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  • Finnboga saga ramma (Icelandic literature)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: Among them are the Finnboga saga ramma (“Saga of Finnbogi the Strong”), about a 10th-century hero, and a saga that tells the love story of its hero Víglundr. Sagas about bishops, already a theme in the 13th century, became more numerous, as did lives of foreign saints. A large…

  • Finnbogadóttir, Vigdís (president of Iceland)

    Vigdís Finnbogadóttir, Icelandic teacher, cultural figure, and politician who served as president of Iceland from 1980 to 1996. She was the first woman in the world to be elected head of state in a national election. Finnbogadóttir was born into a wealthy and well-connected family. Her mother

  • finned octopod (cephalopod suborder)

    cephalopod: Annotated classification: Suborder Palaeoctopoda (finned octopod) Cretaceous, some living. Suborder Cirrata (Cirromorpha) Holocene; soft-bodied, deep-webbed forms with cirri on arms and small to large paddle-shaped fins; primarily deep-sea. Suborder Incirrata (common octopus)

  • Finnegans Wake (novel by Joyce)

    Finnegans Wake, experimental novel by James Joyce. Extracts of the work appeared as Work in Progress from 1928 to 1937, and it was published in its entirety as Finnegans Wake in 1939. Finnegans Wake is a complex novel that blends the reality of life with a dream world. The motive idea of the novel,

  • Finney, Albert (British actor)

    Albert Finney, English actor noted for his versatility. Finney established himself as a Shakespearean actor in the late 1950s. In 1960 he won praise in the roles of working-class rebels in the play Billy Liar and the film Saturday Night and Sunday Morning. Taking on additional leading parts, Finney

  • Finney, Charles Grandison (American evangelist)

    Charles Grandison Finney, American lawyer, president of Oberlin College, and a central figure in the religious revival movement of the early 19th century; he is sometimes called the first of the professional evangelists. After teaching school briefly, Finney studied law privately and entered the

  • Finney, Jack (American writer)

    Walter Braden Finney, ("JACK"), U.S. writer (born 1911, Milwaukee, Wis.—died Nov. 14, 1995, Greenbrae, Calif.), was the author of 10 novels as well as short stories and plays, but his fame rested on 2 novels that were especially well known. The Body Snatchers (1955; republished as Invasion of the B

  • Finney, Sir Thomas (British athlete)

    Sir Tom Finney, (Sir Thomas Finney; “Preston Plumber”), British association football (soccer) player (born April 5, 1922, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 2014), was one of England’s most-admired post-World War II players and the backbone of the Preston North End Football Club (1946–60).

  • Finney, Sir Tom (British athlete)

    Sir Tom Finney, (Sir Thomas Finney; “Preston Plumber”), British association football (soccer) player (born April 5, 1922, Preston, Lancashire, Eng.—died Feb. 14, 2014), was one of England’s most-admired post-World War II players and the backbone of the Preston North End Football Club (1946–60).

  • Finney, Walter Braden (American writer)

    Walter Braden Finney, ("JACK"), U.S. writer (born 1911, Milwaukee, Wis.—died Nov. 14, 1995, Greenbrae, Calif.), was the author of 10 novels as well as short stories and plays, but his fame rested on 2 novels that were especially well known. The Body Snatchers (1955; republished as Invasion of the B

  • Finnic languages

    Finno-Ugric languages: …classified together as the Volga-Finnic group of languages. Also, because the dialects of Sami are almost mutually unintelligible, they are often classified as separate languages.

  • Finnic peoples

    Finnic peoples, descendants of a collection of tribal peoples speaking closely related languages of the Finno-Ugric family who migrated to the area of the eastern Baltic, Finland, and Karelia before ad 400—probably between 100 bc and ad 100, though some authorities place the migration many

  • finning (commercial fishing)

    shark: Shark finning: Among the threats from humans that sharks face is finning, the practice of harvesting the lateral and dorsal fins and the lower tail fin from a shark by commercial fishing operations and others worldwide. After the shark has been captured and its fins have…

  • Finnis, John Mitchell (Australian legal scholar)

    philosophy of law: John Finnis: John Finnis took a more-ambitious philosophical tack against positivism than Dworkin did. He argued that any theory of a social phenomenon, including law, must identify its “central” cases, since the goal of any theory is to describe the central or important features of…

  • Finnish (people)

    Finland: Ethnic groups: As other groups began to enter Finland some 3,000 years later, the proto-Sami probably retreated northward. Archaeological remains suggest that this second wave of settlers came from or had contact with what was to become Russia and also Scandinavia and central Europe. Peoples of Uralic (specifically Finno-Ugric)…

  • Finnish Broadcasting Company (Finnish company)

    Finland: Media and publishing: The state-run Finnish Broadcasting Company (Yleisradio Oy [YLE]; established 1926) operates a number of nationwide television networks—both public service and commercial—along with several digital channels and offers programming in Swedish. YLE also owns Radio Finland, which broadcasts in Finnish, Swedish, English, and Russian. Jointly owned by Finland,…

  • Finnish Centre (political party, Finland)

    Finland: Agrarian reform: …the Agrarian Party (now the Centre Party), have been a major factor in Finnish politics.

  • Finnish Communist Party (political party, Finland)

    Finland: Early independence: …a small contingent founded the Finnish Communist Party in Moscow; others continued their flight to the United States and western Europe, some gradually returning to Finland.

  • Finnish language

    Finnish language, member of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, spoken in Finland. At the beginning of the 19th century, Finnish had no official status, with Swedish being used in Finnish education, government, and literature. The publication in 1835 of the Kalevala, a national

  • Finnish literature

    Finnish literature, the oral and written literature produced in Finland in the Finnish, Swedish, and, during the Middle Ages, Latin languages. The history of Finnish literature and that of Swedish literature are intertwined. From the mid-12th century until 1809, Finland was ruled by Sweden, and

  • Finnish National Theatre (theatre, Helsinki, Finland)

    Kaarlo Bergbom: …first stable Finnish-language theatre, the Finnish National Theatre. Bergbom, himself the author of a romantic tragedy, directed the first performance of Aleksis Kivi’s one-act biblical drama Lea (1869), the event cited as the beginning of professional theatre in the Finnish language.

  • Finnish Orthodox Church

    Orthodox Church of Finland, Eastern Orthodox church, recognized as the second state church of Finland. Most of the Orthodox Finns were originally from Karelia, the southeastern part of Finland that was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940, which was Christianized by Russian monks in the 12th

  • Finnish Press Pension Celebration (Finnish history)

    Finlandia: It was written for the Finnish Press Pension Celebration of 1899, a thinly veiled rally in support of freedom of the Finnish press, then largely controlled by tsarist Russia. Sibelius’s contribution to the three-day pageant was a set of nationalistic musical tableaux. Several of these pieces he later recycled into…

  • Finnish spitz (breed of dog)

    Finnish spitz, breed of dog native to Finland, where a breed standard has existed since 1812. It is nicknamed the “barking bird dog” for its habit of “yodeling,” or barking continuously, to alert the hunter to the location of game birds. The breed continues to be a sporting dog in Finland but

  • Finniss, Boyle (explorer)

    Daly River: …Daly, explored in 1865 by Boyle Finniss, first governor of a proposed settlement in the territory, and named after Sir Dominick Daly, then governor of South Australia, is navigable for 70 miles (115 km) above its tidal mouth. The river is the eastern boundary of an Aboriginal reserve that extends…

  • Finnmark (county, Norway)

    Treaty of Novgorod: …was then generally known as Finnmark (including the present Norwegian province of Finnmark and Russia’s Kola Peninsula). The treaty, rather than delimiting a clear frontier between Norway and Novgorod, created a buffer zone, the “common districts.” The buffer zone offered Norway and Novgorod taxing rights over the indigenous Sami and…

  • Finnmark Act (Norway [2005])

    Norway: Constitutional framework: The Finnmark Act, adopted by the Storting in 2005, transferred some 95 percent of the fylke (county) of Finnmark from state ownership to its residents through the establishment of the Finnmark Estate. The act recognized in particular that the Sami people, through protracted traditional use of…

  • Finnmark Plateau (plateau, Norway)

    Norway: Relief: …in southern Norway; and the Finnmark Plateau (1,000 feet [300 metres] above sea level), occupying most of Finnmark, the northernmost and largest county of Norway.

  • Finnmarksvidda (plain, Norway)

    Finnmarksvidda, swampy plain, northern Norway. Though it has no exact natural boundaries, the plain’s principal section is about 60 miles (100 km) from east to west and 50 miles from north to south. The Finnmarksvidda, made up of ancient crystalline rock, is characterized by numerous small lakes

  • Finno-Ugric (people)

    Finland: Ethnic groups: Peoples of Uralic (specifically Finno-Ugric) stock dominated two settlement areas. Those who entered southwestern Finland across the Gulf of Finland were the ancestors of the H?m?l?iset (Tavastians, or Tavastlanders), the people of southern and western Finland (especially the historic region of H?me); those who entered from the southeast were…

  • Finno-Ugric languages

    Finno-Ugric languages, group of languages constituting much the larger of the two branches of a more comprehensive grouping, the Uralic languages (q.v.). The Finno-Ugric languages are spoken by several million people distributed discontinuously over an area extending from Norway in the west to the

  • Finno-Ugric religion

    Finno-Ugric religion, pre-Christian and pre-Islamic religious beliefs and practices of the Finno-Ugric peoples, who inhabit regions of northern Scandinavia, Siberia, the Baltic area, and central Europe. In modern times the religion of many of these peoples has been an admixture of agrarian and

  • Finow Canal (canal, Germany)

    canals and inland waterways: Germany: The 25-mile Finow Canal along the Havel to the Liepe, a tributary of the Oder, had been built earlier but fell into decay because of flooding and neglect and was not rebuilt until 1751. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, under the great elector of…

  • FINRA (American organization)

    over-the-counter market: …Stock Exchange to form the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which became the main regulatory body of that market in the United States. Although retail prices of over-the-counter transactions are not publicly reported, interdealer prices for the issues have been published since February 1965 by NASD and later FINRA.

  • Finschhafen (Papua New Guinea)

    Finschhafen, town and port at the tip of Huon Peninsula, eastern Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The three-basin harbour, an inlet of the Solomon Sea, was charted by the British navigator Capt. John Moresby in 1873–74. Named for German explorer Otto Finsch, the town was claimed by

  • Finschia novaeseelandiae (bird, Finschia novaeseelandiae species)

    creeper: The brown creeper (Mohoua novaeseelandiae, or Finschia novaeseelandiae) of New Zealand belongs to the family Pachycephalidae. It is about 13 cm long, with a rather long tail and a tiny bill. Flocks or pairs call constantly in forests of South Island.

  • Finsen, Niels Ryberg (Danish physician)

    Niels Ryberg Finsen, Danish physician, founder of modern phototherapy (the treatment of disease by the influence of light), who received the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the application of light in the treatment of skin diseases. Finsen was born into a prominent Icelandic family

  • Finsky Zaliv (gulf, Northern Europe)

    Gulf of Finland, easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea, between Finland (north) and Russia and Estonia (east and south). Covering an area of 11,600 square miles (30,000 square km), the gulf extends for 250 miles (400 km) from east to west but only 12 to 80 miles (19 to 130 km) from north to south. It

  • Finster, Rev. Howard (American artist and preacher)

    The Rev. Howard Finster, American artist and preacher (born Dec. 2, 1916, Valley Head, Ala.—died Oct. 22, 2001, Rome, Ga.), with his simple colourful works that combined his evangelistic messages with pop culture icons, became one of the most noted folk artists of the 20th century. He was best k

  • Finsteraarhorn (mountain, Switzerland)

    Finsteraarhorn, highest peak (14,022 feet [4,274 metres]) of the Bernese Alps in south-central Switzerland, it lies between the cantons of Bern and Valais south-southeast of the mountain resort of Grindelwald. First ascended in 1812 by three Swiss guides (though this is disputed, and the first

  • Finsterwalder, Ulrich (German engineer)

    bridge: Ulrich Finsterwalder: During the years after World War II, a German engineer and builder, Ulrich Finsterwalder, developed the cantilever method of construction with prestressed concrete. Finsterwalder’s Bendorf Bridge over the Rhine at Koblenz, Germany, was completed in 1962 with thin piers and a centre

  • finta giardiniera, La (opera by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Early maturity: …to write an opera buffa, La finta giardiniera (“The Feigned Gardener Girl”), for the Munich carnival season, where it was duly successful. It shows Mozart, in his first comic opera since his childhood, finding ways of using the orchestra more expressively and of giving real personality to the pasteboard figures…

  • finta semplice, La (opera buffa by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Early life and works: …having an Italian opera buffa, La finta semplice (“The Feigned Simpleton”), done at the court theatre—hopes that were, however, frustrated, much to Leopold’s indignation. But a substantial, festal mass setting (probably K 139/47a) was successfully given before the court at the dedication of the Orphanage Church. La finta semplice was…

  • Fionn (Irish legendary figure)

    Finn, legendary Irish hero, leader of the group of warriors known as the Fianna éireann. See Fenian

  • Fionn cycle (Irish literature)

    Fenian cycle, in Irish literature, tales and ballads centring on the deeds of the legendary Finn MacCumhaill (MacCool) and his war band, the Fianna éireann. An elite volunteer corps of warriors and huntsmen, skilled in poetry, the Fianna flourished under the reign of Cormac mac Airt in the 3rd

  • Fionnlagh Ruadh (Scottish bard)

    Celtic literature: Writings of the medieval period: The bard best represented is Fionnlagh Ruadh, bard to John, chief of clan Gregor (died 1519). There are three poems by Giolla Coluim mac an Ollaimh, a professional poet at the court of the Lord of the Isles and almost certainly a member of the MacMhuirich bardic family, the famous…

  • Fioravanti, Alfredo Adolfo (forger)

    forgery: Forgery in the visual arts: Finally, Alfredo Adolfo Fioravanti confessed that he was the sole survivor of the three forgers.

  • fiord (sea inlet)

    Fjord, long narrow arm of the sea, commonly extending far inland, that results from marine inundation of a glaciated valley. Many fjords are astonishingly deep; Sogn Fjord in Norway is 1,308 m (4,290 feet) deep, and Canal Messier in Chile is 1,270 m (4,167 feet). The great depth of these submerged

  • Fiordland crested penguin (bird)

    Fiordland penguin, (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus), species of crested penguin (genus Eudyptes, order Sphenisciformes) characterized by a thick stripe of pale yellow feather plumes above each eye (the superciliary stripe) that extends from the bill to the rear of the head. The terminal ends of each of the

  • Fiordland National Park (national park, New Zealand)

    Fiordland National Park, scenic natural area in the southernmost part of South Island, New Zealand. Established as a reserve in 1904, it was designated a national park in 1952. It covers an area of some 4,600 square miles (12,000 square km), making it one of the largest national parks in the world.

  • Fiordland penguin (bird)

    Fiordland penguin, (Eudyptes pachyrhynchus), species of crested penguin (genus Eudyptes, order Sphenisciformes) characterized by a thick stripe of pale yellow feather plumes above each eye (the superciliary stripe) that extends from the bill to the rear of the head. The terminal ends of each of the

  • Fiore, Gioacchino da (Italian theologian)

    Joachim Of Fiore, Italian mystic, theologian, biblical commentator, philosopher of history, and founder of the monastic order of San Giovanni in Fiore. He developed a philosophy of history according to which history develops in three ages of increasing spirituality: the ages of the Father, the

  • Fiore, Pasquale (Italian jurist)

    Pasquale Fiore, Italian jurist and leading authority on international law. Fiore studied at Urbino, Pisa, and Turin, and, after a period of teaching philosophy at Cremona, during which he published Elementi di diritto pubblico constituzionale e amministrativo (1862; “Elements of Public

  • Fiorelli, Giuseppe (Italian archaeologist)

    Giuseppe Fiorelli, Italian archaeologist whose systematic excavation at Pompeii helped to preserve much of the ancient city as nearly intact as possible and contributed significantly to modern archaeological methods. Fiorelli’s initial work at Pompeii was completed in 1848. Then, when he became

  • Fiorelli, Silvio (Italian actor)

    Compagnia degli Uniti: …perform with the Uniti was Silvio Fiorillo, known for the innovations he made in the characters of the cowardly braggart Capitano Mattamoros and the eccentric curmudgeon Pulcinella.

  • Fiorentina (Italian football club)

    Roberto Baggio: Baggio blossomed into stardom with Fiorentina, his distinctive ponytail becoming famous throughout the country. When he transferred to Juventus for a then record fee in 1990, there were riots in Florence. In his first match against Fiorentina as a member of Juventus, Baggio refused to take a penalty kick, an…

  • Fioretti di San Francesco (Italian literature)

    Italian literature: Religious and historical literature: …Fioretti di San Francesco (The Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assisi).

  • Fiori da Urbino (Italian painter)

    Federico Barocci, leading painter of the central Italian school in the last decades of the 16th century and an important precursor of the Baroque style. Barocci studied in Urbino with Battista Franco, a follower of Michelangelo’s maniera. Although he made two visits to Rome—one in about 1550 to

  • Fiori musicali (work by Frescobaldi)

    Girolamo Frescobaldi: …of Frescobaldi’s remaining publications, the Fiori musicali of 1635, consists of organ music intended for liturgical use.

  • Fiori, Ernesto de (Italian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Conservative reaction (1920s): …Arno Breker, Karl Albiker, and Ernesto de Fiori were simply variations on a studio theme in praise of youth and body culture. In the United States adherents of the countermovement included William Zorach, Chaim Gross, Adolph Block, Paul Manship, and Wheeler Williams.

  • Fiori, Federico (Italian painter)

    Federico Barocci, leading painter of the central Italian school in the last decades of the 16th century and an important precursor of the Baroque style. Barocci studied in Urbino with Battista Franco, a follower of Michelangelo’s maniera. Although he made two visits to Rome—one in about 1550 to

  • Fiorilli, Tiberio (Italian actor)

    Tiberio Fiorillo, Italian actor of the commedia dell’arte who developed the character Scaramouche. Perhaps the son of Silvio Fiorillo, a famous Pulcinella, Tiberio Fiorillo quit an undistinguished company of players to gain fame as the braggart captain called Scaramuccia. He was especially popular

  • Fiorillo, Silvio (Italian actor)

    Compagnia degli Uniti: …perform with the Uniti was Silvio Fiorillo, known for the innovations he made in the characters of the cowardly braggart Capitano Mattamoros and the eccentric curmudgeon Pulcinella.

  • Fiorillo, Tiberio (Italian actor)

    Tiberio Fiorillo, Italian actor of the commedia dell’arte who developed the character Scaramouche. Perhaps the son of Silvio Fiorillo, a famous Pulcinella, Tiberio Fiorillo quit an undistinguished company of players to gain fame as the braggart captain called Scaramuccia. He was especially popular

  • fiorin (plant)

    Creeping bent, (Agrostis stolonifera), perennial grass of the family Poaceae, widely used as a lawn and turf grass. Creeping bent is native to Eurasia and northern Africa and commonly grows in wetlands. The plant is widely naturalized in many places throughout the world and is considered an

  • Fiorina, Carly (American business executive and politician)

    Carly Fiorina, American business executive who, as CEO (1999–2005) of Hewlett-Packard Company, was the first woman to head a company listed on the Dow Jones Industrial Average. She sought the Republican Party nomination for president in 2016. She was the daughter of Joseph Sneed, a judge and law

  • fiorino d’oro (coin)

    coin: Italy and Sicily: …famous and profuse series of fiorini d’oro, or gold florins. The lily continued as the civic type, together with the standing figure of the Baptist. Regular weight (about 3.50 grams, 54 grains) and fineness won the fiorino universal fame and wide imitation; double florins were introduced in 1504. Venice in…

  • fiorite (mineral)

    silica mineral: Solubility of silica minerals: …silica results in formation of siliceous sinter or geyserite, as at Mammoth Hot Springs in Yellowstone National Park in the western United States.

  • Fipa (people)

    Fipa, a Bantu-speaking people linguistically related to Lungu, Pimbwe, and Mambwe who inhabit the Ufipa plateau between lakes Tanganyika and Rukwa in southwestern Tanzania. From prehistoric times the plateau has been a corridor between northeastern and south central Africa. The Fipa are an amalgam

  • fipple flute (musical instrument)

    Fipple flute, any of several end-blown flutes having a plug (“block,” or “fipple”) inside the pipe below the mouth hole, forming a flue, duct, or windway that directs the player’s breath alternately above and below the sharp edge of a lateral hole. This arrangement causes the enclosed air column to

  • FIQ (international bowling organization)

    bowling: International competition: …of any consequence until the Fédération Internationale des Quilleurs (FIQ) was formed in 1952 to coordinate international amateur competition. Its headquarters is in Helsinki, and it has grown to more than 70 member nations.

  • fiqh (Islam)

    Fiqh, (Arabic: “understanding”) Muslim jurisprudence—i.e., the science of ascertaining the precise terms of the Sharī?ah, or Islamic law. The collective sources of Muslim jurisprudence are known as u?ūl al-fiqh. While Sharī?ah is considered to be divine and immutable, fiqh, the human effort to know

  • fiqī (Islamic jurist)

    North Africa: The Maghrib under the Almoravids and the Almohads: The fuqahā? (experts on Islamic law) supervised both the administration of justice by the qā?īs and the work of the provincial governors, and they acted as advisers to the rulers. The empire’s simple system of government, in which military commanders acted as administrators, was rendered especially…

  • fir (tree, Abies genus)

    Fir, (genus Abies), genus of more than 40 species of evergreen trees of the conifer family Pinaceae. Although several other coniferous trees are commonly called firs—e.g., the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga), the hemlock fir (see hemlock), and the joint fir (see Ephedra), true firs are native to North

  • fir (tree)

    pine: Major Eurasian pines: The Scotch pine (P. sylvestris) of northern Europe, when grown under optimum conditions, attains a height of 20 to 40 metres (70 to 130 feet). It is conical in youth, acquiring a mushroom-shaped crown in maturity, and has a straight trunk as much as a metre…

  • FIR (air-traffic control)

    airport: Air traffic control: …as it flies through successive flight information regions (FIRs). Upon approaching an airport at which a landing is to be made, the aircraft passes into the terminal control area (TCA). Within this area, there may be a greatly increased density of air traffic, and this is closely monitored on radar…

  • fir club moss (plant)

    club moss: Major genera and species: Fir club moss (H. selago), a 20-cm- (8-inch-) tall plant native to rocks and bog margins in the Northern Hemisphere, also lacks distinct strobili.

  • fir, balsam of (oleoresin)

    Canada balsam, oleoresin consisting of a viscous yellowish to greenish liquid exuded by the balsam fir of North America, Abies balsamea. It is actually a turpentine, belonging to the class of oleoresins (natural products consisting of a resin dissolved in an essential oil), and not a balsam.

  • Firá (Greece)

    Thera: The chief town, Thíra (locally called Firá), was badly damaged by an earthquake in 1956. Other settlements include Emboríon and Pírgos to the south and the port of Oía at the north entrance to the lagoon, which was destroyed by the 1956 earthquake.

  • F?rat Nehri (river, Middle East)

    Euphrates River, river, Middle East. The longest river in southwest Asia, it is 1,740 miles (2,800 km) long, and it is one of the two main constituents of the Tigris-Euphrates river system. The river rises in Turkey and flows southeast across Syria and through Iraq. Formed by the confluence of the

  • Firbank, Arthur Annesley Ronald (British author)

    Ronald Firbank, English novelist who was a literary innovator of some importance. Greatly indebted to the literature of the 1890s, his is a peculiarly fantastic and perverse, idiosyncratic humour. His wit largely depends upon the shape and cadence of the sentence and upon an eccentric and personal

  • Firbank, Ronald (British author)

    Ronald Firbank, English novelist who was a literary innovator of some importance. Greatly indebted to the literature of the 1890s, his is a peculiarly fantastic and perverse, idiosyncratic humour. His wit largely depends upon the shape and cadence of the sentence and upon an eccentric and personal

  • Firdan Bridge, Al- (bridge, Suez Canal, Egypt)

    Al-Firdan Bridge, longest rotating metal bridge in the world, spanning the Suez Canal in northeastern Egypt, from the lower Nile River valley near Ismailia to the Sinai Peninsula. Opened on Nov. 14, 2001, the bridge has a single railway track running down the middle that is flanked by two 10-foot-

  • Firdawsī (Persian poet)

    Ferdowsī, Persian poet, author of the Shāh-nāmeh (“Book of Kings”), the Persian national epic, to which he gave a final and enduring form, although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version. Ferdowsī was born in a village on the outskirts of the ancient city of ?ūs. In the course of the

  • Firdousi (Persian poet)

    Ferdowsī, Persian poet, author of the Shāh-nāmeh (“Book of Kings”), the Persian national epic, to which he gave a final and enduring form, although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version. Ferdowsī was born in a village on the outskirts of the ancient city of ?ūs. In the course of the

  • Firdusi (Persian poet)

    Ferdowsī, Persian poet, author of the Shāh-nāmeh (“Book of Kings”), the Persian national epic, to which he gave a final and enduring form, although he based his poem mainly on an earlier prose version. Ferdowsī was born in a village on the outskirts of the ancient city of ?ūs. In the course of the

  • fire (weaponry)

    military technology: Fortress design: …the ramparts and for enfilade fire from flanking towers. By classical Greek times, fortress architecture had attained a high level of sophistication; both the profile and the trace (that is, the height above ground level and the outline of the walls) of fortifications were designed to achieve overlapping fields of…

  • fire (combustion)

    Fire, rapid burning of combustible material with the evolution of heat and usually accompanied by flame. It is one of the human race’s essential tools, control of which helped start it on the path toward civilization. The original source of fire undoubtedly was lightning, and such fortuitously

  • fire (gem)

    Fire, in gems, rapidly changing flashes of colour seen in some gems, such as diamonds. Some minerals show dispersion; that is, they break incident white light into its component colours. The greater the separation between rays of red light (at one end of the visible spectrum) and rays of violet

  • fire alarm

    Fire alarm, means of warning in case of fire. Originally, watchmen provided the only fire-alarm system, but, with the advent of electric power, boxes wired to fire departments provided a warning system from city streets and such institutional buildings as schools. While some of the latter remain

  • Fire and Air (play by McNally)

    Terrence McNally: Fire and Air (2018) is about the Ballets Russes and founder Serge Diaghilev’s relationship with Vaslav Nijinsky.

  • Fire and All Risks Insurance Co. (Australian company)

    Lawrence James Adler: (later renamed FAI Insurance, Ltd.) and one of the 10 richest men in the country.

  • Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House (work by Wolff)

    Steve Bannon: Association with Trump: …quoted in Michael Wolff’s book Fire and Fury: Inside the Trump White House, in which White House insiders describe Trump as woefully ill-suited to serve as president. Most notably, Bannon reportedly characterized the meeting of Donald Trump, Jr., with Russians during the 2016 presidential campaign as “treasonous” and “unpatriotic.” In…

  • Fire and Ice (animated film [1983])

    Thomas Kinkade: …backgrounds for the animated film Fire and Ice (1983), for which he created his trademark luminous scenes.

  • Fire and Sword in the Sudan (work by Slatin)

    Rudolf Karl, baron von Slatin: His book, Feuer und Schwert im Sudan, 2 vol. (1896, 1922; “Fire and Sword in the Sudan”), was instrumental in enlisting support against the Mahdists. After serving with Lord Kitchener (1897–98) in the reconquest of the Sudan, he was named inspector general of the Sudan in 1900…

  • fire ant (insect)

    Fire ant, (genus Solenopsis), any of a genus of insects in the family Formicidae, order Hymenoptera, that occur in tropical regions of the world, such as Central and South America, and in some temperate regions, such as North America. The best-known member of the genus, the red imported fire ant

  • fire blight (disease)

    Fire blight, plant disease, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, that can give infected plants a scorched appearance. Fire blight largely affects members of the rose family (Rosaceae). It has destroyed pear and apple orchards in much of North America, in parts of Europe, and in New Zealand

  • fire bomb (military technology)

    bomb: Conventional bomb types: Incendiary bombs are of two main types. The burning material of the intensive type is thermite, a mixture of aluminum powder and iron oxide that burns at a very high temperature. The casing of such a bomb is composed of magnesium, a metal that itself burns…

  • fire brigade

    Firefighting, activity directed at limiting the spread of fire and extinguishing it, particularly as performed by members of organizations (fire services or fire departments) trained for the purpose. When it is possible, firefighters rescue persons endangered by the fire, if necessary, before

  • fire cherry (tree)

    ecological disturbance: Disturbance frequency and recovery: The biology of pin cherries (Prunus pensylvanica) illustrates an extension of this theme. In the course of secondary succession in forests of the eastern United States and southern Canada, these small trees grow into gaps and are abundant for periods of about 10 to 25 years; over time,…

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