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  • Finance Corporation of Nicaragua (Nicaraguan government)

    Nicaragua: Finance: …been dominated by the government-owned Finance Corporation of Nicaragua, an amalgamation of the country’s banks established in 1980, but by the early 21st century, several private banks and microfinance institutions had been established.

  • financial accounting (accounting)

    accounting: Company financial statements: …branch of accounting known as financial accounting.

  • Financial Accounting Standards Board (American organization)

    accounting: Measurement standards: …partly the work of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), a private body. Within the United States, however, the principles or standards issued by the FASB or any other accounting board can be overridden by the SEC.

  • Financial Action Task Force (intergovernmental body)

    Grenada: Independence: …the crosshairs of the Paris-based Financial Action Task Force (FATF), which described Grenada’s system for dealing with money laundering as having “serious deficiencies.” On one day in March 2001, 17 Grenadian banks were closed down, all of them linked to the First International Bank of Grenada, which had collapsed in…

  • financial analysis (business)

    marketing: Annual-plan control: In contrast, financial analysis estimates such expenses (along with others) from a corporate perspective. This includes a comparison of profits to sales (profit margin), sales to assets (asset turnover), profits to assets (return on assets), assets to worth (financial leverage), and, finally, profits to worth (return on…

  • Financial Arbitration Court (French political body)

    France: The development of central government: …of secondary importance, while the Financial Arbitration Court (Grande Direction des Finances) was an administrative tribunal that settled disputes between the state and individuals or corporations. Each of these subdivisions of the king’s council contained more members than the exclusive High Council, made up of the secretaries of state and…

  • financial capital (economics)
  • financial crisis (global economics)

    Financial crisis of 2007–08, severe contraction of liquidity in global financial markets that originated in the United States as a result of the collapse of the U.S. housing market. It threatened to destroy the international financial system; caused the failure (or near-failure) of several major

  • financial crisis of 2007–08 (global economics)

    Financial crisis of 2007–08, severe contraction of liquidity in global financial markets that originated in the United States as a result of the collapse of the U.S. housing market. It threatened to destroy the international financial system; caused the failure (or near-failure) of several major

  • financial economics (economics)

    economics: Financial economics: Although news about the stock market has come to dominate financial journalism, only since the late 20th century was the stock market recognized as an institution suitable for economic analysis. This recognition turned on a changed understanding of the “efficient market hypothesis,” which…

  • financial forecasting (economics)

    business finance: Financial forecasting: The financial manager must also make overall forecasts of future capital requirements to ensure that funds will be available to finance new investment programs. The first step in making such a forecast is to obtain an estimate of sales during each year of…

  • financial futures (economics)

    Futures, commercial contract calling for the purchase or sale of specified quantities of a commodity at specified future dates. The origin of futures contracts was in trade in agricultural commodities, and the term commodity is used to define the underlying asset even though the contract is

  • Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (American organization)

    over-the-counter market: …Stock Exchange to form the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which became the main regulatory body of that market in the United States. Although retail prices of over-the-counter transactions are not publicly reported, interdealer prices for the issues have been published since February 1965 by NASD and later FINRA.

  • financial institution

    security: The marketing of new issues: …foreign lending by United States financial institutions and on direct foreign investment by United States corporations. As a result, a number of multinational corporations headquartered in the United States were forced to seek financing in overseas securities markets for the expanding business of their foreign subsidiaries. United States and foreign…

  • Financial Interest and Syndication Rules (American television)

    Television in the United States: The Prime Time Access Rule and fin-syn: The Financial Interest and Syndication Rules (popularly known as “fin-syn”) were created at the same time as the Prime Time Access Rule. These forbade networks to retain any financial interest, including that derived from syndication rights, in any programs that they did not own entirely, which…

  • financial intermediary (economics)

    finance: …savers to users are called financial intermediaries. They include commercial banks, savings banks, savings and loan associations, and such nonbank institutions as credit unions, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, and finance companies.

  • financial leverage ratio (finance)

    capital structure: This is known as “leverage” or “trading on the equity.” In a capital structure of $100,000, for example, of which $50,000 represents bondholders’ investment at an interest rate of 5 percent and $50,000 represents equity, total earnings of $10,000 would represent a return of 10 percent on the total…

  • financial management (business)

    corporate finance: …the job of a corporation’s financial manager or managers to conduct both of the aforementioned functions in a manner that maximizes shareholder wealth, or stock price. Financial managers must balance the interests of owners, or shareholders; creditors, including banks and bondholders; and other parties, such as employees, suppliers, and customers.…

  • financial market (economics)

    Financial market, arena in which prices form to enable the exchange of financial assets to be executed. Given the advent of electronic trading systems, financial markets can now be structured in many ways. Historically, they were physical meeting places in which traders came into face-to-face

  • financial planning (economics)

    business finance: Financial planning and control: Short-term financial operations are closely involved with the financial planning and control activities of a firm. These include financial ratio analysis, profit planning, financial forecasting, and budgeting.

  • financial programming (economics)

    International Monetary Fund: Financing balance-of-payments deficits: …an analytic framework known as financial programming, which was first fully formulated by IMF staff economist Jacques Polak in 1957, to determine the amount of the loan and the macroeconomic adjustments and structural reforms needed to reestablish the country’s balance-of-payments equilibrium. The IMF has several financing programs, or facilities, for…

  • financial ratio analysis (accounting)

    business finance: Financial ratio analysis: A firm’s balance sheet contains many items that, taken by themselves, have no clear meaning. Financial ratio analysis is a way of appraising their relative importance. The ratio of current assets to current liabilities, for example, gives the analyst an idea of…

  • financial reform bill (United States [2010])

    Federal Reserve System: …authorized in 2010 by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the CFPB assumed some functions of the former Consumer Advisory Council, which existed from 1976 to 2011). There are several thousand member banks.

  • Financial Services Authority (British government agency)

    United Kingdom: Finance: …1997 the government established the Financial Services Authority (FSA) to regulate the financial services industry; it replaced a series of separate supervisory organizations, some of them based on self-regulation. Among other tasks, the FSA took over the supervision of the United Kingdom’s commercial banks from the Bank of England. The…

  • Financial Services Modernization Act (United States [1999])

    Sanford I. Weill: In 1999 the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act was signed into law; it repealed the barriers of the Glass-Steagall Act. Thus, the merger was able to be completed, and in 1999 Weill became cochairman and co-CEO of Citigroup, then the largest financial services company in the world.

  • financial statement (accounting)

    Financial statement, any report of the financial condition or of the financial results of the operations of a business, a government, or other organization. The term is most often used in a more limited sense in trade and financial circles to refer to the balance sheet, statement of income, and

  • Financial Statement and Budget Report (British government publication)

    government budget: Components of the budget: …in a separate volume entitled Financial Statement and Budget Report. This gives a general outline of budgetary strategy, details of proposed tax changes, and estimates of likely revenues, as well as details of such items as capital receipts from asset sales and the size of the contingency reserve of unallocated…

  • financial system

    economic system: From industrial to state capitalism: …the unprecedented growth of international finance to the point that, by the beginning of the 21st century, the total value of transactions in foreign exchange was estimated to be at least 20 times that of all foreign movements of goods and services. This boundary-blind internationalization of finance, combined with the…

  • Financial Times (British newspaper)

    Financial Times, newspaper edited in London that traditionally had strong influence on the financial policies of the British government. Its paper version is printed Monday through Saturday throughout the world, and it is known as one of England’s superior newspapers. The Financial Times was

  • Financial Times Stock Exchange index (stock price index)

    Marjorie Scardino: …first woman to head an FTSE 100 company. (FTSE, which became an independent company, got its name from its origins as a joint venture between the Financial Times [FT] newspaper and the London Stock Exchange.) She swiftly charted new directions by selling peripheral businesses such as Mindscape, a money-losing technology…

  • Financier, The (novel by Dreiser)

    The Financier, novel by Theodore Dreiser, published in 1912, the first book of an epic series called the Trilogy of Desire, based on the life of Charles T. Yerkes, an American transportation magnate. The other two volumes are The Titan (1914) and The Stoic, which was completed by Dreiser’s wife

  • Finanzkapital, Das (work by Hilferding)

    Rudolf Hilferding: …the way Marx expected, Hilferding’s Finance Capital (1910) pointed to the role of banking and finance, arguing that the banks’ increasing influence over industry led to monopoly and cartels and through them to economic imperialism and war. This work foreshadowed his role as the party’s chief theorist and financial expert.…

  • finasteride (drug)

    antiandrogen: An inhibitor of this enzyme, finasteride, was designed as a treatment for benign prostatic hypertrophy. When it is administered to men with moderately severe symptoms, urine flow increases and prostatic volume decreases. Impotence is an infrequent side effect of the use of finasteride, which is also approved for the topical…

  • finback whale (mammal)

    Fin whale, (Balaenoptera physalus), a slender baleen whale, second in size to the blue whale and distinguishable by its asymmetrical coloration. The fin whale is generally gray with a white underside, but the right side of the head has a light gray area, a white lower jaw, and white baleen at the

  • finca comercializada (agriculture)

    Venezuela: Agriculture, fishing, and forestry: First are fincas comercializados (commercial crop farms), which usually cover more than 50 acres (20 hectares), employ wage labourers, have some farm machinery, and use fertilizers and pesticides. These modernized farms have benefited from government provisions of credit. In addition, they have had easy access to both…

  • finca grandera (agriculture)

    Venezuela: Agriculture, fishing, and forestry: The third type are the fincas granderas (large pastoral farms), which often encompass more than 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares). These are commonly found in the Llanos, where unenclosed land is used for grazing cattle on the low-quality grasses. The cattle are herded and traded in yearly meetings called rodeos (roundups).

  • FINCA International (nongovernmental organization)

    FINCA International, nongovernmental organization (NGO) that provides financial services for the world’s poorest populations. FINCA International offers banking services, insurance, and small loans to poor individuals at relatively modest interest rates and fees (microcredit). FINCA was founded in

  • finch (bird)

    Finch, any of several hundred species of small conical-billed, seed-eating songbirds (order Passeriformes). Well-known or interesting birds classified as finches include the bunting, canary, cardinal, chaffinch, crossbill, Galapagos finch, goldfinch, grass finch, grosbeak, sparrow, and weaver.

  • Finch, Atticus (fictional character)

    Ed Harris: …Harris returned to Broadway, portraying Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird, an adaptation of Harper Lee’s acclaimed novel.

  • Finch, Frederick George Peter Ingle (British actor)

    Peter Finch, English actor who was noted for his ability to portray complex characters with subtlety and warmth. While Finch was a toddler, his parents divorced owing to his mother’s extramarital affair, and it was not until decades later that Peter discovered that George Ingle Finch, a chemist and

  • Finch, Peter (British actor)

    Peter Finch, English actor who was noted for his ability to portray complex characters with subtlety and warmth. While Finch was a toddler, his parents divorced owing to his mother’s extramarital affair, and it was not until decades later that Peter discovered that George Ingle Finch, a chemist and

  • Finch, Robert (Canadian poet)

    Robert Finch, American-born Canadian poet whose gift for satire found an outlet in lyrics characterized by irony, metaphysical wit, complex imagery, and a strong sense of form. Finch was educated at the University of Toronto, to which he returned as a professor of French after three years in Paris.

  • Finch, Robert Duer Claydon (Canadian poet)

    Robert Finch, American-born Canadian poet whose gift for satire found an outlet in lyrics characterized by irony, metaphysical wit, complex imagery, and a strong sense of form. Finch was educated at the University of Toronto, to which he returned as a professor of French after three years in Paris.

  • Finch, Spencer (American artist)

    September 11 attacks: One World Trade Center and the National September 11 Memorial and Museum: …blue watercolour with which artist Spencer Finch attempted to capture the colour of the sky on the day of the September 11 attacks. At the centre of the tiles is a quote from Virgil’s Aeneid:

  • Fincher, David (American director)

    David Fincher, American music video and film director known for his stylish movies, which usually trended toward the dark and atmospheric. Fincher was raised in San Anselmo, California, where he became interested in movies at a young age, in part because he was a neighbour of filmmaker George

  • Fincher, David Leo (American director)

    David Fincher, American music video and film director known for his stylish movies, which usually trended toward the dark and atmospheric. Fincher was raised in San Anselmo, California, where he became interested in movies at a young age, in part because he was a neighbour of filmmaker George

  • Finching, Flora (fictional character)

    Flora Finching, fictional character in the novel Little Dorrit (1855–57) by Charles Dickens. Flora, the daughter of mean-spirited Christopher Casby, is a widow who was once a sweetheart of Arthur Clennam and still cherishes a passion for him. Now middle-aged, Flora retains a fluttery girlishness;

  • Findeisen, Walter (German meteorologist)

    Earth sciences: Cloud physics: …theory of Tor Bergson and Walter Findeisen, vapour freezing on ice crystals in the clouds enlarges the crystals until they fall. What finally hits the ground depends on the temperature of air below the cloud—if below freezing, snow; if above, rain.

  • Finders Keepers (novel by King)

    Stephen King: Mercedes (2014), Finders Keepers (2015), and End of Watch (2016) formed a trilogy of hard-boiled crime novels centring on retired detective Bill Hodges. King also wrote a serial novel, The Dark Tower, whose first installment, The Gunslinger, appeared in 1982; an eighth volume was published in 2012.…

  • Findhorn Foundation (Scottish theosophical group)

    New Age movement: Origins: For example, Scotland’s Findhorn Foundation believed that its purported contact with a variety of nature spirits produced spectacular agricultural feats, despite the poor soil and climate of the group’s settlement.

  • Finding Dory (film by Stanton [2016])

    Albert Brooks: …the role in the sequel Finding Dory (2016).

  • Finding Nemo (animated film by Stanton and Unkrich [2003])

    John Lasseter: …monster and human worlds, and Finding Nemo (2003), about a clownfish’s oceanic search for his son.

  • Finding Neverland (film by Forster [2004])

    Johnny Depp: Pirates of the Caribbean and Academy Award nominations: Barrie in Finding Neverland (2004). Depp reprised the role of Sparrow in later installments of the Pirates of the Caribbean series: Dead Man’s Chest (2006), At World’s End (2007), On Stranger Tides (2011), and Dead Men Tell No Tales (2017), which were among the highest-grossing films ever.…

  • Finding the Islands (poetry by Merwin)

    W.S. Merwin: The Compass Flower (1977) and Finding the Islands (1982) diverge into more positive territory, though many critics dismissed the love poems that heralded the change in tone as unsuccessful. The love poems in The Rain in the Trees (1988), however, were lauded as more realistic. Travels (1993) turns to the…

  • Findlay (Ohio, United States)

    Findlay, city, seat (1828) of Hancock county, northwestern Ohio, U.S. It lies along the Blanchard River, 47 miles (76 km) south of Toledo. The site was laid out by Joseph Vance and Elnathan Corry in 1821 and named for Col. James Findlay, who had built Fort Findlay, a local outpost in the War of

  • Findlay Arch (geological structure, United States)

    Cincinnati Arch: …north-northeast, is known as the Findlay Arch.

  • Findley, Timothy (Canadian author)

    Timothy Findley, Canadian author known for his intelligent writing and storytelling. His subject matter is often the lives of troubled individuals. Poor health caused Findley to abandon formal education after the ninth grade. At age 17 he began a 15-year acting career that led to roles in several

  • Findley, Timothy Irving Frederick (Canadian author)

    Timothy Findley, Canadian author known for his intelligent writing and storytelling. His subject matter is often the lives of troubled individuals. Poor health caused Findley to abandon formal education after the ninth grade. At age 17 he began a 15-year acting career that led to roles in several

  • FINE (fair trade working group)

    fair trade: History: …an informal working group called FINE (an acronym of the names of the member organizations). FINE was dedicated to increasing worldwide awareness of the fair trade movement through active campaigning in political circles and organizing public events.

  • fine (law)

    prison: Fines: The most common penalty is the fine. For example, in the 1980s in England, about four-fifths of all defendants found guilty of crimes were fined. The imposition of a fine acts as a simple penalty that avoids the disadvantages of many other forms of…

  • Fine and Private Place, A (work by Callaghan)

    Morley Callaghan: …Fitzgerald and Ernest Hemingway, and A Fine and Private Place (1975), the story of an author who wants artistic recognition in his own country. The critic Edmund Wilson referred to Callaghan as the most unjustly neglected writer in the English language.

  • Fine Art Fund (international investment group)

    art market: The 21st century: …the £214 million ($350 million) Fine Art Fund was the first investment vehicle to experiment with the art market on a scale comparable to that undertaken by the British Rail Trust nearly 30 years before. Its inception was soon followed by the creation of several other funds with portfolios centred…

  • Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (institute, San Francisco, California, United States)

    Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco (FAMSF), institute in San Francisco, California, comprising two separate museums, the de Young and the Legion of Honor. Together the museums contain the city’s largest art collection. The de Young, located in Golden Gate Park and founded in 1895, is the older of

  • Fine Arts, Academy of (academy, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Western painting: Russia: In 1757 the Academy of Fine Arts was founded in St. Petersburg, and foreign artists—mostly French—were invited to direct the new school. These trained some remarkable native portraitists, such as Ivan Argunov, Anton Losenko, and Fyodor Rokotov. Their works reflected the ceremonial character of Elizabeth’s tastes and showed…

  • Fine Arts, Academy of (academy, Paris, France)

    Paul Cézanne: Early life and work: …Gustave Courbet, and the official Académie des Beaux-Arts, which rejected from its annual exhibition—and thus from public acceptance—all paintings not in the academic Neoclassical or Romantic styles. In 1863 the emperor Napoleon III decreed the opening of a Salon des Refusés to counter the growing agitation in artistic circles over…

  • Fine Arts, Museum of (cultural centre, Boston, Massachusetts, United States)

    Museum of Fine Arts, cultural centre in Boston, Mass., U.S., whose balanced collections have made it one of the world’s most comprehensive art museums. The museum was founded in 1870 with the art holdings of the Boston Athenaeum library as the nucleus of its collection. The Museum of Fine Arts has

  • Fine Arts, Museum of (museum, Caracas, Venezuela)

    Museum of Fine Arts, museum in Caracas, Venez., containing a variety of international and Venezuelan art, and also possessing fine gardens. It adjoins the Gallery of National Art (Galería de Arte Nacional), one of the few museums in South America founded to show the national cultural identity of

  • Fine Arts, Museum of (museum, Valenciennes, France)

    Valenciennes: …University of Valenciennes and the Museum of Fine Arts, which displays works by such masters as Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony Van Dyck, as well as notable local painters, including Antoine Watteau and Henri Harpignies. Pop. (1999) 41,278; (2014 est.) 43,787.

  • Fine Arts, Palace of (cultural centre, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Palace of Fine Arts, cultural centre in Mexico City that was built between 1904 and 1934. The palace contains a large theatre, concert hall, museum of popular arts, and halls and galleries for paintings and other works of art. Balcony lobbies display murals by Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco,

  • Fine Arts, Palace of (building, Brussels, Belgium)

    Brussels: Cultural life: The Palace of Fine Arts, designed by Horta and opened in 1928, provides a cultural centre for those interested in the visual arts, film, music, literature, and the theatre. Most of the city’s large-scale art exhibitions are presented there, and it is also the headquarters of…

  • Fine Balance, A (novel by Mistry)

    Rohinton Mistry: A Fine Balance (1995), which also received the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize as well as the Giller Prize for best Canadian novel, was another study of Parsis living at close quarters in varying degrees of harmony during difficult times, in this case India’s 1975 state of…

  • fine ceramics (ceramics)

    Advanced ceramics, substances and processes used in the development and manufacture of ceramic materials that exhibit special properties. Ceramics, as is pointed out in the article ceramic composition and properties, are traditionally described as inorganic, nonmetallic solids that are prepared

  • fine china (pottery)

    whiteware: Products: …suiting it to commercial use; fine china (including bone china), a highly vitreous, translucent tableware; and sanitary plumbing fixtures.

  • Fine Clothes to the Jew (work by Hughes)

    Langston Hughes: …a second collection of poetry, Fine Clothes to the Jew (1927), which was criticized by some for its title and for its frankness, though Hughes himself felt that it represented another step forward in his writing.

  • fine coal

    coal mining: Levels of cleaning: 5 millimetres) and fine coal (less than 12.5 millimetres); the coarse coal is cleaned to remove impurities; the fine coal is added to the cleaned coarse coal or marketed as a separate product.

  • Fine Gael (political party, Ireland)

    Fine Gael, (Irish: “Irish Race” or “Gaelic Nation”) centrist political party that has provided the major political opposition to the Fianna Fáil party in Ireland. Fine Gael was founded in September 1933 in the amalgamation of Cumann na nGaedheal (“Party of the Irish”)—the party of William Thomas

  • Fine Madness, A (film by Kersher [1966])

    Irvin Kershner: From B-24s to Laura Mars: … as husband and wife; and A Fine Madness (1966) featured Sean Connery as an irreverent poet whose outbursts of violence earn him a lobotomy. In 1967 Kershner directed The Flim-Flam Man, a profile of a Southern con man played by George C. Scott.

  • Fine Mess, A (film by Edwards [1986])

    Blake Edwards: Later films: …philandering husband, and the disappointing A Fine Mess (1986) followed.

  • fine particulate matter (pollution)

    air pollution: Fine particulates: Very small fragments of solid materials or liquid droplets suspended in air are called particulates. Except for airborne lead, which is treated as a separate category (see below), they are characterized on the basis of size and phase (i.e., solid or liquid) rather than…

  • fine print

    Printmaking, an art form consisting of the production of images, usually on paper but occasionally on fabric, parchment, plastic, or other support, by various techniques of multiplication, under the direct supervision of or by the hand of the artist. Such fine prints, as they are known

  • fine structure (spectroscopy)

    Fine structure, in spectroscopy, the splitting of the main spectral lines of an atom into two or more components, each representing a slightly different wavelength. Fine structure is produced when an atom emits light in making the transition from one energy state to another. The split lines, which

  • fine tuning (electronics)

    television: Controls: …touch-button control that sets the fine tuning and also adjusts the hue, saturation, contrast, and brightness to preset ranges. These automatic adjustments override the settings of the corresponding separate controls, which then function over narrow ranges only. Such refinements permit reception of acceptable quality by viewers who might otherwise be…

  • Fine, Arthur (philosopher)

    philosophy of science: The antirealism of van Fraassen, Laudan, and Fine: …formulated by both Laudan and Arthur Fine, charges that the popular defenses of realism beg the question. Realists try to convince their opponents by suggesting that only a realist view of unobservables will explain the success of science. In doing so, however, they presuppose that the fact that a certain…

  • Fine, Larry (American actor)

    the Three Stooges: May 4, 1975, Los Angeles), Larry Fine (original name Louis Feinberg; b. October 5, 1902, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania—d. January 24, 1975, Woodland Hills, California), Curly Howard (original name Jerome Horwitz; b. October 22, 1903, New York City—d. January 18, 1952, San Gabriel, California), Joe Besser (b. August 12, 1907, St. Louis,…

  • fine-needle aspiration biopsy (medicine)

    cancer: Biopsy: fine-needle aspiration biopsy, yields cells rather than a tissue sample, so the pathologist is able to assess only cellular features and not the architectural characteristics of the tissue suspected of harbouring a tumour. Nevertheless, fine-needle aspiration has many positive qualities. It is relatively painless and…

  • fine-structure constant (physics)

    fine structure: …a dimensionless constant called the fine-structure constant. This constant is given by the equation α = ke2/hc, where k is Coulomb’s constant, e is the charge of the electron, h is Planck’s constant, and c is the speed of light. The value of the constant α is 7.29735254 × 10?3,…

  • fine-tuning problem (astronomy)

    dark energy: …is known as the “coincidence problem” or the “fine-tuning problem.” Understanding the nature of dark energy and its many related problems is one of the most formidable challenges in modern physics.

  • fineness (cement)

    cement: Fineness: Fineness was long controlled by sieve tests, but more sophisticated methods are now largely used. The most common method, used both for control of the grinding process and for testing the finished cement, measures the surface area per unit weight of the cement by…

  • fineness (gold and silver)

    gold processing: Assaying: “Fineness” refers to parts per thousand of gold in an alloy; e.g., three-nines fine would correspond to gold of 99.9 percent purity.

  • Finerman, Wendy (American producer)
  • finery process (metallurgy)

    Finery process, Early method of converting cast iron to wrought iron, superseding the bloomery process after blast furnaces became widespread. Pieces of cast iron (see pig iron) were placed on a finery hearth, on which charcoal was being burned with a plentiful supply of air, so that carbon in the

  • fines (ore)

    iron processing: Lumps and fines: As-mined iron ore contains lumps of varying size, the biggest being more than 1 metre (40 inches) across and the smallest about 1 millimetre (0.04 inch). The blast furnace, however, requires lumps between 7 and 25 millimetres, so the ore must be crushed…

  • fines herbes (seasoning)

    burnet: …used as an ingredient in fines herbes, a mixture of herbs commonly used in French cuisine. The dried leaves are also used to make tea.

  • finfoot (bird)

    Finfoot, (family Heliornithidae), any of three species of medium-sized lobe-footed, semiaquatic birds found in tropical regions around the world. They constitute a family that superficially resembles cormorants but are actually members of the crane order (Gruiformes). Finfoots are named for the

  • Fingal (work by Macpherson)

    James Macpherson: …Gallic or Erse Language (1760), Fingal (1762), and Temora (1763), claiming that much of their content was based on a 3rd-century Gaelic poet, Ossian. No Gaelic manuscripts date back beyond the 10th century. The authenticity of Ossian was supported by Blair, looked on with skepticism by the Scottish philosopher David…

  • Fingal (county, Ireland)

    Fingal, county in the province of Leinster, eastern Ireland. The county of Fingal was created in 1994 when the geographic county of Dublin was split administratively into three separate units. Fingal now constitutes the northern component of the Greater Dublin metropolitan area. Swords is the

  • Fingal’s Cave (overture by Mendelssohn)

    The Hebrides, Op. 26, concert overture (resembling an operatic overture, though intended for concert performance rather than as a prelude to a theatrical work) by German composer Felix Mendelssohn, a tempestuous one-movement work in sonata form, inspired by the composer’s visit to the Hebrides

  • Fingal’s Cave (cave, Staffa, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Fingal’s Cave, most famous of the sea caves in the basalt southwest coast of Staffa, an island of the Inner Hebrides, western Scotland. Estimates of its length vary between 227 feet (69 metres) and 270 feet (82 metres), and its arched roof is said to reach between 66 feet (20 metres) and 72 feet

  • finger (measurement)

    Finger, ancient and medieval measure of 18yard, or 4 12inches (11.4 cm), used primarily to measure lengths of cloth. The finger derives ultimately from the digitus, the smallest of the basic Roman linear measures. From the digitus came the English nail, which equaled 34inch, or 116foot. The nail

  • finger (anatomy)

    joint: Ellipsoid joint: …first phalanx of the second finger is a good example. It allows the finger to flex and extend, to swing toward or away from its neighbouring finger, and to swing forward with a slight amount of rotation.

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