You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • First Dream (poem by Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz)

    Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: …as the Primero sue?o (1692; First Dream, published in A Sor Juana Anthology, 1988), is both personal and universal. The date of its writing is unknown. It employs the convoluted poetic forms of the Baroque to recount the torturous quest of the soul for knowledge. In the poem’s opening, as…

  • First Duma (Russian assembly)

    Duma: The first two Dumas were elected indirectly (except in five large cities) by a system that gave undue representation to the peasantry, which the government expected to be conservative. The Dumas were, nevertheless, dominated by liberal and socialist opposition groups that demanded extensive reforms. Both Dumas…

  • First Edition Club of London

    A.J.A. Symons: …and later director of the First Edition Club of London, he became a skilled bibliographer, an occupation he considered dreary and uncongenial to his personal literary and cultural aspirations.

  • First Empire (French history)

    France: The Grand Empire: Napoleon now had a free hand to reorganize Europe and numerous relatives to install on the thrones of his satellite kingdoms. The result was known as the Grand Empire. Having annexed Tuscany, Piedmont, Genoa, and the Rhineland directly into France, Napoleon placed the…

  • First English Civil War (English history)

    English Civil Wars: The first English Civil War (1642–46): The first major battle fought on English soil—the Battle of Edgehill (October 1642)—quickly demonstrated that a clear advantage was enjoyed by neither the Royalists (also known as the Cavaliers) nor the Parliamentarians (also known as the Roundheads for their

  • First English Surrealist Manifesto (work by Gascoyne)

    British Surrealism: …Lewis Carroll—he penned the “First English Surrealist Manifesto” (1935) in French in Paris, and it was published in the French review Cahiers d’art. Gascoyne had been drawn to Paris after having read Decadent, Symbolist, and Surrealist French poetry. In the early 1930s he aimed to liaise between London-centred artists…

  • First Family (fossil hominins)

    Donald Johanson: …later known as the “First Family,” that spanned a variety of life stages. He also discovered a jaw and limb bones of a specimen of Homo habilis, later known as Olduvai Hominid 62 (OH 62), at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania in 1986. OH 62, dated to 1.8 million years…

  • first figure (syllogistic)

    history of logic: Theophrastus of Eresus: …to have added to the first figure of the syllogism the five moods that others later classified under a fourth figure. These moods were then called indirect moods of the first figure. In order to accommodate them, he had in effect to redefine the first figure as that in which…

  • First Five-Year Plan (Soviet economics)

    Caterpillar Inc.: …Union to facilitate that country’s first Five-Year Plan (1929–33). In 1931 Caterpillar perfected a tractor driven by a diesel engine rather than a gasoline one, and diesel engines soon became standard for all types of heavy-duty vehicles. During World War II, Caterpillar made the diesel engines that powered the Sherman…

  • First Five-Year Plan (Chinese economics)

    Anshan: Under the First Five-Year Plan (1953–57) Anshan was built up again into the major iron and steel complex in China and was restocked with the latest equipment, much of it from the Soviet Union. By 1957 it was producing a wide variety of steel products (such as…

  • First Fleet (Australian history)

    Australia: European settlement: The First Fleet sailed on May 13, 1787, with 11 vessels, including 6 transports, aboard which were about 730 convicts (570 men and 160 women). More than 250 free persons accompanied the convicts, chiefly marines of various rank. The fleet reached Botany Bay on January 19–20,…

  • First Fleet Act (Germany [1898])

    Alfred von Tirpitz: Early career and rise to power: In 1898 Tirpitz introduced the First Fleet Act, for the reorganization of Germany’s sea power. This law provided for an active navy consisting of 1 flagship, 16 battleships, 8 armoured coastal ships, and a force of 9 large and 26 small cruisers to be ready by 1904. Such a navy…

  • First Folio (publication of Shakespeare’s plays)

    First Folio, first published edition (1623) of the collected works of William Shakespeare, originally published as Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories & Tragedies. It is the major source for contemporary texts of his plays. The publication of drama in the early 17th century was usually

  • First Footsteps in East Africa (work by Burton)

    Sir Richard Burton: Exploration in Arabia: He described his adventures in First Footsteps in East Africa (1856).

  • First French Republic (French history)

    Louis XVI: Attempt to flee the country: … and the proclamation of the First French Republic on September 21. In November, proof of Louis XVI’s secret dealings with Mirabeau and of his counterrevolutionary intrigues with the foreigners was found in a secret cupboard in the Tuileries. On December 3 it was decided that Louis, who together with his…

  • First Fruits and Tenths, Court of (British court system)

    Court of Augmentations: The Court of First Fruits and Tenths was established in 1540 to collect from clerical benefices certain moneys that had previously been sent to Rome. First fruits were the first year’s profits owed by the new holder of a benefice; tenths were 10 percent of the…

  • First Fruits of Australian Poetry (work by Field)

    Australian literature: The century after settlement: Field’s First Fruits of Australian Poetry (1819) was the first volume of poetry published in Australia. Those who were likely to spend a much longer term in New South Wales, as the colony was then known, expressed a profound nostalgia for “home.” The sense of exile…

  • first gas law (chemistry)

    Boyle’s law, a relation concerning the compression and expansion of a gas at constant temperature. This empirical relation, formulated by the physicist Robert Boyle in 1662, states that the pressure (p) of a given quantity of gas varies inversely with its volume (v) at constant temperature; i.e.,

  • first generation cellular system (telecommunications)

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …now referred to as “first-generation” (or 1G) systems, and the digital systems that began to appear in the late 1980s and early ’90s are known as the “second generation” (2G). Since the introduction of 2G cell phones, various enhancements have been made in order to provide data services and…

  • First German Dada Manifesto (work by Hülsenbeck)
  • First German Television (German television network)

    broadcasting: Establishment of a public corporation or authority: …in a national organization, the First German Television network. In each state, though there are some variations, there are a broadcasting council that is appointed by the legislature or nominated by churches, universities, associations of employers or trade unions, political parties, or the press; an administrative council; and a director…

  • First Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus (apocrypha)

    Christianity: Messianic secrets and the mysteries of salvation: The First Gospel of the Infancy of Jesus (known also as the Arabic Infancy Gospel), for example, recounts that, one day, Jesus and his playmates were playing on a rooftop and one fell down and died. The other playmates ran away, leaving Jesus accused of pushing…

  • First Great Train Robbery, The (film by Crichton [1978])

    Sean Connery: …Robin and Marian (1976), and The First Great Train Robbery (1978; also released as The Great Train Robbery). In 1981 he made a memorable appearance as King Agamemnon in Terry Gilliam’s time-travel fantasy Time Bandits, and two years later he delighted Bond fans by returning to the role of 007…

  • first harmonic mode (physics)

    sound: Fundamentals and harmonics: …frequency is known as the fundamental, or first harmonic.

  • First Helvetic Confession (religion)

    Helvetic Confession: The First Helvetic Confession (also called the Second Confession of Basel) was composed in 1536 by Heinrich Bullinger and other Swiss delegates, assisted by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg. It was the first Reformed creed of national authority, although it was sometimes criticized as being too Lutheran.

  • First Idea (physics)

    Vitaly Ginzburg: Known as Sloika (“Layer Cake”), the design was refined by Ginzburg in 1949 through the substitution of lithium-6 deuteride for the liquid deuterium. When bombarded with neutrons, lithium-6 breeds tritium, which can fuse with deuterium to release more energy. Ginzburg and Sakharov’s design was tested on August…

  • First Impressions of Earth (album by the Strokes)

    the Strokes: First Impressions of Earth (2006) featured more robust, polished production and greater songwriting ambition than the band’s earlier recordings but failed to command a similar level of fervour. After its release, the band members spent the next several years pursuing side projects, including Moretti’s well-received…

  • first in, first out (accounting)

    accounting: Cost of goods sold: …main inventory costing methods: (1) first-in, first-out (FIFO), (2) last-in, first-out (LIFO), or (3) average cost. The LIFO method is widely used in the United States, where it is also an acceptable costing method for income tax purposes; companies in most other countries measure inventory cost and the cost of…

  • First Indochina War (1946–1954)

    Indochina wars: …wars are often called the French Indochina War and the Vietnam War (q.v.), or the First and Second Indochina wars. The latter conflict ended in April 1975.

  • First Intermediate period (Egyptian history)

    ancient Egypt: The First Intermediate period: After the end of the 8th dynasty, the throne passed to kings from Heracleopolis, who made their native city the capital, although Memphis continued to be important. They were acknowledged throughout the country, but inscriptions…

  • First International Architecture Exhibition (1980)

    industrial design: Postmodern design and its aftermath: …école des Beaux-Arts and the First International Architecture Exhibition for the 1980 Venice Biennale, which took as its title and theme “The Presence of the Past.” For this show, contemporary architects were encouraged to create streetscapes that related to traditional architectural environments.

  • First International Conference of American States (American history)

    Benjamin Harrison: Presidency: Blaine, presided over the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington, D.C. (1889–90), which established the International Union of American Republics (later called the Pan-American Union) for the exchange of cultural and scientific information. In addition, Blaine successfully resisted pressure from Germany and Great Britain to abandon…

  • First International Congress of Comparative Law (European history)

    comparative law: International efforts: …important event—the meeting of the First International Congress of Comparative Law in Paris in 1900. Experts from every part of Europe delivered papers and discussed the nature, aims, and general interest of comparative law. Particular emphasis was laid on its role in the preparation of a “common law for the…

  • First International Congress of Philosophy (Paris, France [1900])

    history of logic: Other 19th-century logicians: …century culminated grandly with the First International Congress of Philosophy and the Second International Congress of Mathematics held consecutively in Paris in August 1900. The overlap between the two congresses was extensive and fortunate for the future of logic and philosophy. Peano, Alessandro Padoa, Burali-Forti, Schr?der, Cantor, Dedekind, Frege, Felix…

  • First International Dada Fair (art fair, Berlin, Germany [1920])

    Raoul Hausmann: …in 1920 helped organize the First International Dada Fair, a subverted version of an academic art exhibition. Works of art—defined as such by the Dadaists—were crammed into a small gallery, and all were for sale. Among the works Hausmann exhibited at the fair are some of his best known: a…

  • First International Polar Year ([1882-1883])

    Antarctica: IGY and the Antarctic Treaty: …11 participating nations organized the First International Polar Year (1882–83). Most work was planned for the better-known Arctic, and, of the four geomagnetic and weather stations scheduled for Antarctic regions, only the German station on South Georgia materialized. The decision was made at that time to organize similar programs every…

  • First Interstate Bancorp (American bank holding company)

    First Interstate Bancorp, once one of the largest American multibank holding corporations. The corporation was formed in 1957 as Firstamerica Corporation and started operations in 1958 when it acquired all of the directly held shares of Transamerica Corporation’s stock in banks in which

  • first intifadah (Israeli–Palestinian history)

    intifadah: The first intifadah: The proximate causes of the first intifadah were intensified Israeli land expropriation and settlement construction in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the electoral victory of the right-wing Likud party in 1977; increasing Israeli repression in response to heightened Palestinian protests following…

  • First Knight (film by Zucker [1995])

    Sean Connery: …Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991), First Knight (1995), The Rock (1996), Dragonheart (1996), and Entrapment (1999). Connery officially retired from acting following his appearance in the film adaptation (2003) of the comic-book series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, though he went on to perform various voice roles.

  • first lady (United States title)

    First lady, wife of the president of the United States. Although the first lady’s role has never been codified or officially defined, she figures prominently in the political and social life of the nation. Representative of her husband on official and ceremonial occasions both at home and abroad,

  • First Lady from Plains (book by Carter)

    Rosalynn Carter: Rosalynn wrote several books, including First Lady from Plains (1994; originally published 1984), which was widely praised as giving more insight into her husband’s administration than most of the books by his top advisers; Helping Someone with Mental Illness: A Compassionate Guide for Family, Friends, and Caregivers (1998, reissued 2000),…

  • First Lady of Song (American singer)

    Ella Fitzgerald, American jazz singer who became world famous for the wide range and rare sweetness of her voice. She became an international legend during a career that spanned some six decades. As a child, Fitzgerald wanted to be a dancer, but when she panicked at an amateur contest in 1934 at

  • First Legion, The (film by Sirk [1951])

    Douglas Sirk: Films of the early to mid-1950s: …where he produced and directed The First Legion (1951), starring Charles Boyer, before signing with Universal, for which he continued to make films until he retired nearly a decade later. His first efforts for the studio, however, gave little indication of the blockbusters to come: from Mystery Submarine (1950), a…

  • First Love, Last Rites (short stories by McEwan)

    Ian McEwan: …his first two short-story collections, First Love, Last Rites (1975; film 1997)—winner of a Somerset Maugham Award for writers under age 35—and In Between the Sheets (1978), both of which feature a bizarre cast of grotesques in disturbing tales of sexual aberrance, black comedy, and macabre obsession. His first novel,…

  • First Man (film by Chazelle [2018])

    Damien Chazelle: Chazelle’s next film, First Man (2018), reteamed him with Gosling, who played astronaut Neil Armstrong as he prepares for the legendary space mission that will send him to the Moon. Chazelle received critical acclaim for his character-driven approach to the story. He then turned to television, codirecting the…

  • first man

    Isaac ben Solomon Luria: …and Adam Qadmon, the symbolic “primordial man,” who is the highest configuration of the divine light, is rebuilt. Man plays an important role in this process through various kawwanot used during prayer and through mystical intentions involving secret combinations of words, all of which is directed toward the restoration of…

  • First Manassas, Battle of (American Civil War [1861])

    First Battle of Bull Run, (July 21, 1861), in the American Civil War, the first of two engagements fought at a small stream named Bull Run, near Manassas in northern Virginia. (Civil War battles often had one name in the North, which was usually associated with a prominent nearby physical feature,

  • first maxillae (anatomy)

    malacostracan: Size range and diversity of structure: The first and second maxillae are short, with variable numbers of inner biting plates (endites) and often with outer lobes (epipodites), but the palps are short or lacking.

  • First Men in the Moon (film by Juran [1964])

    First Men in the Moon, British science-fiction film, released in 1964, that was based on H.G. Wells’s novel of the same name. It blends the contemporary space race of the 1960s with a story about a Victorian-era expedition to the Moon. The film opens with a multinational lunar expedition sponsored

  • first model Brown Bess musket (firearm)

    small arm: Standardized patterns and parts: …army musket, called the “Long Land,” which had a 46-inch (1,168-mm) barrel and a calibre, or bore diameter, of .75 inch (19 mm). The Long Land became popularly known in America as the first model Brown Bess musket. Fighting experience in the wilderness of North America during the Seven…

  • First Monday in October (film by Neame [1981])

    Walter Matthau: …The Bad News Bears (1976), First Monday in October (1981), Dennis the Menace (1993), and The Grass Harp (1995), the latter of which was directed by his son, Charlie Matthau. He was prominently featured as a hedonistic octogenarian in his last film, Hanging Up (2000), directed by Diane Keaton.

  • First Moroccan Crisis (European history)

    Moroccan crises: The resultant international panic, the First Moroccan Crisis, was resolved in January–April 1906 at the Algeciras Conference, where German and other national economic rights were upheld and where the French and Spanish were entrusted with the policing of Morocco.

  • first mover (philosophy)

    the Five Ways: …begun with a first or prime mover that had not itself been moved or acted upon by any other agent. Aristotle sometimes called this prime mover “God.” Aquinas understood it as the God of Christianity.

  • first name (linguistics)

    name: Forms of personal names: …the first name or the given name. Because many people received the same name (given name), they were differentiated by surnames (for example, John Redhead, John Hunter, John Scott). Many of these surnames became fixed and hereditary in individual families. These are called either surnames or family names, and in…

  • First National Bank of Boston (American bank)

    First National Bank of Boston, major American commercial bank with branch and representative offices in the United States and abroad. It is the principal subsidiary of the Bank of Boston Corporation

  • First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti (law case)

    Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission: Majority opinion: …in the court’s decision in First National Bank of Boston v. Bellotti (1978). In addition, the law would allow the government to ban the political speech of media corporations, including newspapers—though such corporations were specifically exempted in the Michigan law upheld in Austin and in Section 203 of the BCRA.…

  • First National Bank of Chicago (American bank)

    First National Bank of Chicago, major American commercial bank formed in 1863, leading subsidiary of First Chicago NBD Corporation, a holding

  • First National Bank of Minneapolis (American bank)

    First National Bank of Minneapolis, major U.S. commercial bank founded in 1864, now the main subsidiary of First Bank System, Inc. (q.v.), a bank holding

  • First National City Bank (American bank)

    James Stillman: …York’s National City Bank (now Citibank) made it one of the most powerful financial institutions in the United States.

  • First National Development Plan (Brazilian economic plan)

    Brazil: Administrations of Costa e Silva, Médici, and Geisel: …1971 Médici presented the First National Development Plan, which helped to increase the rate of economic growth and to develop the Northeast and Amazonia, especially by means of road construction and redistribution of land. Brazilians, distracted by their newfound economic prosperity, seemed willing to tolerate political oppression and evidence of…

  • First National Development Plan (Zambian economic plan)

    Zambia: Economy: …planning—the Transitional Development Plan—preceding the First National Development Plan of 1966–71. This later plan, which provided for major investment in infrastructure and manufacturing, was largely implemented and generally successful (which was not true of subsequent plans).

  • First National Pictures, Inc. (American company)

    history of the motion picture: Pre-World War I American cinema: …and Nicholas Schenck in 1919; First National Pictures, Inc., a circuit of independent exhibitors who established their own production facilities in Burbank, Calif., in 1922; Warner Brothers Pictures, Inc., founded by Harry, Albert, Samuel, and Jack Warner in 1923; and Columbia Pictures, Inc., incorporated in 1924 by Harry Cohn

  • First Nations (indigenous peoples of Canada and United States)

    Native American, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere, although the term often connotes only those groups whose original territories were in present-day Canada and the United States. Pre-Columbian Americans used technology and material culture that included fire and the

  • First Nations, Assembly of (Canadian organization)

    Canada: Indian affairs: …National Indian Brotherhood (now the Assembly of First Nations), while Métis and nonstatus Indians were represented by the Native Council of Canada. These and other organizations advocated policies including aboriginal rights (recognized in the Constitution Act [Canada Act] of 1982), improved education, and economic development. In 1983 a government report…

  • First New England school (music)

    fuging tune: …American composers of the so-called First New England school during the period of the American Revolution (1775–83).

  • first nonstop transatlantic flight of 1919 (British history)

    Sir Arthur Whitten Brown: …Alcock he made the record crossing of the Atlantic in a Vickers Vimy twin-engine biplane at an average speed of approximately 118 miles (193 km) per hour. Taking off from St. John’s, Nfld., at 4:13 pm Greenwich Mean Time on June 14, 1919, they landed 16 hours 12 minutes later…

  • First of June, Battle of the (French-British history)

    Battle of the First of June, (June 1, 1794), the first great naval engagement of the French Revolutionary Wars, fought between the French and the British in the Atlantic Ocean about 430 miles (690 km) west of the Breton island of Ouessant (Ushant). The battle arose out of an attempt by the British

  • First Opium War (1839–1842)

    Opium Wars: The first Opium War: The Opium Wars arose from China’s attempts to suppress the opium trade. Foreign traders (primarily British) had been illegally exporting opium mainly from India to China since the 18th century, but that trade grew dramatically from about 1820. The resulting widespread addiction…

  • First Orchestral Set (work by Ives)

    Three Places in New England, composition for orchestra by American composer Charles Ives, completed and much revised in the first decades of the 20th century and published in its best-known version in 1935. Its three movements portray scenes from the composer’s native New England and feature much

  • First Part of Clever and Pleasant Inventions, The (work by Prevost)

    conjuring: …Witchcraft by Reginald Scot and The First Part of Clever and Pleasant Inventions by Jean Prevost, both published in 1584, in London and Lyons, respectively, are the seminal texts on magic. These early descriptions reflect performances of conjurers that probably took place decades or even hundreds of years before they…

  • First Partition of Poland (Polish history)

    Partitions of Poland, (1772, 1793, 1795), three territorial divisions of Poland, perpetrated by Russia, Prussia, and Austria, by which Poland’s size was progressively reduced until, after the final partition, the state of Poland ceased to exist. The First Partition occurred after Russia became

  • first past the post (elections)

    alternative vote: …the British electoral system from first-past-the-post (FPTP) in favour of AV; on May 5, 2011, however, more than two-thirds of British voters rejected AV.

  • First Peloponnesian War (Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: Friction between Athens and Corinth: …what modern scholars call the First Peloponnesian War.

  • First Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

    Persian Gulf War, (1990–91), international conflict that was triggered by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves, canceling a large debt Iraq owed

  • First Person (novel by Flanagan)

    Richard Flanagan: Flanagan’s next novel, First Person (2017), concerns a a struggling writer who is hired to ghostwrite a conman’s memoir.

  • First Person Sorrowful (poetry by Ko Un)

    Ko Un: …Tree Way Tavern (2006); and First Person Sorrowful (2012). Ko’s work drew the attention of prominent American poets, including Allen Ginsberg, Robert Hass, and Gary Snyder, all of whom contributed forewords to these books. Ko also published novels, drama, and literary criticism.

  • First Philippic (oration by Demosthenes)

    Demosthenes: Leader of the democratic faction: …against Philip, the so-called “First Philippic,” that established him as the leader of the opposition to Macedonian imperial ambitions. For the next 29 years Demosthenes never wavered; as Plutarch says, “The object which he chose for himself in the commonwealth was noble and just, the defense of the Grecians…

  • first philosophy

    Aristotle: Physics and metaphysics: …metaphysics: he calls it “first philosophy” and defines it as the discipline that studies “being as being.”

  • First Pompeian style (Roman art)

    Western painting: Pagan Roman paintings: …were decorated in a so-called Incrustation, or First, style; that is, the imitation in painted stucco of veneers, or crustae (“slabs”), of coloured marbles. But in the second half of the 1st century bc, there suddenly appeared in Rome and in the Campanian cities (the most famous of which is…

  • first position (ballet)

    ballet position: In the first position, the heels are together, with toes turned out until the feet are in a straight line. In the second position, the feet are in a parallel line, separated by a distance of about 12 inches (30 cm) and both turned outward, with the…

  • First Prayer Book, The (work by Cranmer)

    Book of Common Prayer: The First Prayer Book, enacted by the first Act of Uniformity of Edward VI in 1549, was prepared primarily by Thomas Cranmer, who became archbishop of Canterbury in 1533. It was viewed as a compromise between old and new ideas and was in places diplomatically…

  • first premise (logic)

    history of logic: Syllogisms: …it occurs is called the major premise. The subject of the conclusion is called the minor term and the premise in which it occurs is called the minor premise. This way of describing major and minor terms conforms to Aristotle’s actual practice and was proposed as a definition by the…

  • First Presbyterian Church (church, Stamford, Connecticut, United States)

    Wallace K. Harrison: His First Presbyterian Church, Stamford, Conn., is considered an outstanding example of modern church design. Shaped like a fish, the interior is flooded with coloured light from large expanses of stained glass.

  • First Presidency (Mormonism)

    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: Structure of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints: …of the church are the First Presidency (the church president and two councillors), the Council of the Twelve Apostles, the First Quorum of Seventy, and the presiding bishop and two councillors, who manage the church’s property and welfare programs. All are “sustained in office” by the regular and now-ritualized vote…

  • first principle (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Monistic cosmologies: Thus, the term arche, which originally simply meant “beginning,” acquired the new meaning of “principle,” a term that henceforth played an enormous role in philosophy down to the present. This concept of a principle that remains the same through many transmutations is, furthermore, the presupposition of the idea…

  • First Principles (work by Spencer)

    Herbert Spencer: Life and works: …Principles of Psychology, volumes on first principles and on biology, sociology, and morality. First Principles was published in 1862, and between then and 1896, when the third volume of The Principles of Sociology appeared, the task was completed. In order to prepare the ground for The Principles of Sociology, Spencer…

  • First Programme for Economic Expansion (Irish history)

    Ireland: Integration in Europe: Lemass and Whitaker implemented the First Programme for Economic Expansion (1958–63), under which the principle of protection was abandoned and foreign investment encouraged, while a targeted growth rate of 2 percent resulted in 4 percent actual growth. This prosperity brought profound social and cultural changes to what had been one…

  • First Provincial Normal School (school, Changsha, China)

    Mao Zedong: Early years: Mao eventually graduated from the First Provincial Normal School in Changsha in 1918. While officially an institution of secondary level rather than of higher education, the normal school offered a high standard of instruction in Chinese history, literature, and philosophy as well as in Western ideas. While at the school,…

  • First Qin Emperor, Mausoleum of the (archaeological site, China)

    Qin tomb, major Chinese archaeological site near the ancient capital city of Chang’an, Shaanxi sheng (province), China, now near the modern city of Xi’an. It is the burial place of the first sovereign emperor, Shihuangdi of the Qin dynasty (221–207 bce), who unified the empire, began construction

  • first quarter moon (lunar phase)

    Moon: Principal characteristics of the Earth-Moon system: …displays four main phases: new, first quarter, full, and last quarter. New moon occurs when the Moon is between Earth and the Sun, and thus the side of the Moon that is in shadow faces Earth. Full moon occurs when the Moon is on the opposite side of Earth from…

  • First Reformed (film by Schrader [2017])

    Ethan Hawke: …counsels a radical environmentalist in First Reformed (2017). In 2018 Hawke portrayed a middle-aged former rock star in the romantic comedy Juliet, Naked, based on a novel by Nick Hornby, and played an eccentric bank robber in Stockholm, a farce about the 1973 hostage situation that gave rise to the…

  • First Religious Society (American organization)

    Thomas Wentworth Higginson: …Higginson became pastor of the First Religious Society of Newburyport, Massachusetts, where he preached a social gospel too liberal even for Unitarians. Two years later his progressive views on temperance, women’s rights, labour, and slavery caused him to lose his congregation.

  • First Report on Public Credit (paper by Hamilton)

    United States: The Federalist administration and the formation of parties: This plan met strong opposition from the many who had sold their securities at great discount during the postwar depression and from Southern states, which had repudiated their debts and did not want to be taxed to pay other states’ debts. A compromise in Congress was…

  • First Republic (Portuguese history [1910–1926])

    Portugal: The First Republic, 1910–26: The new regime formed a provisional government under the presidency of Teófilo Braga, a well-known writer. A new electoral law was issued giving the vote only to a restricted number of adult males. The provisional government presided over the election of a…

  • First Republic (Madagascan history)

    Madagascar: The First Republic: The opposition regrouped under the name Congress Party for the Independence of Madagascar (Antokon’ny Kongresin’ny Fahaleovantenan’i Madagasikara; AKFM), which included both Protestant Merina dissidents and communists. Antananarivo was the party’s stronghold; it also had some support in the provinces but, owing to the…

  • First Republic (Burundian history)

    Burundi: The First and Second republics: …the formal proclamation of the First Republic (with Micombero as president), the last obstacle in the path of Tutsi domination was removed.

  • First Republic (French history)

    Louis XVI: Attempt to flee the country: … and the proclamation of the First French Republic on September 21. In November, proof of Louis XVI’s secret dealings with Mirabeau and of his counterrevolutionary intrigues with the foreigners was found in a secret cupboard in the Tuileries. On December 3 it was decided that Louis, who together with his…

  • First Republic (Spanish history)

    anticlericalism: Spain: The first Spanish Republic (1873) enacted some anticlerical laws, but these were repealed or disregarded when the monarchy was restored in 1875. During an anticlerical outbreak in 1909, mobs burned churches and attacked priests. As a pacification measure, religious orders were restricted in number and taxes…

  • First Republic (South Korean history)

    South Korea: The First Republic: The First Republic, established in August 1948, adopted a presidential system, and Syngman Rhee was subsequently elected its first president. South Korea also adopted a National Security Law, which effectively prohibited groups that opposed the state or expressions of support for North Korea.…

  • First Republic (Austrian history)

    Austria: First Republic and the Anschluss: On October 21, 1918, the 210 German members of the Reichsrat of Austria formed themselves into the National Assembly for German-Austria, and on October 30 they proclaimed this an independent state under the direction of the State…

Your preference has been recorded
Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载