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  • Farr, William (British physician)

    William Farr, British physician who pioneered the quantitative study of morbidity (disease incidence) and mortality (death), helping establish the field of medical statistics. Farr is considered to be a major figure in the history of epidemiology, having worked for almost 40 years analyzing

  • Farrad, Walli (American religious leader)

    Wallace D. Fard, Mecca-born founder of the Nation of Islam (sometimes called Black Muslim) movement in the United States. Fard immigrated to the United States sometime before 1930. In that year, he established in Detroit the Temple of Islām as well as the University of Islām, which was the temple’s

  • Farragut, David (United States admiral)

    David Farragut, U.S. admiral who achieved fame for his outstanding Union naval victories during the American Civil War (1861–65). Farragut was befriended as a youth in New Orleans by Captain (later Commodore) David Porter (of the U.S. Navy), who adopted him. Farragut served under Porter aboard the

  • Farragut, David Glasgow (United States admiral)

    David Farragut, U.S. admiral who achieved fame for his outstanding Union naval victories during the American Civil War (1861–65). Farragut was befriended as a youth in New Orleans by Captain (later Commodore) David Porter (of the U.S. Navy), who adopted him. Farragut served under Porter aboard the

  • Farrah (Afghanistan)

    Farāh, town, southwestern Afghanistan, on the Farāh River. Usually identified with the ancient town of Phrada, it was once a centre of agriculture and commerce until destroyed by the Mongols in 1221; it later revived but was sacked in 1837 by the Persians. The building of the Kandahār-Herāt road

  • Farrakhan, Louis (American religious leader)

    Louis Farrakhan, leader (from 1978) of the Nation of Islam, an African American movement that combined elements of Islam with black nationalism. Walcott, as he was then known, was raised in Boston by his mother, Sarah Mae Manning, an immigrant from St. Kitts and Nevis. Deeply religious as a boy, he

  • Farrakhan, Louis Abdul (American religious leader)

    Louis Farrakhan, leader (from 1978) of the Nation of Islam, an African American movement that combined elements of Islam with black nationalism. Walcott, as he was then known, was raised in Boston by his mother, Sarah Mae Manning, an immigrant from St. Kitts and Nevis. Deeply religious as a boy, he

  • Farrant, Richard (English composer and theatrical producer)

    Richard Farrant, English composer, choirmaster, and theatrical producer, who established the original Blackfriars Theatre, home to the outstanding children’s companies of the Elizabethan era. Farrant was a gentleman of the Chapel Royal until 1564, when he was appointed organist and choirmaster to

  • Farrar, Frederic William (British author)

    Frederic William Farrar, popular English religious writer and author of a sentimental novel of school life, Eric; or, Little by Little (1858). In 1856 Farrar became a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and later accepted an assistant mastership at Harrow School. Eric was followed by Julian Home

  • Farrar, Geraldine (American singer)

    Geraldine Farrar, American soprano, known for her beauty and dramatic talent and the intimate timbre of her voice. Farrar displayed musical talent from early childhood, and although she eventually abandoned the piano she continued her voice lessons. In 1900 she traveled to Berlin, where in 1901 she

  • Farrar, Margaret Petherbridge (American editor)

    Margaret Petherbridge Farrar, American editor whose enormously popular series of crossword puzzle books capitalized on the nascent American passion for those diversions. Margaret Petherbridge was educated at the Berkeley Institute in Brooklyn and at Smith College, from which she graduated in 1919.

  • Farrar, Straus & Co. (publishing company)

    Farrar, Straus and Giroux, publishing company in New York City noted for its literary excellence. It was founded in 1946 by John Farrar and Roger Straus as Farrar, Straus & Co. After various changes in personnel and name, it became Farrar, Straus and Giroux in 1964, with the addition of Robert

  • Farrar, Straus and Giroux (publishing company)

    Farrar, Straus and Giroux, publishing company in New York City noted for its literary excellence. It was founded in 1946 by John Farrar and Roger Straus as Farrar, Straus & Co. After various changes in personnel and name, it became Farrar, Straus and Giroux in 1964, with the addition of Robert

  • Farrell, Aldric (Trinidadian singer)

    Lord Pretender , (Aldric Farrell), Trinidadian calypso singer (born Sept. 8, 1917, Tobago island, British colony of Trinidad and Tobago—died Jan. 22, 2002, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago), during a 72-year career, was a master of “extempo” calypso, in which the performer spontaneously devises s

  • Farrell, Charles (American actor)

    Frank Borzage: …Parisian sewer worker (played by Charles Farrell) who saves a homeless beauty (Janet Gaynor) from despair. It dominated the first Academy Awards with nominations for best picture, actress, screenplay adaptation, and director of a dramatic picture, winning Oscars in all but the first category. Gaynor was awarded not only for…

  • Farrell, Edelmiro J. (president of Argentina)

    Edelmiro J. Farrell, army general and politician who served as president of Argentina from 1944 to 1946. Farrell became minister of war and then vice president under Gen. Pedro Pablo Ramírez. When the latter resigned under pressure, Farrell became president of Argentina. In that capacity, Farrell

  • Farrell, Edelmiro Julián (president of Argentina)

    Edelmiro J. Farrell, army general and politician who served as president of Argentina from 1944 to 1946. Farrell became minister of war and then vice president under Gen. Pedro Pablo Ramírez. When the latter resigned under pressure, Farrell became president of Argentina. In that capacity, Farrell

  • Farrell, Eileen (American singer)

    Eileen Farrell, American soprano who achieved success in both operatic and popular music. Farrell’s parents were former vaudevillians. She traveled to New York City in 1939 to study singing and in 1940 earned a position with the studio choral and ensemble groups on the CBS radio network. The next

  • Farrell, J. G. (British writer)

    J.G. Farrell, British novelist who won acclaim for his Empire trilogy, a series of historical novels that intricately explore British imperialism and its decline. Farrell was born to an Irish mother and an English father, and he spent much of his childhood in Ireland. After attending boarding

  • Farrell, James Gordon (British writer)

    J.G. Farrell, British novelist who won acclaim for his Empire trilogy, a series of historical novels that intricately explore British imperialism and its decline. Farrell was born to an Irish mother and an English father, and he spent much of his childhood in Ireland. After attending boarding

  • Farrell, James T. (American author)

    James T. Farrell, American novelist and short-story writer known for his realistic portraits of the lower-middle-class Irish in Chicago, drawn from his own experiences. Farrell belonged to a working-class Irish American family. His impoverished parents gave Farrell over to be raised by middle-class

  • Farrell, James Thomas (American author)

    James T. Farrell, American novelist and short-story writer known for his realistic portraits of the lower-middle-class Irish in Chicago, drawn from his own experiences. Farrell belonged to a working-class Irish American family. His impoverished parents gave Farrell over to be raised by middle-class

  • Farrell, M. J. (Irish author)

    Molly Keane, Anglo-Irish novelist and playwright whose subject is the leisure class of her native Ireland. Born into the Anglo-Irish gentry (the daughter of an estate owner and the poet Moira O’Neill), Keane was educated by a governess. She began to publish novels while in her 20s, under the name

  • Farrell, Perry (American musician)

    rock festival: Monterey, Woodstock, and beyond: …be revived in 1991 by Perry Farrell, the leader of the alternative rock group Jane’s Addiction, who came up with a very successful formula based on the “Day on the Green” concept. Farrell’s touring Lollapalooza event endeavoured to bring underground music to middle America by mixing large- and small-stage performances…

  • Farrell, Suzanne (American dancer)

    Suzanne Farrell, American dancer especially known for her performances with the New York City Ballet. Roberta Sue Ficker began studying ballet at the age of eight. In 1960 she won a scholarship to the School of American Ballet, the training school of the New York City Ballet. She made her first New

  • Farrell, Yvonne (Irish architect)

    Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara: Farrell and McNamara met while studying at the School of Architecture at University College Dublin. After graduating in 1976, they began teaching at the university, and in 1978 they set up a practice in Dublin with three other architects. The firm began to receive a…

  • Farrell, Yvonne; and McNamara, Shelley (Irish architects)

    Yvonne Farrell and Shelley McNamara, Irish architects who, as founders (1978) of the firm Grafton Architects, were known for structures that are at once understated and complex; historical and modern; generous toward their users; and considerate of the environment. The pair had been collaborating

  • Farrer, William James (Australian agriculturalist)

    William James Farrer, British-born Australian agricultural researcher who developed several varieties of drought- and rust-resistant wheat that made possible a great expansion of Australia’s wheat belt. Farrer settled in Australia in 1870. In 1875 he was licensed as a surveyor and worked in the

  • farrier (metalworker)

    blacksmith: …most frequent occupation, however, was farriery. In horseshoeing, the blacksmith first cleans and shapes the sole and rim of the horse’s hoof with rasps and knives, a process painless to the animal owing to the tough, horny, and nerveless character of the hoof. He then selects a U-shaped iron shoe…

  • farro (plant)

    Poaceae: Economic and ecological importance: In one of these, emmer wheat (T. dicoccon), the grain is tightly clasped by the hull (lemma and palea), a characteristic of wild species that depend on the hull for dispersal. Threshing and winnowing—the separation of chaff from grain—is far easier when the hull separates freely from the grain,…

  • Farrokhī (Persian poet)

    Islamic arts: Influence of Ma?mūd of Ghazna: Among them was Farrokhī of Seistan (died 1037), who wrote a powerful elegy on Ma?mūd’s death, one of the finest compositions of Persian court poetry.

  • Farrokhzad, Forugh (Iranian poet)

    Islamic arts: Persian: One notable poet was Forugh Farrokhzad, who wrote powerful and feminine poetry. Her free verses, interpreting the insecurities of the age, are full of longing; though often bitter, they are truly poetic. Poems by such critically minded writers as Seyāvūsh Kasrā?ī also borrow the classical heritage of poetic imagery,…

  • Farron, Tim (British politician)

    Tim Farron, British politician who was leader of the Liberal Democrats (2015–17). Farron studied politics at Newcastle University, where he was the first Liberal Democrat to be elected president of the student union. At the age of 21, while he was still a student, he unsuccessfully stood for

  • Farron, Timothy James (British politician)

    Tim Farron, British politician who was leader of the Liberal Democrats (2015–17). Farron studied politics at Newcastle University, where he was the first Liberal Democrat to be elected president of the student union. At the age of 21, while he was still a student, he unsuccessfully stood for

  • Farrow, John (Australian-born director and writer)

    John Farrow , Australian-born director and writer whose diverse film credits included film noirs, westerns, and historical adventures. Farrow traveled the world as a sailor before becoming a Hollywood screenwriter in the late 1920s. He helped pen the scripts for such films as Ladies of the Mob

  • Farrow, John Villiers (Australian-born director and writer)

    John Farrow , Australian-born director and writer whose diverse film credits included film noirs, westerns, and historical adventures. Farrow traveled the world as a sailor before becoming a Hollywood screenwriter in the late 1920s. He helped pen the scripts for such films as Ladies of the Mob

  • Farrow, Maria de Lourdes Villiers (American actress)

    Mia Farrow, American actress and human rights activist known primarily for her leading role in the film Rosemary’s Baby and for her many roles in movies directed by Woody Allen. She attracted much media attention throughout her career, much of it regarding her dramatic personal life, her romantic

  • Farrow, Mia (American actress)

    Mia Farrow, American actress and human rights activist known primarily for her leading role in the film Rosemary’s Baby and for her many roles in movies directed by Woody Allen. She attracted much media attention throughout her career, much of it regarding her dramatic personal life, her romantic

  • Farrow, Ronan (American journalist)

    Mia Farrow: …traveled (often with her son Ronan, who became a well-known journalist) on numerous missions to Africa and was particularly outspoken regarding the crisis in Darfur, even going on a highly publicized 12-day hunger strike in 2009.

  • farrow-to-feeder operation (production system)

    livestock farming: Production systems: Farrow-to-feeder operations have the highest labour requirements, and many producers specialize in this part of the production cycle. It includes the management of the breeding herd, gestating sows, and piglets until they reach the growing (feeder) stage. The farmer retains control of the piglets until…

  • farrow-to-finish operation (production system)

    livestock farming: Production systems: The farrow-to-finish operation is the historic foundation of the pork industry and includes all phases: breeding, gestation, farrowing, lactation, weaning, and subsequently growing the pigs to market weight. Typically, these operations have been on family farms, where owners raise pigs along with a grain operation in…

  • farrowing crate (agriculture)

    hog house: Farrowing stalls, sometimes called crates, may be used to confine the sow so that she may stand or lie down but cannot move about and accidentally crush her young.

  • farrowing stall (agriculture)

    hog house: Farrowing stalls, sometimes called crates, may be used to confine the sow so that she may stand or lie down but cannot move about and accidentally crush her young.

  • Farrukh Beg (Mughal painter)

    Farrukh Beg, outstanding Mughal painter, praised by the Indian Mughal emperor Jahāngīr as “unrivaled in the age.” A Kalmyk of Central Asia, Farrukh Beg first worked at Kabul (now in Afghanistan) under Mirzā ?akīm, the half brother of the Mughal emperor Akbar. After ?akīm died, Farrukh Beg joined

  • Farrukh-Siyar (Mughal ruler)

    India: Struggle for a new power centre: Farrukh-Siyar (ruled 1713–19) owed his victory and accession to the Sayyid brothers, ?Abd Allāh Khan and ?usayn ?Alī Khan Bāraha. The Sayyids thus earned the offices of vizier and chief bakhshī and acquired control over the affairs of state. They promoted the policies initiated earlier…

  • Farrukhabad (India)

    Farrukhabad-cum-Fatehgarh: Farrukhabad was founded in 1714 by Mu?ammad Khan Bangash, an independent local Mughal governor. Fatehgarh also was founded about 1714, when a fort was built on the site; a massacre occurred there during the Indian Mutiny of 1857–58. Farrukhabad-cum-Fatehgarh is a major road and rail…

  • Farrukhabad-cum-Fatehgarh (municipality, India)

    Farrukhabad-cum-Fatehgarh, municipality, central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India, located just west of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The two district cities form a joint municipality and lie about 3 miles (5 km) apart. Farrukhabad was founded in 1714 by Mu?ammad Khan Bangash, an independent local

  • Fārs (geographical region, Iran)

    Fārs, geographic region, south-central Iran. The ancient region, known as Pārs, or Persis (q.v.), was the heart of the Achaemenian empire (559–330 bc), which was founded by Cyrus the Great and had its capital at Pasargadae. Darius I the Great moved the capital to nearby Persepolis in the late 6th

  • Fārsī language

    Persian language, member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian language family. It is the official language of Iran, and two varieties of Persian known as Dari and Tajik are official languages in Afghanistan and Tajikistan, respectively. Modern Persian is most closely related to Middle and Old

  • Farsī literature

    Persian literature, body of writings in New Persian (also called Modern Persian), the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. The literary form of New Persian is known as Farsī in Iran, where it

  • Farsi shakar ast (work by Jamalzadah)

    Muhammad ?Ali Jamalzadah: His first successful story, “Farsi shakar ast” (“Persian Is Sugar”), was reprinted in 1921/22 in Yakī būd yakī nabūd (Once Upon a Time), a collection of his short stories that laid the foundation for modern Persian prose. Yakī būd yakī nabūd caused a great stir, not only because of…

  • farsightedness (visual disorder)

    Hyperopia, refractive error or abnormality in which the cornea and lens of the eye focus the image of the visual field at an imaginary point behind the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue lining the back and sides of the eye). The retina thus receives an unfocused image of near objects,

  • Farsistan (geographical region, Iran)

    Fārs, geographic region, south-central Iran. The ancient region, known as Pārs, or Persis (q.v.), was the heart of the Achaemenian empire (559–330 bc), which was founded by Cyrus the Great and had its capital at Pasargadae. Darius I the Great moved the capital to nearby Persepolis in the late 6th

  • Farsy, Muhammed Saleh (African writer)

    Swahili literature: …this period were the Zanzibaris Muhammed Saleh Farsy, whose novel Kurwa na Doto (1960; “Kurwa and Doto”) is a minor classic, and Muhammed Said Abdulla, whose first story of a series of detective adventures, Mzimu wa Watu wa Kale (1960; “Shrine of the Ancestors”), marked the beginning of a transition…

  • Farther Off from Heaven (play by Inge)

    William Inge: …was revised for Broadway as The Dark at the Top of the Stairs (filmed 1960).

  • Farther Out Island (island, South Pacific Ocean)

    Juan Fernández Islands: …Isla Alejandro Selkirk (also called Isla Más Afuera), 100 miles to the west; and an islet, Isla Santa Clara, southwest of Isla Robinson Crusoe.

  • Farther Reaches of Human Nature, The (work by Maslow)

    Abraham Maslow: …were issued in 1971 as The Farther Reaches of Human Nature.

  • Farther Spain (ancient province, Spain)

    ancient Rome: Roman expansion in the western Mediterranean: …creating two provinces, Nearer and Further Spain. They also exploited the Spanish riches, especially the mines, as the Carthaginians had done. In 197 the legions were withdrawn, but a Spanish revolt against the Roman presence led to the death of one governor and required that the two praetorian governors of…

  • Farthest North (work by Nansen)

    Fridtjof Nansen: Early life: …expedition, Fram over Polhavet (Farthest North), appeared in 1897.

  • farthingale (clothing)

    Farthingale, underskirt expanded by a series of circular hoops that increase in diameter from the waist down to the hem and are sewn into the underskirt to make it rigid. The fashion spread from Spain to the rest of Europe from 1545 onward. The frame could be made of whalebone, wood, or wire. The

  • farthingale chair (furniture)

    Farthingale chair, armless chair with a wide seat covered in high-quality fabric and fitted with a cushion; the backrest is an upholstered panel, and the legs are straight and rectangular in section. It was introduced as a chair for ladies in the late 16th century and was named in England, probably

  • Fartlek (distance-running training)

    Fartlek, (Swedish: “Speed Play”), approach to distance-running training involving variations of pace from walking to sprinting aimed at eliminating boredom and enhancing the psychological aspects of conditioning. It was popularized by the Swedish Olympic coach Gosta Holmer after World War II and is

  • Farugia, Mario Orlando Hamlet Hardy Brenno Beneditti (Uruguayan writer)

    Mario Benedetti, Uruguayan writer who was best known for his short stories. Benedetti was born to a prosperous family of Italian immigrants. His father was a viniculturist and a chemist. At age four the boy was taken to Montevideo, where he received a superior education at a private school. He was

  • Faruk I (king of Egypt)

    Farouk I, king of Egypt from 1936 to 1952. Although initially quite popular, the internal rivalries of his administration and his alienation of the military—coupled with his increasing excesses and eccentricities—led to his downfall and to the formation of a republic. Farouk, the son and successor

  • Fārūq al-Awwal (king of Egypt)

    Farouk I, king of Egypt from 1936 to 1952. Although initially quite popular, the internal rivalries of his administration and his alienation of the military—coupled with his increasing excesses and eccentricities—led to his downfall and to the formation of a republic. Farouk, the son and successor

  • farz (chess)

    chess: Queen: Each player has one queen, which combines the powers of the rook and bishop and is thus the most mobile and powerful piece. The White queen begins at d1, the Black queen at d8.

  • Far?ah, Tall al- (archaeological site, Israel)

    Tall al-Far?ah, ancient site in southwestern Palestine, located on the Wadi Ghazzah near Tall al-?Ajjul, in modern Israel. The site was excavated between 1928 and 1930 by British archaeologists in Egypt under the direction of Sir Flinders Petrie, who identified the site as Beth-pelet. Other

  • FAS (American organization)

    Free African Society (FAS), nondenominational religious mutual aid organization that provided financial and emotional support to newly free African slaves in the United States. The FAS was formed in 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, by American preachers Richard Allen and Absalom Jones and other

  • Fas (protein)

    immune system: Cell-mediated immune mechanisms: …of a cell-surface protein called Fas. When a protein on the surface of the cytotoxic T cell interacts with the Fas protein on the target cell, Fas is activated and sends a signal to the nucleus of the target cell, thus initiating the cell death process. The target cell essentially…

  • Fās (Morocco)

    Fès, city, northern Morocco, on the Wadi Fès just above its influx into the Sebou River. The oldest of Morocco’s four imperial cities, it was founded on the banks of the Wadi Fès by Idrīs I (east bank, about 789) and Idrīs II (west bank, about 809). The two parts were united by the Almoravids in

  • FAS (finance)

    international payment and exchange: The current account: … valued on an FOB (free on board) basis and imports valued on a CIF basis (including cost, insurance, and freight to the point of destination). This swells the import figures relative to the export figures by the amount of the insurance and freight included. The reason for this practice…

  • FAS (pathology)

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), various congenital abnormalities in the newborn infant that are caused by the mother’s ingestion of alcohol about the time of conception or during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most-severe type of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The syndrome appears

  • fās (Egyptian hoe)

    Egypt: Daily life and social customs: …age-old implements such as the fās (hoe) and minjal (sickle); occasionally a modern tractor is seen. In the delta older women in long black robes, younger ones in more colourful cottons, and children over age 6 help with the less strenuous tasks. In some parts of the valley, however, women…

  • Fasano (pope [1004-1009])

    John XVIII (or XIX), pope from 1003 to 1009. Like his predecessor, Pope John XVII, his election was influenced by the Roman patrician John Crescentius III. More independent of the powerful Italian Crescentii family than John XVII, he eventually abdicated for unknown reasons and died shortly

  • FASB (American organization)

    accounting: Measurement standards: …partly the work of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), a private body. Within the United States, however, the principles or standards issued by the FASB or any other accounting board can be overridden by the SEC.

  • fasces (symbol)

    Fasces, insignia of official authority in ancient Rome. The name derives from the plural form of the Latin fascis (“bundle”). The fasces was carried by the lictors, or attendants, and was characterized by an ax head projecting from a bundle of elm or birch rods about 5 feet (1.5 metres) long and

  • Fasching (carnival)

    Fasching, the Roman Catholic Shrovetide carnival as celebrated in German-speaking countries. There are many regional differences concerning the name, duration, and activities of the carnival. It is known as Fasching in Bavaria and Austria, Fosnat in Franconia, Fasnet in Swabia, Fastnacht in Mainz

  • fasci di combattimento (Italian political organization)

    Italy: The rise of Mussolini: …even more prominent, founding his fasci di combattimento (“fighting leagues”), better known as Fascists, in Milan in March 1919. The group’s first program was a mishmash of radical nationalist ideas, with strong doses of anticlericalism and republicanism. Proposals included the confiscation of war profits, the eight-hour day, and the vote…

  • fasci siciliani (Italian political organization)

    Fascio siciliano, any of the organizations of workers and peasants founded in Sicily in the early 1890s, reflecting the growing social awareness of the lower classes. The fasci were primitive trade unions and mutual-benefit societies aimed at helping workers get better contracts and helping

  • fascia (anatomy)

    malformation: Fasciation: This condition is best placed in that category of teratological abnormalities known as monstrosities. Fasciation is a term that has been used to describe a series of abnormal growth phenomena resulting from many different causes, all of which result in flattening of the main…

  • fascia (architecture)

    Fascia, In architecture, a continuous flat band or molding parallel to the surface that it ornaments and either projecting from or slightly receding into it, as in the face of a Classical Greek or Roman entablature. Today the term refers to any flat, continuous band, such as that adjacent and

  • fascia graft (medicine)
  • fascicle (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: The androecium: …in groups or clusters (fascicles; see photograph), as in the myrtle family (Myrtaceae).

  • fascicular cambium (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Stems: …and primary phloem, called a fascicular cambium. This meristematic area spreads laterally from each bundle and eventually becomes continuous, forming a complete vascular cambium.

  • fasciculation (medical disorder)

    muscle disease: Indications of muscle disease: …single motor nerve cell, called fasciculation, may occur in a healthy person, but it usually indicates that the muscular atrophy is due to disease of motor nerve cells in the spinal cord. Fasciculation is seen most clearly in muscles close to the surface of the skin.

  • fasciculus (nervous system)

    nervous system: The vertebrate system: …are organized in bundles called tracts, or fasciculi. Ascending tracts carry impulses along the spinal cord toward the brain, and descending tracts carry them from the brain or higher regions in the spinal cord to lower regions. The tracts are often named according to their origin and termination; for example,…

  • fascination (kinesthetic hallucination)

    hallucination: Hypnosis and trance states: …among aviators have been called fascination or fixation. During prolonged, monotonous flight, pilots may experience visual, auditory, and bodily (kinesthetic) hallucinations; for example, a pilot may suddenly feel that the plane is in a spin or a dive or that it is upside down, even though it is flying level.…

  • fascio siciliano (Italian political organization)

    Fascio siciliano, any of the organizations of workers and peasants founded in Sicily in the early 1890s, reflecting the growing social awareness of the lower classes. The fasci were primitive trade unions and mutual-benefit societies aimed at helping workers get better contracts and helping

  • Fasciola hepatica (Fasciola hepatica)

    fascioliasis: …caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, a small parasitic flatworm that lives in the bile ducts and causes a condition known as liver rot.

  • Fasciolariidae (gastropod family)

    gastropod: Classification: shells (Columbellidae), mud snails (Nassariidae), tulip shells (Fasciolariidae), whelks (Buccinidae), and crown conchs (Galeodidae) mainly cool-water species; but dove and tulip shells have many tropical representatives. Superfamily Volutacea Harp shells (Harpidae), olive shells (Olividae),

  • fascioliasis (pathology)

    Fascioliasis, infection of humans and grass-grazing animals, caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, a small parasitic flatworm that lives in the bile ducts and causes a condition known as liver rot. F. hepatica is a leaf-shaped worm about 2 to 4 cm (0.8 to 1.6 inches) long that grows in the

  • fasciolopsiasis (pathology)

    Fasciolopsiasis, infection of humans and swine by the trematode Fasciolopsis buski, a parasitic worm. The adult worms, 2–7.5 cm (0.8–3 inches) long, attach themselves to the tissues of the small intestine of the host by means of ventral suckers; the sites of attachment may later ulcerate and form

  • Fasciolopsis buski (flatworm)

    fasciolopsiasis: …and swine by the trematode Fasciolopsis buski, a parasitic worm. The adult worms, 2–7.5 cm (0.8–3 inches) long, attach themselves to the tissues of the small intestine of the host by means of ventral suckers; the sites of attachment may later ulcerate and form abscesses. In the early stage of…

  • fascism (politics)

    Fascism, political ideology and mass movement that dominated many parts of central, southern, and eastern Europe between 1919 and 1945 and that also had adherents in western Europe, the United States, South Africa, Japan, Latin America, and the Middle East. Europe’s first fascist leader, Benito

  • Fascism (work by Zhelev)

    Zheliu Zhelev: His scholarly book Fascism (written in 1967) was removed from bookstores and banned only three weeks after its publication in 1982 when authorities realized that its critique of fascist regimes applied equally to the communist governments of eastern Europe (the book’s original title was The Totalitarian State). Clandestinely…

  • Fascist Grand Council (political meeting)

    Emilio De Bono: …the historic meeting of the Fascist Grand Council (July 24/25, 1943) and was among those who voted against Mussolini, thus causing the leader’s downfall. When Mussolini regained power in northern Italy with German help, he had De Bono arrested, tried for treason, and executed by a firing squad.

  • Fascist Party (political party, Italy)

    fasces: Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party of Italy was named for the fasces, which the members adopted in 1919 as their emblem. The Winged Liberty dime, minted in the United States from 1916 to 1945, depicts the fasces on its reverse side.

  • Fasco AG (Liechtensteiner corporation)

    Michele Sindona: …of his master companies was Fasco AG, incorporated in Liechtenstein, through which, by the mid-1960s, he headed companies in nine countries dealing in real estate, steel, paper, food processing, and banking. (He was also thought to have developed links to the Sicilian Mafia.) In 1972 he bought a controlling interest…

  • Faserkohle (coal)

    Fusain, macroscopically distinguishable component, or lithotype, of coal that is commonly found in silvery-black layers only a few millimetres thick and occasionally in thicker lenses. It is extremely soft and crumbles readily into a fine, sootlike powder. Fusain is composed mainly of fusinite

  • Fashanu, Justin (British athlete)

    Justin Fashanu, British football (soccer) player who was the first professional footballer to come out as gay. Fashanu was initially raised in the London area of Hackney, where his Nigerian father was a law student and his Guyanese mother a nurse. When he was a young boy, his parents split up and

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