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  • Fuller, Metta Victoria (American author)

    Metta Victoria Fuller Victor, American writer of popular fiction who is remembered as the author of many impassioned works on social ills and of a number of "dime novels," including one of the country’s first detective novels. Metta Fuller grew up in Erie, Pennsylvania, and from 1839 in Wooster,

  • Fuller, Millard Dean (American philanthropist)

    Millard Dean Fuller, American philanthropist (born Jan. 3, 1935, Lanett, Ala.—died Feb. 3, 2009, Americus, Ga.), founded (1976) the Christian charity organization Habitat for Humanity International, which went on to build more than 300,000 quality homes to shelter at least 1.5 million needy people

  • Fuller, R. Buckminster (American engineer, architect, and futurist)

    R. Buckminster Fuller, American engineer, architect, and futurist who developed the geodesic dome—the only large dome that can be set directly on the ground as a complete structure and the only practical kind of building that has no limiting dimensions (i.e., beyond which the structural strength

  • Fuller, Ray W. (American biochemist)

    Ray W. Fuller, U.S. biochemist who, as a pharmacological researcher at Eli Lilly & Co. from 1963, helped to create fluoxetine--the popular antidepressant drug known by the trademark Prozac. The drug, which combated depression by slowing the reabsorption of serotonin in the brain, was synthesized in

  • Fuller, Richard Buckminster (American engineer, architect, and futurist)

    R. Buckminster Fuller, American engineer, architect, and futurist who developed the geodesic dome—the only large dome that can be set directly on the ground as a complete structure and the only practical kind of building that has no limiting dimensions (i.e., beyond which the structural strength

  • Fuller, Rocky (American musician)

    Louisiana Red, (Iverson Minter; Rocky Fuller), American blues musician (born March 23, 1932, Vicksburg, Miss./Bessemer, Ala.—died Feb. 25, 2012, Hannover, Ger.), launched his career as an uncanny imitator of other artists but evolved into a highly original stylist, mainly performing in Europe.

  • Fuller, Roy (British author)

    Roy Fuller, British poet and novelist, best known for his concise and observant verse chronicling the daily routines of home and office. Educated privately in Lancashire, Fuller became a solicitor in 1934 and served in the Royal Navy (1941–45) during World War II. After the war he pursued a dual

  • Fuller, Roy Broadbent (British author)

    Roy Fuller, British poet and novelist, best known for his concise and observant verse chronicling the daily routines of home and office. Educated privately in Lancashire, Fuller became a solicitor in 1934 and served in the Royal Navy (1941–45) during World War II. After the war he pursued a dual

  • Fuller, Samuel (American director)

    Samuel Fuller, American director known for his gritty action movies. Fuller left school at age 13 and became a copyboy for The New York Journal under editor Arthur Brisbane. While still in his teens, Fuller worked as a reporter, covering the crime beat for the San Diego Sun. It was while working

  • Fuller, Samuel Michael (American director)

    Samuel Fuller, American director known for his gritty action movies. Fuller left school at age 13 and became a copyboy for The New York Journal under editor Arthur Brisbane. While still in his teens, Fuller worked as a reporter, covering the crime beat for the San Diego Sun. It was while working

  • Fuller, Sarah (American educator)

    Sarah Fuller, American educator, an early and powerful advocate of teaching deaf children to speak rather than to sign. Fuller graduated from the Allan English and Classical School in West Newton, Massachusetts, and then became a schoolteacher. From 1855 to 1869 she taught in Newton, Massachusetts,

  • Fuller, Sarah Margaret (American author and educator)

    Margaret Fuller, American critic, teacher, and woman of letters whose efforts to civilize the taste and enrich the lives of her contemporaries make her significant in the history of American culture. She is particularly remembered for her landmark book Woman in the Nineteenth Century (1845), which

  • Fuller, Simon (British music mogul)

    American Idol: …of music and television executive Simon Fuller, aired. Both shows followed the same premise: judges travel throughout the country in search of its most-talented singer. In the American version a series of auditions narrowed the candidates to a top few, who competed against each other on a studio set in…

  • Fuller, Thomas (English scholar, preacher, and author)

    Thomas Fuller, British scholar, preacher, and one of the most witty and prolific authors of the 17th century. Fuller was educated at Queens’ College, Cambridge (M.A., 1628; B.D., 1635). Achieving great repute in the pulpit, he was appointed preacher at the Chapel Royal, Savoy, London, in 1641. He

  • fullerene (chemical compound)

    Fullerene, any of a series of hollow carbon molecules that form either a closed cage (“buckyballs”) or a cylinder (carbon “nanotubes”). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985 by Sir Harold W. Kroto (one of the authors of this article) of the United Kingdom and by Richard E. Smalley and Robert

  • fulleride (chemical compound)

    superconductivity: Thermal properties of superconductors: …only carbon is present) or fullerides (if doped). They have superconducting transition temperatures higher than those of the classic superconductors. It is not yet known whether these compounds are fundamentally similar to the cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  • Fullerton (California, United States)

    Fullerton, city, Orange county, southern California, U.S. Fullerton is adjacent to Anaheim and 22 miles (35 km) southeast of metropolitan Los Angeles. The city, once part of the territory of the Gabrielino (Tongva) Indians, was founded in 1887 by George and Edward Amerige, grain merchants

  • Fullerton, Hugh (American sportswriter)

    sabermetrics: Early analytic efforts: In 1906 sportswriter Hugh Fullerton applied his own brand of baseball analysis and concluded that the Chicago White Sox—known as “the Hitless Wonders”—would beat the crosstown Chicago Cubs in that year’s World Series. When the White Sox did upset the heavily favoured Cubs, Fullerton looked like a lonely…

  • fulling (textiles)

    Fulling, Process that increases the thickness and compactness of woven or knitted wool by subjecting it to moisture, heat, friction, and pressure until shrinkage of 10–25% is achieved. Shrinkage occurs in both the warp and weft see weaving), producing a smooth, tightly finished fabric that is

  • Fullman, Ernest (scientist)

    endoplasmic reticulum: Porter, Albert Claude, and Ernest Fullman, who produced the first electron micrograph of a cell. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Porter and colleagues Helen P. Thompson and Frances Kallman introduced the term endoplasmic reticulum to describe the organelle. Porter later worked with Romanian-born American cell biologist George…

  • Fullmer, Gene (American boxer)

    Gene Fullmer, American boxer (born July 21, 1931, West Jordan, Utah—died April 27, 2015, Taylorsville, Utah), battered his way into the world middleweight championship twice (1957, 1959–62), besting Sugar Ray Robinson to win the crown the first time. Fullmer had a brawling style of boxing and was

  • fullness (acoustics)

    acoustics: Acoustic criteria: …sound is referred to as fullness. Clarity, the opposite of fullness, is achieved by reducing the amplitude of the reverberant sound. Fullness generally implies a long reverberation time, while clarity implies a shorter reverberation time. A fuller sound is generally required of Romantic music or performances by larger groups, while…

  • fully tracked vehicle (armoured vehicle)

    armoured vehicle: Fully tracked carriers: In the postwar era the U.S. Army led the development of fully tracked infantry carriers with all-around armour protection. The first postwar carrier was the large M44, which had a crew of 2 and could carry 25 soldiers. This was followed in…

  • fulmar (bird)

    Fulmar, any of several species of gull-like oceanic birds of the family Procellariidae (order Procellariiformes), which also includes the petrels and the shearwaters. The name fulmar refers especially to the two species of the genus Fulmarus. Fulmars fly low over the waves of the open ocean, thus

  • fulmar petrel (bird)

    fulmar: The northern fulmar, or fulmar petrel (F. glacialis), nests in colonies on oceanic cliffs of the Arctic islands, the British Isles, and the coast of western Europe; in winter it is abundant in offshore waters in the sub-Arctic and temperate zones. The southern fulmar (F. glacialoides)…

  • Fulmarus (bird genus)

    fulmar: …two species of the genus Fulmarus. Fulmars fly low over the waves of the open ocean, thus resembling their narrower-winged relatives, the shearwaters. Fulmars will eat almost anything; their natural foods are small fish, squid, and crustaceans; but they often take ships’ garbage and will come ashore for carrion.

  • Fulmarus glacialis (bird)

    fulmar: The northern fulmar, or fulmar petrel (F. glacialis), nests in colonies on oceanic cliffs of the Arctic islands, the British Isles, and the coast of western Europe; in winter it is abundant in offshore waters in the sub-Arctic and temperate zones. The southern fulmar (F. glacialoides)…

  • Fulmarus glacialoides (bird)

    fulmar: The southern fulmar (F. glacialoides) has a comparable distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. Both fulmars are typically predominately white with a pearly gray mantle, but darker colour phases occur in some populations.

  • fulminant disease (pathology)

    digestive system disease: Acute hepatocellular hepatitis: …develop a sudden, severe (fulminant) form of hepatic necrosis that can lead to death. In this form of the disease jaundice increases to high levels during the first 7 to 10 days, spontaneous bleeding occurs because of reductions of blood-clotting proteins, and irrational behaviour, confusion, or coma follow, caused…

  • fulminant hepatitis (pathology)

    hepatitis: Signs and symptoms: …of acute viral hepatitis include fulminant hepatitis, which is a very severe, rapidly developing form of the disease that results in severe liver failure, impaired kidney function, difficulty in the clotting of blood, and marked changes in neurological function. Such patients rapidly become comatose; mortality is as high as 90…

  • Fulton (Missouri, United States)

    Fulton, city, seat (1825) of Callaway county, central Missouri, U.S. It lies 26 miles (42 km) northeast of Jefferson City. Laid out in 1825 and named Volney, it was renamed shortly thereafter for Robert Fulton, steamboat engineer and inventor. Fulton is the seat of Westminster College (1851) and

  • Fulton (county, New York, United States)

    Fulton, county, east-central New York state, U.S. The northern half of the county lies in the Adirondack Mountains, is occupied by Adirondack Park, and features pine forests. The southern half consists of hilly uplands wooded with maple, birch, and beech. The principal lakes are Great Sacandaga,

  • Fulton (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Fulton, county, southern Pennsylvania, U.S., bordered to the east by Tuscarora Mountain, to the south by Maryland, and to the west by the Rays and Town hills. It consists of a mountainous area in the Appalachian Ridge and Valley physiographic region. The principal waterways are Meadow Grounds Lake

  • Fulton (ship)

    Fulton, first steam-powered warship, weighing 2,745 displacement tons and measuring 156 feet (48 metres) in length, designed for the U.S. Navy by the U.S. engineer Robert Fulton. She was launched in October 1814 and her first trial run was in June of the following year. A wooden catamaran

  • Fulton Flash (American athlete)

    Helen Stephens, American runner who won two gold medals at the 1936 Olympics in Berlin and was undefeated in official competition. Known as the Fulton Flash, Stephens had won nine Amateur Athletic Union track-and-field titles by the age of 18. At the 1936 Olympic Games, Stephens won the 100-metre

  • Fulton Opera House (building, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Lancaster: The Fulton Opera House (built 1852), which was named for steamboat designer and county resident Robert Fulton, was built on the site of the Lancaster jail, where the Paxton Boys from Dauphin county slaughtered the last of the Susquehanna Indians during the Indian uprising known as…

  • Fulton, John (American bullfighter and painter)

    John Fulton, American bullfighter and painter, who was one of only two Americans (the other was Sidney Franklin) to receive the alternativa (the ceremony in which a novice becomes a full matador) in Madrid, the centre of the bullfighting world. When he was a boy growing up in Philadelphia, Fulton

  • Fulton, Mary Hannah (American physician and missionary)

    Mary Hannah Fulton, American physician and missionary to China who ministered to many thousands not only through her own practice but by greatly expanding the availability of medical education in that country. Fulton was educated at Lawrence University in Appleton, Wisconsin, and at Hillsdale

  • Fulton, Robert (American inventor)

    Robert Fulton, American inventor, engineer, and artist who brought steamboating from the experimental stage to commercial success. He also designed a system of inland waterways, a submarine, and a steam warship. Fulton was the son of Irish immigrants. When their unproductive farm was lost by

  • Fulton, Ruth (American anthropologist and author)

    Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist whose theories had a profound influence on cultural anthropology, especially in the area of culture and personality. Benedict graduated from Vassar College in 1909, lived in Europe for a year, and then settled in California, where she taught in girls’ schools.

  • Fulton, Sarah Jane (American publisher, journalist and photographer)

    Sally Reston, (Sarah Jane Fulton Reston), American publisher, journalist, and photographer (born 1911/12, Sycamore, Ill.—died Sept. 22, 2001, Washington, D.C.), not only had a notable career in her own right but also for some 60 years was an influential partner in journalism to her husband, New Y

  • Fulushou (Chinese mythology)

    Fulushou, in Chinese mythology, a collective term for the three so-called stellar gods, taken from their names: Fuxing, Luxing, and

  • Fulvia (wife of Mark Antony)

    Fulvia, in Roman history, the wife of Mark Antony, and a participant in the struggle for power following the death of Julius Caesar. Fulvia was the daughter of Marcus Fulvius Bambalio of Tusculum. She was first married to the demagogic politician Publius Clodius Pulcher. Their daughter Claudia was

  • fulvic acid (chemical compound)

    Fulvic acid, one of two classes of natural acidic organic polymer that can be extracted from humus found in soil, sediment, or aquatic environments. Its name derives from Latin fulvus, indicating its yellow colour. This organic matter is soluble in strong acid (pH = 1) and has the average chemical

  • Fulvicin (drug)

    Griseofulvin, drug produced by the molds Penicillium griseofulvum and P. janczewski and used in the treatment of ringworm, including athlete’s foot and infections of the scalp and nails. Griseofulvin exerts its antimicrobial activity by binding to microtubules, cellular structures responsible for

  • Fulvius Flaccus, Marcus (Roman consul)

    ancient Rome: The program and career of Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus: Marcus Fulvius Flaccus, chairman of the commission and consul in 125, tried to solve the problem by offering the Italians the citizenship (or alternatively the right to appeal against Roman executive acts to the Roman people) in return for bringing their holdings of public land…

  • Fulvius Plautianus (Roman military commander)

    Caracalla: …commander of the imperial guard, Fulvius Plautianus; he is said to have hated Plautianus and played an important role in having him executed on the charge of a conspiracy against the imperial dynasty. He also exiled his own wife to an island and later killed her.

  • fulvous tree duck (duck)

    whistling duck: …of the tribe is the fulvous tree duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), with isolated populations in North and South America, India, and Africa—a most unusual world distribution and, remarkably, without geographic variation. It is mallard-sized, with a rusty brown body, a white rump, and creamy stripes on the flanks.

  • fumagillin (drug)

    beekeeping: The yearly work cycle: …beekeepers also feed the drug fumagillin to reduce possible damage to the adult bees by nosema disease (see below Disease and pest control). The colonies need a sunny exposure and protection from cold winds. Some beekeepers in northern and mountainous areas wrap their colonies with insulating material in winter. A…

  • fumarase (enzyme)

    metabolism: Regeneration of oxaloacetate: …in a reaction catalyzed by fumarase [45]; this type of reaction also occurred in step [39] of the cycle. The product of reaction [45] is malate.

  • fumarate (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Regeneration of oxaloacetate: …results in the formation of fumarate and reduced FAD.

  • Fumaria (plant)

    Fumitory, (genus Fumaria), genus of about 60 species of annual plants in the poppy family (Papaveraceae). Fumitory species are native to Eurasia and Africa and have been introduced to Australia and the Americas. Several of the plants are used in herbal medicine. Common, or drug, fumitory (Fumaria

  • Fumaria officinalis (plant)

    fumitory: Common, or drug, fumitory (Fumaria officinalis) is a 90-cm- (3-foot-) tall climbing plant with lacy leaves and spikelike sprays of white or pinkish tubular flowers. The plant is native to Europe and Asia and has naturalized in parts of North America, having escaped cultivation. Once regarded as a medicinal…

  • Fumariaceae (plant subfamily)

    Papaveraceae: Physical description: …its own family, the subfamily Fumarioideae characteristically features bilaterally symmetrical flowers with two dissimilar pairs of petals. The leaves are often compound or finely divided. Many species have rhizomes or tubers.

  • fumaric acid (chemical compound)

    Fumaric acid, organic compound related to maleic acid

  • Fumarioideae (plant subfamily)

    Papaveraceae: Physical description: …its own family, the subfamily Fumarioideae characteristically features bilaterally symmetrical flowers with two dissimilar pairs of petals. The leaves are often compound or finely divided. Many species have rhizomes or tubers.

  • fumarole (geology)

    Fumarole, vent in the Earth’s surface from which steam and volcanic gases are emitted. The major source of the water vapour emitted by fumaroles is groundwater heated by bodies of magma lying relatively close to the surface. Carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide are usually emitted

  • Fumban (Cameroon)

    Foumban, town located in northwestern Cameroon. It lies 140 miles (225 km) north-northwest of Yaoundé. Foumban was the historic capital of the Bamum kingdom; a palace there dates from the 18th century. Njoya (reigned 1890–1923), the best known of the Bamum kings, established schools, invented a

  • Fumbina (historical kingdom, Nigeria)

    Adamawa: …which was then known as Fumbina, several times before settling it finally in 1841 in Yola, which has since remained the seat of the emirate. At his death, in 1848, Fumbina extended over parts of present-day eastern Nigeria and most of northern Cameroon; even as the easternmost emirate of the…

  • fumble (sports)

    gridiron football: The play of the game: …the ball by recovering a fumble or intercepting a pass. Failing to make a first down, the offensive side must surrender the ball, usually by punting (kicking) it on fourth down. The offense scores by advancing the ball across the opponent’s goal line (a six-point touchdown) or placekicking it over…

  • fume (air pollution)

    air pollution: Fine particulates: …μm in diameter are called fumes.

  • fumi-e (Japanese policy)

    Japan: The enforcement of national seclusion: …out by such means as fumi-e, in which one was made to trample on an image of Christ or the Virgin Mary. The system of registration at Buddhist temples was instituted: all Japanese were required to register as parishioners to a parent Buddhist temple, called a danna-dera (“family temple”), which…

  • fumigant (chemistry)

    Fumigant, any volatile, poisonous substance used to kill insects, nematodes, and other animals or plants that damage stored foods or seeds, human dwellings, clothing, and nursery stock. Soil fumigants are sprayed or spread over an area to be cultivated and are worked into the soil to control

  • fumitory (plant)

    Fumitory, (genus Fumaria), genus of about 60 species of annual plants in the poppy family (Papaveraceae). Fumitory species are native to Eurasia and Africa and have been introduced to Australia and the Americas. Several of the plants are used in herbal medicine. Common, or drug, fumitory (Fumaria

  • fumitory family (plant subfamily)

    Papaveraceae: Physical description: …its own family, the subfamily Fumarioideae characteristically features bilaterally symmetrical flowers with two dissimilar pairs of petals. The leaves are often compound or finely divided. Many species have rhizomes or tubers.

  • Fun Home (graphic memoir by Bechdel)

    Alison Bechdel: …Bechdel published the graphic memoir Fun Home, a coming-of-age story that detailed her relationship with her father, a closeted gay man with an obsessive eye for decorative detail, and her own emerging lesbian consciousness. The critically acclaimed work was named a finalist for the National Book Critics Circle Award, and…

  • fun shrub (plant)

    Ochnaceae: Fun shrub, or carnival bush (Ochna multiflora), reaches 1.5 metres (5 feet) and has evergreen leaves. Its yellow, buttercup-like flowers have sepals that turn scarlet and remain after the petals fall. There are 3 to 5 projecting, jet-black fruits. Other genera have dry capsules with…

  • Fun-Da-Mental (British musical group)

    bhangra: …Reservations (1993), and the group Fun-Da-Mental, with Seize the Time (1995), began to use their music as a vehicle for poignant social commentary. Not only did these and other artists address such issues as racial conflict and the HIV/AIDS epidemic, but they tapped stylistic features of reggae, rap, and other…

  • Funabashi (Japan)

    Funabashi, city, western Chiba ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It is situated on the northeastern coast of Tokyo Bay between the cities of Urayasu (west) and Narashino (east). Formed by the amalgamation of the post town of Funabashi with the fishing village of Katsushika in 1937, it

  • Funafuti Atoll (atoll and national capital, Tuvalu)

    Funafuti Atoll, coral atoll, capital of Tuvalu, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Funafuti is the most populous of the country’s nine atolls. Its main islet is Fongafale, the site of the village of Vaiaku, where most of Tuvalu’s government offices are located. The atoll comprises some 30 islets

  • Funaki, Kazuyoshi (Japanese ski jumper)

    Nagano 1998 Olympic Winter Games: Ski jumper Kazuyoshi Funaki soared to the gold medal on the 120-metre hill and a silver on the 90-metre hill and led a dramatic victory in the team ski jumping event. Hiroyasu Shimizu took home the gold medal in the 500-metre speed skating event and the bronze…

  • Funan (historical state, Indochina)

    Funan, ancient state in Cambodia that arose in the 1st century ad and was incorporated into the state of Chenla in the 6th century. Funan (perhaps a Chinese transcription of pnom, “mountain”) was the first important Hinduized kingdom in southeast Asia. It covered portions of what are now Vietnam,

  • Funaria (plant genus)

    Cord moss, any of the plants of the genus Funaria (subclass Bryidae), distinguished by the spirally twisted seta (stalk) of the capsule (spore case). About 86 species of Funaria are found in many habitats throughout the world, especially on limestone or recently burned areas. About nine species are

  • Funaria hygrometrica (plant species)

    cord moss: …America; the most common is F. hygrometrica, which is often described in textbooks as a representative bryophyte (member of a group including mosses and liverworts).

  • Funchal (Portugal)

    Funchal, city and capital of the regi?o autónoma (autonomous region) of the Madeira Islands of Portugal in the North Atlantic Ocean. Funchal lies on the southern coast of Madeira Island. Funchal was founded in 1421 by the Portuguese navigator Jo?o Gon?alves Zarco, and it was briefly under Spanish

  • Funchal Islands (archipelago, Portugal)

    Madeira Islands, archipelago of volcanic origin in the North Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Portugal. It comprises two inhabited islands, Madeira and Porto Santo, and two uninhabited groups, the Desertas and the Selvagens. The islands are the summits of mountains that have their bases on an abyssal

  • FUNCINPEC Party (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: The 1990s: …Peaceful, and Cooperative Cambodia (Funcinpec), a royalist political faction sponsored by Prince Sihanouk, who had returned home in 1992 after 12 years of residence in China and North Korea. The incumbent Cambodian People’s Party (CPP) and the former prime minister, Hun Sen, refused to accept the results of the…

  • function (computer science)

    computer programming language: Control structures: …is an example of a subprogram (also called a procedure, subroutine, or function). A subprogram is like a sauce recipe given once and used as part of many other recipes. Subprograms take inputs (the quantity needed) and produce results (the sauce). Commonly used subprograms are generally in a collection or…

  • function (mathematics)

    Function, in mathematics, an expression, rule, or law that defines a relationship between one variable (the independent variable) and another variable (the dependent variable). Functions are ubiquitous in mathematics and are essential for formulating physical relationships in the sciences. The

  • function (philosophy)

    architecture: Content: …that interpret to society the functions and techniques of buildings.

  • function analysis (mathematics)

    Functional analysis, Branch of mathematical analysis dealing with functionals, or functions of functions. It emerged as a distinct field in the 20th century, when it was realized that diverse mathematical processes, from arithmetic to calculus procedures, exhibit very similar properties. A

  • Function of Criticism at the Present Time, The (essay by Arnold)

    Matthew Arnold: Arnold as critic: …in the 1865 volume, “The Function of Criticism at the Present Time,” is an overture announcing briefly most of the themes he developed more fully in later work. It is at once evident that he ascribes to “criticism” a scope and importance hitherto undreamed of. The function of criticism, in…

  • Function of Orgasm, The (work by Reich)

    Wilhelm Reich: In The Function of Orgasm (1927), he argued that the ability to achieve orgasm, called orgastic potency, was an essential attribute of the healthy individual; failure to dissipate pent-up sexual energy by orgasm could produce neurosis in adults. This work led him into the sexual politics…

  • functional analysis (mathematics)

    Functional analysis, Branch of mathematical analysis dealing with functionals, or functions of functions. It emerged as a distinct field in the 20th century, when it was realized that diverse mathematical processes, from arithmetic to calculus procedures, exhibit very similar properties. A

  • functional analysis (economics)

    marketing: The evolving discipline of marketing: Finally, a functional analysis examines the general tasks that marketing performs. For example, any marketing effort must ensure that the product is transported from the supplier to the customer. In some industries this transportation function may be handled by a truck, while in others it may be…

  • functional assessment (medicine)

    Functional measurement, the processes by which medical professionals evaluate disability and determine the need for occupational therapy or physical rehabilitation. Functional measurement refers specifically to quantifying an individual’s performance of particular tasks and activities in the

  • functional autonomy (psychology)

    Gordon Allport: Allport called this concept functional autonomy. His approach favoured emphasis on the problems of the adult personality rather than on those of infantile emotions and experiences. In Becoming (1955) he stressed the importance of self and the uniqueness of adult personality. The self, he contended, is an identifiable organization…

  • functional class nomenclature (chemistry)

    organohalogen compound: Nomenclature: …naming organohalogen compounds: substitutive and functional class. In substitutive nomenclature the prefix fluoro-, chloro-, bromo-, or iodo- is added to the name of the hydrocarbon framework along with a number (called a locant) identifying the carbon to which the halogen is attached. Substituents, including the halogen, are listed in alphabetical…

  • functional costing (economics)

    defense economics: Choosing weapon systems: …illustrated by the technique of functional costing. Ordinarily, most budgets are a listing of expenditures under various main headings—personnel, equipment, and supplies—and the total is approved through the political process. This type of budget is called an accountability budget because it accounts for defense expenditure, but it cannot inform the…

  • functional fixedness (psychology)

    thought: Obstacles to effective thinking: Functional fixedness is the inability to realize that something known to have a particular use may also be used to perform other functions. When one is faced with a new problem, functional fixedness blocks one’s ability to use old tools in novel ways. Overcoming functional…

  • functional food (nutrition)

    nutraceutical: …used interchangeably with the terms functional food and dietary supplement, though there are distinctions. Functional foods are foods normally consumed in the diet that have scientifically assessed health benefits. Dietary supplements are ingestible preparations purposefully added to the diet to benefit health but are not necessarily derived from foods. Nutraceuticals,…

  • functional genomics (genetics)

    recombinant DNA: Genomics: …two subdivisions: structural genomics and functional genomics. Structural genomics is based on the complete nucleotide sequence of a genome. Each member of a library of clones is physically manipulated by robots and sequenced by automatic sequencing machines, enabling a very high throughput of DNA. The resulting sequences are then assembled…

  • functional group (chemistry)

    Functional group, any of numerous combinations of atoms that form parts of chemical molecules, that undergo characteristic reactions themselves, and that in many cases influence the reactivity of the remainder of each molecule. In organic chemistry the concept of functional groups is useful as a

  • functional group analysis (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: Classical qualitative analysis: …between added chemical reagents and functional groups of the organic molecules. As a consequence, the result of the assay provides information about a portion of the organic molecule but usually does not yield sufficient information to identify it completely. Other measurements, including those of boiling points, melting points, and densities,…

  • Functional Group Party (political party, Indonesia)

    Golkar, social and political organization in Indonesia that evolved into a political party after it was founded as the Sekretariat Bersama Golongan Karya (Joint Secretariat of Functional Groups) by a group of army officers in 1964. Golkar, established ostensibly to counterbalance the growing power

  • functional language (computer language)

    computer programming language: Declarative languages: Functional languages have a mathematical style. A functional program is constructed by applying functions to arguments. Functional languages, such as LISP, ML, and Haskell, are used as research tools in language development, in automated mathematical theorem provers, and in some commercial projects.

  • functional magnetic resonance imaging (medicine)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neuroimaging technique used in biomedical research and in diagnosis that detects changes in blood flow in the brain. This technique compares brain activity under resting and activated conditions. It combines the high-spatial-resolution noninvasive

  • functional measurement (medicine)

    Functional measurement, the processes by which medical professionals evaluate disability and determine the need for occupational therapy or physical rehabilitation. Functional measurement refers specifically to quantifying an individual’s performance of particular tasks and activities in the

  • functional MRI (medicine)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), neuroimaging technique used in biomedical research and in diagnosis that detects changes in blood flow in the brain. This technique compares brain activity under resting and activated conditions. It combines the high-spatial-resolution noninvasive

  • functional murmur (medicine)

    pregnancy: Cardiovascular and lymphatic systems: Such distorted sounds, called “functional” murmurs (as distinguished from “organic” murmurs, which may be present when the heart is diseased), do not indicate that anything is amiss, although they may be sufficiently atypical to cause the obstetrician to refer the patient to a cardiologist for evaluation. Pregnancy sometimes produces minor…

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