of d

  • frost-free season (agriculture)

    Growing season, period of the year during which growing conditions for indigenous vegetation and cultivated crops are most favourable. It usually becomes shorter as distance from the Equator increases. In equatorial and tropical regions the growing season ordinarily lasts all year, whereas in h

  • Frost/Nixon (film by Howard)

    Ron Howard: In 2008 Howard directed Frost/Nixon, about the interviews between British television personality David Frost and U.S. Pres. Richard M. Nixon after the latter resigned from office. His efforts earned him an Academy Award nomination for best director. In 2011 Howard returned to comedy with The Dilemma, about a man…

  • Frost/Nixon (play by Morgan)

    Michael Grandage: …The Cut as well as Frost/Nixon, a play written by Peter Morgan that dramatized the 1977 television interviews in which British writer and broadcaster David Frost induced former U.S. president Richard Nixon (played by Frank Langella) to express regret for the Watergate scandal. In 2007 Grandage directed three of the…

  • frostbite

    Frostbite, a freezing of living tissue; frostbite occurs whenever heat loss from a tissue is sufficient to permit ice formation. The freezing-thawing process causes mechanical damage to cells (from ice), tissue dehydration, and local oxygen depletion. If not relieved, these conditions lead to

  • frosted bat (mammal)

    Frosted bat, any of certain bat species of the family vesper bat

  • Frostie (calf)

    Frostie, a Hereford-Friesian calf, the first calf produced from an embryo that was frozen, thawed, and implanted into a surrogate cow. Frostie, born in 1973 and popularly called the “frozen calf,” was the product of cryopreservation research conducted by British developmental biologist Ian Wilmut.

  • Frosty the Snow Man (song by Autry)

    Gene Autry: …Red-Nosed Reindeer” (1949), and “Frosty the Snow Man” (1950). The Gene Autry Show aired on television from 1950 to 1956.

  • froth flotation (ore dressing)

    Froth flotation, separation of minerals differing little in density but greatly in wettability by surfactants that stabilize a froth formed on the surface of an agitated suspension of the minerals in water. See

  • froth nest

    Anura: Egg laying and hatching: The result is a frothy mixture of water, air, eggs, and semen, which floats on the water. This meringuelike nest is about 7.5 to 10 cm (3 to 4 inches) in diameter and about 5 cm (2 inches) deep. The outer surfaces exposed to the air harden and form…

  • froth separation (ore dressing)

    Froth flotation, separation of minerals differing little in density but greatly in wettability by surfactants that stabilize a froth formed on the surface of an agitated suspension of the minerals in water. See

  • froth washing (food technology)

    vegetable processing: Freezing: …by either brine flotation or froth washing. In both methods the sound corn stays at the bottom while the impurities float off the tank. Whole-kernel corn can be frozen quickly using the individually quick-frozen method. Frozen corn can be packaged into polyethylene bags or cardboard cartons and labeled for retail,…

  • frottage (art)

    Frottage, (French: “rubbing”), in visual arts, technique of obtaining an impression of the surface texture of a material, such as wood, by placing a piece of paper over it and rubbing it with a soft pencil or crayon, as for taking brass rubbings; the name is also applied to the impression so

  • frottola (music)

    Frottola, Italian secular song popular in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Usually the frottola was a composition for four voice parts with the melody in the top line. Frottole could be performed by unaccompanied voices or by a solo voice with instrumental accompaniment. The frottola had c

  • frottole (music)

    Frottola, Italian secular song popular in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Usually the frottola was a composition for four voice parts with the melody in the top line. Frottole could be performed by unaccompanied voices or by a solo voice with instrumental accompaniment. The frottola had c

  • Froude number (physics)

    Froude number (Fr), in hydrology and fluid mechanics, dimensionless quantity used to indicate the influence of gravity on fluid motion. It is generally expressed as Fr = v/(gd)12, in which d is depth of flow, g is the gravitational acceleration (equal to the specific weight of the water divided by

  • Froude, James Anthony (British historian)

    James Anthony Froude, English historian and biographer whose History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 12 vol. (1856–70), fundamentally altered the whole direction of Tudor studies. He was immensely prolific, producing also novels and essays. Froude was, both

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