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  • fatigue fracture (materials failure)

    Fatigue, in engineering, manifestation of progressive fracture in a solid under cyclic loading as in the case of a metal strip that ruptures after repeated bending back and forth. Fatigue fracture begins with one or several cracks on the surface that spread inward in the course of repeated

  • fatigue reaction (pathology)

    Neurasthenia, a syndrome marked by physical and mental fatigue accompanied by withdrawal and

  • Fatih külliye (building, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Islamic arts: Architecture: …dominate the Istanbul skyline: the Fatih külliye (1463–70), the Bayezid Mosque (after 1491), the Selim Mosque (1522), the ?ehzade külliye (1548), and the Süleyman külliye (after 1550). The ?ehzade and Süleyman külliyes were built by Sinan, the greatest Ottoman architect, whose masterpiece is the

  • Fatih Sultan Mehmed (bridge, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Bosporus: The second bridge, the Fatih Sultan Mehmed (Bosporus II), was completed in 1988 and has a main span of 3,576 feet (1,090 metres). A rail tunnel under the Bosporus opened in 2013.

  • fāti?ah (opening chapter of the Qur?ān)

    Fāti?ah, the “opening” or first chapter (surah) of the Muslim book of divine revelation, the Qur?ān; in tone and usage it has often been likened to the Christian Lord’s Prayer. In contrast to the other surahs, which are usually narratives or exhortations delivered by God, the seven verses of the

  • Fāti?at al-Kitāb (opening chapter of the Qur?ān)

    Fāti?ah, the “opening” or first chapter (surah) of the Muslim book of divine revelation, the Qur?ān; in tone and usage it has often been likened to the Christian Lord’s Prayer. In contrast to the other surahs, which are usually narratives or exhortations delivered by God, the seven verses of the

  • Fā?ima (daughter of Mu?ammad)

    Fā?imah, daughter of Muhammad (the founder of Islam) who in later centuries became the object of deep veneration by many Muslims, especially the Shī?ites. Muhammad had other sons and daughters, but they either died young or failed to produce a long line of descendants. Fā?imah, however, stood at

  • Fatima (daughter of Mu?ammad)

    Fā?imah, daughter of Muhammad (the founder of Islam) who in later centuries became the object of deep veneration by many Muslims, especially the Shī?ites. Muhammad had other sons and daughters, but they either died young or failed to produce a long line of descendants. Fā?imah, however, stood at

  • Fátima (Portugal)

    Fátima, village and sanctuary, central Portugal. It is located on the tableland of Cova da Iria, 18 miles (29 km) southeast of Leiria. Fátima was named for a 12th-century Moorish princess, and since 1917 it has been one of the greatest Marian shrines in the world, visited by thousands of pilgrims

  • Fatima, Our Lady of (Christianity)

    Fátima: …who identified herself as the Lady of the Rosary. On October 13, a crowd (generally estimated at about 70,000) gathered at Fátima witnessed a “miraculous solar phenomenon” immediately after the lady had appeared to the children. After initial opposition, the bishop of Leiria on October 13, 1930, accepted the children’s…

  • Fā?imah (daughter of Mu?ammad)

    Fā?imah, daughter of Muhammad (the founder of Islam) who in later centuries became the object of deep veneration by many Muslims, especially the Shī?ites. Muhammad had other sons and daughters, but they either died young or failed to produce a long line of descendants. Fā?imah, however, stood at

  • Fā?imī, ?usayn (Iranian politician)

    Hosayn Fatemi, Iranian politician who supported Mohammad Mosaddeq in his power struggle with Iran’s monarch, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi. Educated at Stewart Memorial College in E?fahān, Fatemi moved to Tehrān in 1938. There he became a contributor to the newspaper Bākhtar (“The West”), which was

  • Fā?imid dynasty (Islamic dynasty)

    Fā?imid Dynasty , political and religious dynasty that dominated an empire in North Africa and subsequently in the Middle East from ad 909 to 1171 and tried unsuccessfully to oust the ?Abbāsid caliphs as leaders of the Islāmic world. It took its name from Fā?imah, the daughter of the Prophet

  • Fatio de Duillier, Nicolas (Swiss mathematician)

    Isaac Newton: International prominence: His friendship with Fatio de Duillier, a Swiss-born mathematician resident in London who shared Newton’s interests, was the most profound experience of his adult life.

  • fatness (medical disorder)

    Obesity, excessive accumulation of body fat, usually caused by the consumption of more calories than the body can use. The excess calories are then stored as fat, or adipose tissue. Overweight, if moderate, is not necessarily obesity, particularly in muscular or large-boned individuals. Obesity was

  • Fatou set (mathematics)

    Gaston Maurice Julia: …said to belong to the Fatou set of the iteration and the latter to the Julia set of the iteration. Julia showed that, except in the simplest cases, the Julia set is infinite, and he described how it is related to the periodic points of the iteration (those that return…

  • Fatou, Pierre (French mathematician)

    Gaston Maurice Julia: …similar memoir by French mathematician Pierre Fatou, this created the foundations of the theory. Julia drew attention to a crucial distinction between points that tend to a limiting position as the iteration proceeds and those that never settle down. The former are now said to belong to the Fatou set…

  • Fats, Peter (Samoan athlete)

    Peter Fatialofa, Samoan rugby player who captained the national team of Western Samoa (now Samoa) in 1993 in its first rugby union international match. Fatialofa was born in New Zealand and spent part of his childhood with his father in Western Samoa before returning to Auckland. He played club

  • fatsia (plant species)

    Fatsia, (Fatsia japonica), evergreen shrub or small tree, in the ginseng family (Araliaceae), native to Japan but widely grown indoors for its striking foliage and easy care. In nature it can attain a height to 5 metres (16 feet); the glossy, dark-green leaves, roughly star-shaped, with 7 to 9

  • Fatsia japonica (plant species)

    Fatsia, (Fatsia japonica), evergreen shrub or small tree, in the ginseng family (Araliaceae), native to Japan but widely grown indoors for its striking foliage and easy care. In nature it can attain a height to 5 metres (16 feet); the glossy, dark-green leaves, roughly star-shaped, with 7 to 9

  • Fattā?ī (Persian author)

    Islamic arts: Parodies of classic forms: …Fantasy”) by the prolific writer Fattā?ī of Nīshāpūr (died 1448) and Gūy o-chowgān (“Ball and Polo-stick”) by ?ārefī (died 1449); the latter work is an elaboration of the cliché that the lover is helpless before the will of his beloved, just as the ball is subject to the will of…

  • Fattori, Giovanni (Italian artist)

    Macchiaioli: …the group was the Florentine Giovanni Fattori (1825–1908), who attained brilliant effects of light and colour by the use of strong colour patches. Other important painters of the group were the critic and theoretician Telemaco Signorini (1853–1901), who used colour with great sensitivity in his usually socially conscious scenes; Silvestro…

  • Fattorini, Gabriele (Italian composer)

    concerto: The Baroque vocal-instrumental concerto (c. 1585–1650): …expanding the scoring in one Gabriele Fattorini’s …Sacri concerti a due voci… (…Sacred Concerts for Two Voices…). This work appeared originally in 1600 merely “with a basso continuo for the greater convenience of organists” and only two years later was republished “with a new addition of some four-part ripieni [or…

  • fatty acid (chemical compound)

    Fatty acid, important component of lipids (fat-soluble components of living cells) in plants, animals, and microorganisms. Generally, a fatty acid consists of a straight chain of an even number of carbon atoms, with hydrogen atoms along the length of the chain and at one end of the chain and a

  • fatty acid mobilization (biology)

    lipid: Mobilization of fatty acids: In times of stress when the body requires energy, fatty acids are released from adipose cells and mobilized for use. The process begins when levels of glucagon and adrenaline in the blood increase and these hormones bind to specific receptors on…

  • fatty acid oxidation disorder (pathology)

    metabolic disease: Fatty acid oxidation defects: Some fatty acid oxidation disorders arise through dysfunction of carnitine transport enzymes, although most of these conditions are caused by fat-degrading enzymes directly involved in the beta-oxidation cycle itself. In individuals with inherited disorders of carnitine transport, a deficiency of carnitine may cause severe brain, liver,…

  • fatty acyl coenzyme A (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Formation of fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules: …that can be called a fatty acyl coenzyme A [21]. This step requires ATP, which is split into AMP and inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) in the process.

  • fatty acyl phosphate (chemical compound)

    metabolism: Formation of fatty acyl coenzyme A molecules: …require the formation of a fatty acyl phosphate—i.e., the phosphorylation of the fatty acid by using ATP; ADP is also a product [21c].

  • fatty alcohol (chemical compound)

    soap and detergent: …chain carbon group, such as fatty alcohols or alkylbenzene. The molecule must also contain a hydrophilic (water-soluble) group, such as ―COONa, or a sulfo group, such as ―OSO3Na or ―SO3Na (such as in fatty alcohol sulfate or alkylbenzene sulfonate), or a long ethylene oxide chain in nonionic synthetic detergents. This…

  • fatty liver disease (pathology)

    alcoholism: Chronic diseases: …of other liver conditions, including fatty liver disease and alcoholic hepatitis, as well as the risk of certain types of cancer, including head and neck cancer (e.g., oral cancer, pharyngeal cancer), esophageal cancer, liver cancer, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer.

  • fatty pad (anatomy)

    joint: The synovial layer: …into the bursal cavity as fatty pads (plicae adiposae); these are wedge-shaped in section, like a meniscus, with the base of the wedge against the fibrous capsule. The fatty pads are large in the elbow, knee, and ankle joints.

  • fatty plaque (pathology)

    arteriosclerosis: …connective tissue is called an atheroma, or fatty plaque. The bigger the plaque, the more it affects the size of the arterial lumen, the area through which the blood flows. If the wall of the vessel is overly thickened from a large atheroma or multiple atheromas, there will be decreased…

  • fatty tissue (anatomy)

    Adipose tissue, connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat, within a structural network of fibres. It is found mainly under the skin but also in deposits between the muscles, in the intestines and in

  • fatwa (Islamic law)

    Fatwa, in Islam, a formal ruling or interpretation on a point of Islamic law given by a qualified legal scholar (known as a mufti). Fatwas are usually issued in response to questions from individuals or Islamic courts. Though considered authoritative, fatwas are generally not treated as binding

  • Faubourg Saint Antoine, rue de (street, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Bastille: …la Nation, eastward along the rue du Faubourg Saint-Antoine, has been one of skilled craftsmen since the mid-15th century, when the self-governing royal abbey gave space within its wide domains to those cabinetmakers who refused to abide by the restrictions of Paris guilds as to styles and types of wood…

  • Faubourg Saint-Antoine, Battle of the (France [1652])

    Anne-Marie-Louise d'Orléans, duchess de Montpensier: …army from annihilation in the Battle of the Faubourg Saint-Antoine (July 2, 1652) by ordering the cannon of the Bastille to be fired against the royal troops. On Louis XIV’s return to Paris (October 1652), Montpensier went into exile until 1657. She was again exiled from court from 1662 to…

  • Faubourg Saint-Honoré, rue de (street, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Rue de Rivoli and Right Bank environs: …the rue Royale runs the rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré. In addition to the British embassy and the élysée Palace (residence of the French president), it has on its shop windows some of the most prestigious names in the Paris fashion trade.

  • Faubourg Sainte Marie (street, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States)

    New Orleans: The early 19th century: The Faubourg Sainte Marie became the “American section” in the early 19th century and the hub of most business activities. Other faubourgs (outskirts, or suburbs) were laid out above and below the two nuclear settlements and across the river and were finally absorbed into the city…

  • Faubus, Orval Eugene (American politician)

    Orval Eugene Faubus, U.S. politician who, as governor of Arkansas (1954–67), fought against the desegregation of Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Faubus, the son of a poor farmer, was a southern populist who supported New Deal policies. After his election as governor, he appointed six

  • Fauchard, Pierre (French surgeon)

    dentistry: Development of dentistry in Europe: …1728 a leading Parisian surgeon, Pierre Fauchard, gathered together all that was then known about dentistry in a monumental book, The Surgeon Dentist, or Treatise on the Teeth. In it he discussed and described all facets of diagnosis and treatment of dental diseases, including orthodontics, prosthetics, periodontal diseases, and oral…

  • Faucher, Paul (French author)

    children's literature: Overview: …year saw the start of Paul Faucher’s admirable Père Castor series, imaginatively conceived, beautifully designed educational picture books for the very young—not literature, perhaps, but historically comparable to Comenius. Finally, in 1934 appeared the first of Marcel Aymé’s miraculous stories about two little girls and the talking animals whose adventures…

  • Fauci, Anthony (American immunologist)

    Larry Kramer: Activism and ACT UP: ” One such person—Anthony Fauci of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a branch of the NIH—ultimately became an ally who invited AIDS activists to participate in NIH proceedings, from which they had previously been barred.

  • faucial diphtheria (disease)

    diphtheria: In faucial diphtheria, the most common type, the infection is limited mostly to the tonsillar region; most patients recover if properly treated with diphtheria antitoxin. In the most fatal form, nasopharyngeal diphtheria, the tonsillar infection spreads to the nose and throat structures, sometimes completely covering them…

  • faujasite (mineral)

    Faujasite, hydrated sodium and calcium aluminosilicate mineral that is a rare member of the zeolite family. Faujasite somewhat resembles chabazite in chemical composition, crystal structure, and distribution. Isolated specimens of the mineral have been found in sedimentary rocks in Germany and

  • Faulce beaulte (poem by Villon)

    Fran?ois Villon: Poetry: For example, the ballade “Fausse beauté, qui tant me couste chier” (“False beauty, for which I pay so dear a price”), addressed to his friend, a prostitute, not only supports a double rhyme pattern but is also an acrostic, with the first letter of each line of the first…

  • Faulconbridge, Philip (fictional character)

    King John: … (formerly Eleanor of Aquitaine), and Philip the Bastard, who supports the king and yet mocks all political and moral pretensions.

  • Faulhaber, Michael von (German cardinal)

    Michael von Faulhaber, German cardinal and archbishop of Munich who became a prominent opponent of the Nazis. Educated at Rome, Faulhaber was ordained in 1892. He taught at the German universities of Würzburg (1899–1903) and Strassburg (1903–11), subsequently serving as bishop of Speyer (1911–17)

  • Faulkner, Estelle (American literary figure)

    William Faulkner: The major novels: In 1929 he married Estelle Oldham—whose previous marriage, now terminated, had helped drive him into the RAF in 1918. One year later he bought Rowan Oak, a handsome but run-down pre-Civil War house on the outskirts of Oxford, restoration work on the house becoming, along with hunting, an important…

  • Faulkner, William (American author)

    William Faulkner, American novelist and short-story writer who was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize for Literature. As the eldest of the four sons of Murry Cuthbert and Maud Butler Falkner, William Faulkner (as he later spelled his name) was well aware of his family background and especially of his

  • Faulkner, William Cuthbert (American author)

    William Faulkner, American novelist and short-story writer who was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize for Literature. As the eldest of the four sons of Murry Cuthbert and Maud Butler Falkner, William Faulkner (as he later spelled his name) was well aware of his family background and especially of his

  • Faulks, Sebastian (British author)

    Birdsong: Sebastian Faulks, published in 1993.

  • fault (sports)

    handball: Principles of play.: …short ball, which is a fault. Two successive faults retire the side. In the one-wall game, if the ball lands beyond the long line, it is a long ball, also a fault; if it goes outside the sidelines, it is a handout—that is, the side (hand) serving loses service but…

  • fault (geology)

    Fault, in geology, a planar or gently curved fracture in the rocks of Earth’s crust, where compressional or tensional forces cause relative displacement of the rocks on the opposite sides of the fracture. Faults range in length from a few centimetres to many hundreds of kilometres, and displacement

  • fault (law)

    tort: Liability without fault: Whatever the original foundations of tortious liability, by the 19th century it had come to rest firmly upon the notion of fault. The principle that a human being should make good the harm caused by his fault seemed eminently…

  • fault block (geological region)

    Precambrian: Occurrence and distribution of Precambrian rocks: shields, provinces, or blocks. Some examples include: the North Atlantic craton that incorporates northwestern Scotland, central Greenland, and Labrador; the Kaapvaal and Zimbabwean cratons in southern Africa; the Dharwar craton in India

  • fault breccia (geology)

    fault: …it is referred to as fault breccia. Occasionally, the beds adjacent to the fault plane fold or bend as they resist slippage because of friction. Areas of deep sedimentary rock cover often show no surface indications of the faulting below.

  • fault gouge (geology)

    fault: …fine-grained, claylike substance known as fault gouge; when the crushed rock is relatively coarse-grained, it is referred to as fault breccia. Occasionally, the beds adjacent to the fault plane fold or bend as they resist slippage because of friction. Areas of deep sedimentary rock cover often show no surface indications…

  • Fault Lines (novel by Huston)

    Nancy Huston: …into French of her novel Fault Lines, originally written in English but not published in that language until 2007.

  • fault plane (geology)

    fault: …of inclination of a specific fault plane tends to be relatively uniform, it may differ considerably along its length from place to place. When rocks slip past each other in faulting, the upper or overlying block along the fault plane is called the hanging wall, or headwall; the block below…

  • fault tolerance (computing)

    computer science: Architecture and organization: Fault tolerance is the ability of a computer to continue operation when one or more of its components fails. To ensure fault tolerance, key components are often replicated so that the backup component can take over if needed. Such applications as aircraft control and manufacturing…

  • fault trap (geology)

    petroleum trap: …of structural trap is the fault trap. Here, the fracture and slippage of rock along a fault line may bring an impermeable stratum in contact with a layer of permeable reservoir rock and thus forms a barrier to petroleum migration.

  • fault-block mountain

    continental landform: Orogenic geomorphic systems: …following set of special attributes:

  • faun (mythical character)

    Faun, in Roman mythology, a creature that is part human and part goat, akin to a Greek satyr. The name faun is derived from Faunus, the name of an ancient Italic deity of forests, fields, and herds, who from the 2nd century bce was associated with the Greek god

  • Faun, House of the (building, Pompeii, Italy)

    Pompeii: Description of the remains: The House of the Faun occupies an entire city block and has two atria (chief rooms), four triclinia (dining rooms), and two large peristyle gardens. Its facade is built of fine-grained gray tufa from Nuceria, the chief building material of this period. The walls are decorated…

  • Fauna (Roman goddess)

    Fauna, in ancient Roman religion, a goddess of the fertility of woodlands, fields, and flocks; she was the counterpart—variously considered the wife, sister, or daughter—of Faunus

  • fauna and flora (biogeography)

    Faunal region, any of six or seven areas of the world defined by animal geographers on the basis of their distinctive animal life. These regions differ only slightly from the floristic regions (q.v.) of botanists. Each region more or less coincides with a major continental land mass, separated f

  • fauna and flora (ecological area)

    Floristic region, any of six areas of the world recognized by plant geographers for their distinctive plant life. These regions, which coincide closely with the faunal regions as mapped by animal geographers, are often considered with them as biogeographic regions. The chief difference is the

  • Fauna der Kieler Bucht (work by M?bius)

    Karl August M?bius: His Fauna der Kieler Bucht, 2 vol. (1865–72; “Fauna of Kiel Bay”), established an important methodology for modern ecology and helped secure his own appointment to the University of Kiel.

  • Fauna of Kiel Bay (work by M?bius)

    Karl August M?bius: His Fauna der Kieler Bucht, 2 vol. (1865–72; “Fauna of Kiel Bay”), established an important methodology for modern ecology and helped secure his own appointment to the University of Kiel.

  • faunal region (biogeography)

    Faunal region, any of six or seven areas of the world defined by animal geographers on the basis of their distinctive animal life. These regions differ only slightly from the floristic regions (q.v.) of botanists. Each region more or less coincides with a major continental land mass, separated f

  • faunal succession, law of (paleontology)

    Law of faunal succession, observation that assemblages of fossil plants and animals follow or succeed each other in time in a predictable manner, even when found in different places. Sequences of successive strata and their corresponding enclosed faunas have been matched together to form a

  • Faunce, Thomas (American settler)

    Plymouth Rock: …generally recognized until 1741, when Thomas Faunce spoke up to stop construction of a wharf that would have covered it. Faunce, then 94 years old, was the son of a settler who had arrived in Plymouth only three years after the Pilgrims. Legends soon became attached to the rock. According…

  • faunichron (geochronology)

    faunizone: …geologic time is called a faunichron.

  • faunizone (paleontology)

    Faunizone, stratigraphic unit that is distinguished by the presence of a particular fauna of some time or environmental significance. It differs from a biozone because it is based on a fossil assemblage rather than a particular genus or species (compare biozone). The corresponding unit of geologic

  • Fauntleroy, Cedric Errol, Lord (fictional character)

    Lord Fauntleroy, fictional character, a young American boy who becomes heir to an English earldom in Frances Hodgson Burnett’s sentimental novel Little Lord Fauntleroy

  • Fauntleroy, Lord (fictional character)

    Lord Fauntleroy, fictional character, a young American boy who becomes heir to an English earldom in Frances Hodgson Burnett’s sentimental novel Little Lord Fauntleroy

  • Faunus (ancient Italian god)

    Faunus, ancient Italian rural deity whose attributes in Classical Roman times were identified with those of the Greek god Pan. Faunus was originally worshipped throughout the countryside as a bestower of fruitfulness on fields and flocks. He eventually became primarily a woodland deity, the sounds

  • Faure, Camille (French engineer)

    automobile: Early electric automobiles: …1859–60 and its improvement by Camille Faure in 1881 made the electric vehicle possible, and what was probably the first, a tricycle, ran in Paris in 1881. It was followed by other three-wheelers in London (1882) and Boston (1888). The first American battery-powered automobile, built in Des Moines, Iowa, c.…

  • Faure, Edgar-Jean (prime minister of France)

    Edgar Faure, French lawyer and politician, premier (1952, 1955–56), and a prominent Gaullist during the Fifth Republic. The son of a military doctor, Faure studied Russian at the Paris School of Eastern Languages, later graduating from the Paris faculty of law and practicing in the capital.

  • Faure, Félix (president of France)

    Félix Faure, sixth president of the French Third Republic, whose presidency (January 15, 1895, to February 16, 1899) was marked by diplomatic conflicts with England, rapprochement with Russia, and the continuing problem of the Dreyfus Affair. After a successful career as an industrialist in Le

  • Faure, Fran?ois-Félix (president of France)

    Félix Faure, sixth president of the French Third Republic, whose presidency (January 15, 1895, to February 16, 1899) was marked by diplomatic conflicts with England, rapprochement with Russia, and the continuing problem of the Dreyfus Affair. After a successful career as an industrialist in Le

  • Fauré, Gabriel (French composer)

    Gabriel Fauré, composer whose refined and gentle music influenced the course of modern French music. Fauré’s musical abilities became apparent at an early age. When the Swiss composer and teacher Louis Niedermeyer heard the boy, he immediately accepted him as a pupil. Fauré studied piano with

  • Fauré, Gabriel-Urbain (French composer)

    Gabriel Fauré, composer whose refined and gentle music influenced the course of modern French music. Fauré’s musical abilities became apparent at an early age. When the Swiss composer and teacher Louis Niedermeyer heard the boy, he immediately accepted him as a pupil. Fauré studied piano with

  • Fauresmith industry (prehistoric toolmaking)

    Fauresmith industry, a sub-Saharan African stone tool industry dating from about 75,000 to 100,000 years ago. The Fauresmith industry is largely contemporaneous with the Sangoan industry, also of sub-Saharan Africa. The two industries apparently correspond to different habitats, however, Fauresmith

  • Fauriel, Claude (French scholar)

    Claude Fauriel, French scholar and writer who, through his interest in foreign literatures and cultures, contributed to the development of the study of comparative literature and to the revival of literary-historical studies. He was educated at the Oratorian colleges of Tournon and Lyons, but,

  • Fauro (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Shortland Islands: …607 feet (185 metres); and Fauro Island, which measures 10 by 6 miles (16 by 10 km) and rises to 1,312 feet (400 metres) at two points along a central ridge. The Shortlands, which have a total area of 160 square miles (414 square km), are planted with coconut palms…

  • Fauset, Jessie Redmon (American author)

    Jessie Redmon Fauset, African American novelist, critic, poet, and editor known for her discovery and encouragement of several writers of the Harlem Renaissance. Fauset graduated from Cornell University (B.A., 1905), and she later earned a master’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania (1919).

  • Fausse beaute (poem by Villon)

    Fran?ois Villon: Poetry: For example, the ballade “Fausse beauté, qui tant me couste chier” (“False beauty, for which I pay so dear a price”), addressed to his friend, a prostitute, not only supports a double rhyme pattern but is also an acrostic, with the first letter of each line of the first…

  • Fausse beauté, qui tant me couste chier (poem by Villon)

    Fran?ois Villon: Poetry: For example, the ballade “Fausse beauté, qui tant me couste chier” (“False beauty, for which I pay so dear a price”), addressed to his friend, a prostitute, not only supports a double rhyme pattern but is also an acrostic, with the first letter of each line of the first…

  • Fausses Apparences, Les (work by Bellecour)

    Bellecour: He wrote a successful play, Les Fausses Apparences (“The False Appearances”), in 1761.

  • Faust (literary character)

    Faust, hero of one of the most durable legends in Western folklore and literature, the story of a German necromancer or astrologer who sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and power. There was a historical Faust, indeed perhaps two, one of whom more than once alluded to the devil

  • Faust (poem by Campo)

    Estanislao del Campo: …Opera”; published in English as Faust).

  • Faust (play by Goethe)

    Faust, two-part dramatic work by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Part I was published in 1808 and Part II in 1832, after the author’s death. The supreme work of Goethe’s later years, Faust is sometimes considered Germany’s greatest contribution to world literature. Part I sets out the magician Faust’s

  • Faust (opera by Gounod)

    Faust, opera in five (or sometimes four) acts by French composer Charles Gounod (French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré) that premiered in Paris on March 19, 1859. The work draws upon Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s two-part play based on the German legend of a man who sells his soul to the

  • Faust (film by ?vankmajer)

    Jan ?vankmajer: …famous work, Lekce Faust (1993; Faust), gave a new spin to the familiar tale of the Faustian bargain. The film is set in a foreboding puppet theatre that lures the main character inside. There he experiences a strange version of the Faust play, which includes giant puppets and clay figures…

  • Faust Symphony (work by Liszt)

    program music: …specifically programmatic works—such as the Faust Symphony and some of his symphonic poems—are not often performed. In Liszt’s works without written program, notably the Piano Sonata in B Minor and his two piano concerti, similar types of moods are expressed in a style resembling that of the symphonic poems.

  • Faust, Drew Gilpin (American educator and historian)

    Drew Gilpin Faust, American educator and historian who was the first female president of Harvard University (2007–18). Gilpin grew up in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley, where her parents raised Thoroughbred horses. She graduated from Concord (Massachusetts) Academy in 1964 and received a B.A. in

  • Faust: Ein Gedicht (work by Lenau)

    Nikolaus Lenau: Lenau’s Faust: Ein Gedicht (published 1836, revised 1840) is noticeably derivative of Goethe’s, but Lenau’s version has Faust confronting an absurd life that is devoid of any absolute values, the same position in which Lenau felt himself to be. Lenau’s lifelong mental illness resulted in a…

  • Faustbuch (German literature)

    Faust: …anonymous author of the first Faustbuch (1587), a collection of tales about the ancient magi—who were wise men skilled in the occult sciences—that were retold in the Middle Ages about such other reputed wizards as Merlin, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon. In the Faustbuch the acts of these men were…

  • Faustian bargain

    Faustian bargain, a pact whereby a person trades something of supreme moral or spiritual importance, such as personal values or the soul, for some worldly or material benefit, such as knowledge, power, or riches. The term refers to the legend of Faust (or Faustus, or Doctor Faustus), a character in

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