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  • Fistful of Dollars, A (film by Leone [1964])

    A Fistful of Dollars, Italian western film, released in 1964, that popularized the “spaghetti western” subgenre and was a breakthrough movie for director Sergio Leone and star Clint Eastwood. A mysterious stranger (played by Eastwood) drifts into a small Mexican town only to find a virtual war

  • fistula (pathology)

    Fistula, abnormal duct or passageway between organs. Fistulas can form between various parts of the body, including between the uterus and the peritoneal cavity (metroperitoneal, or uteroperitoneal, fistula), between an artery and a vein (arteriovenous fistula), between the bronchi and the pleural

  • Fistulariida (fish)

    Cornetfish, (family Fistulariida), any of about four species of extremely long and slim gasterosteiform fishes that constitute the genus Fistularia. They are found in tropical and temperate nearshore marine waters in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans that are characterized by soft bottoms

  • Fistulina hepatica (Polyporales species)

    Agaricales: Other families and genera: Fistulina hepatica, commonly called beefsteak fungus, is an edible species found in the autumn on oaks and other trees, on which it causes a stain called brown oak. Its common name is derived from its colour, which resembles that of raw beef.

  • fistulotomy (surgery)

    fistula: …repaired through a procedure called fistulotomy, in which the passageway of the fistula is opened and combined with the anal canal. Fistulas of the vagina can be repaired by intravaginal surgery; in severe cases, reconstructive surgery is necessary to rebuild damaged tissues. Fibrin glue, which is typically made from the…

  • FIT (diagnostic test)

    colorectal cancer: Diagnosis: A fecal immunochemical test (FIT) may also be used to detect the presence of blood in the stool. FIT tests can be completed at home and then mailed to a laboratory for testing. Results are sent to the patient’s physician. If colorectal cancer is suspected, the…

  • fit (literature)

    Fit, in literature, a division of a poem or song, a canto, or a similar division. The word, which is archaic, is of Old English date and has an exact correspondent in Old Saxon fittea, an example of which occurs in the Latin preface of the Heliand. It probably represents figurative use of a common

  • FITA (sports organization)

    archery: History: …with the founding of the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l’Arc (FITA; Federation of International Target Archery) in Paris.

  • FITA round (archery)

    FITA round, in the sport of archery, a form of target shooting competition used in international and world championship events, authorized by the Fédération Internationale de Tir à l’Arc (FITA), the world governing body of the sport. The round consists of 144 arrows, 36 at each of 4 distances. F

  • FITA World Outdoor Target Archery Champions

    The Fédération Internationale de Tir à l’Arc (FITA; Federation of International Target Archery) was organized in 1931. Since then, world championship archery matches have been held on an annual or biennial basis (except during World War II). FITA target distances are 90, 70, 50, and 30 metres (295,

  • fitch (fur industry)

    Fitch, fur trade name for the polecat, especially the European, or common,

  • Fitch, Bill (American basketball coach)

    Cleveland Cavaliers: Coached by Bill Fitch and playing in the antiquated Cleveland Arena, the Cavs finished their first season with the worst record in the league, a frustrating exercise that was epitomized by John Warren unwittingly shooting at and scoring in the opponent’s basket during one game. The team’s…

  • Fitch, Bob (American photographer)

    Bob Fitch, (Robert De Witt Fitch), American photographer (born July 20, 1939, Los Angeles, Calif.—died April 29, 2016, Watsonville, Calif.), documented in hundreds of vivid photographs the American civil rights movement, the farm workers crusade led by American labour leader Cesar Chavez, and other

  • Fitch, Clyde (American playwright)

    Clyde Fitch, American playwright best known for plays of social satire and character study. Fitch graduated from Amherst College in 1886. In New York City he began writing short stories for magazines. A prolific writer, he produced 33 original plays and 22 adaptations, including Beau Brummel

  • Fitch, Dennis (American pilot)

    United Airlines Flight 232: Dennis Fitch, a United Airlines DC-10 training instructor, was a passenger in the first-class section, and he volunteered to help. Haynes instructed Fitch to operate the thrusters that powered the two remaining engines, which gave very minimal control over the aircraft’s direction and orientation, while…

  • Fitch, John (American industrialist)

    John Fitch, pioneer of American steamboat transportation who produced serviceable steamboats before Robert Fulton. Fitch served in the American Revolution (1775–83) and later surveyed land along the Ohio River. Settling in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, in 1785, he became interested in building

  • Fitch, Lucy (American writer)

    Lucy Fitch Perkins, American writer of children’s books, best remembered for her Twins series of storybooks that ranged in setting among different cultures and times. Lucy Fitch attended the Museum of Fine Arts School in Boston (1883–86). She worked as an illustrator for the Prang Educational

  • Fitch, Ralph (British explorer)

    Ralph Fitch, merchant who was among the first Englishmen to travel through India and Southeast Asia. In February 1583, together with John Newberry, John Eldred, William Leedes, and James Story, Fitch embarked in the Tiger and reached Syria in late April. (Act I, scene 3 of William Shakespeare’s

  • Fitch, Robert De Witt (American photographer)

    Bob Fitch, (Robert De Witt Fitch), American photographer (born July 20, 1939, Los Angeles, Calif.—died April 29, 2016, Watsonville, Calif.), documented in hundreds of vivid photographs the American civil rights movement, the farm workers crusade led by American labour leader Cesar Chavez, and other

  • Fitch, Val Logsdon (American physicist)

    Val Logsdon Fitch, American particle physicist who was corecipient, with James Watson Cronin, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1980 for experiments conducted in 1964 that disproved the long-held theory that particle interaction should be indifferent to the direction of time. Fitch’s early interest

  • Fitch, William Clyde (American playwright)

    Clyde Fitch, American playwright best known for plays of social satire and character study. Fitch graduated from Amherst College in 1886. In New York City he began writing short stories for magazines. A prolific writer, he produced 33 original plays and 22 adaptations, including Beau Brummel

  • Fitchburg (Massachusetts, United States)

    Fitchburg, city, Worcester county, north-central Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Mohawk Trail scenic highway and a branch of the Nashua River, just northwest of Leominster and about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Boston. The site was first settled in 1740; originally known as Turkey Hills, it

  • fitchet (mammal)

    Ferret, either of two species of carnivores, the common ferret and the black-footed ferret, belonging to the weasel family (Mustelidae). The common ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is a domesticated form of the European polecat, which it resembles in size and habits and with which it interbreeds. The

  • Fitinghoff, Laura (Swedish author)

    children's literature: National and modern literature: …realistic breakthrough was achieved by Laura Fitinghoff, whose historical novel about the famine of the 1860s, Barnen fr?n Frostmofj?llet (1907; Eng. trans., Children of the Moor, 1927), ranks as a classic.

  • Fitna (motion picture)

    Geert Wilders: …the next year he produced Fitna (“Strife”), a controversial short film that interlaces passages from the Qur?ān with graphic images of Islamist terrorist attacks. Unable to find a commercial distributor for Fitna, Wilders released the film on the Internet. He then embarked on a promotional tour and made headlines in…

  • fitnah (Islamic history)

    Fitnah, (Arabic: “trial” or “test”) in Islamic usage, a heretical uprising—especially the first major internal struggle within the Muslim community, which resulted in both civil war (656–661 ce) and religious schism between the Sunnis and the Shi?ah. The third caliph, ?Uthmān (reigned 644–656), a

  • fitness centre (health and recreation)

    gymnasium: …20th century by the terms health club and fitness centre.

  • Fitness of the Environment, The (book by Henderson)

    Lawrence Joseph Henderson: Henderson wrote two philosophical works, The Fitness of the Environment (1913) and The Order of Nature (1917), in which he argued that the planet’s natural environment is perfectly suited for the development of life. Furthermore, he felt that “unique physical properties of matter” made a steadily increasing variety of chemical…

  • fitness walking (exercise)

    walking: Recreational and fitness walking: Organized noncompetitive walking is extremely popular in the United States and Europe. Millions participate for the relaxation and exercise it offers. Walking for recreation or fitness is differentiated from hiking by its shorter distances, less challenging settings, and the lack of need for…

  • fitness, Darwinian (biology)

    kin selection: …play when evaluating the genetic fitness of a given individual. It is based on the concept of inclusive fitness, which is made up of individual survival and reproduction (direct fitness) and any impact that an individual has on the survival and reproduction of relatives (indirect fitness). Kin selection occurs when…

  • Fito, Mount (mountain, Samoa)

    Upolu: …3,608 feet (1,100 metres) at Mount Fito, in O Le Pupu-Pu?e National Park (1978). The island has a densely forested interior, fertile coastal soils, and a wet tropical climate; the endangered flying fox and several types of tropical birds are found there. The port of Apia, the main commercial and…

  • Fitrat, Abdalrauf (author)

    Tajikistan: Literature: They included Abdalrauf Fitrat, whose dialogues Munaz?r? (1909; The Dispute) and Qiyam?t (1923; Last Judgment) have been reprinted many times in Tajik, Russian, and Uzbek, and Sadriddin Ayni, known for his novel Dokhunda (1930; The Mountain Villager) and for his autobiography, Yoddoshtho (1949–54; published in English as…

  • fits, theory of (optics)

    physical science: Optics: …attempted to explain by his theory of fits of easy transmission and fits of easy reflection. Notwithstanding the fact that he generally conceived of light as being particulate, Newton’s theory of fits involves periodicity and vibrations of ether, the hypothetical fluid substance permeating all space (see above).

  • Fitter (Soviet aircraft)

    attack aircraft: …West by the NATO-assigned name Fitter), a single-seat, single-engine aircraft that entered service in the late 1950s and was progressively improved after that time. Soviet development efforts culminated in the late 1970s and ’80s with the MiG-27 Flogger-D and the Sukhoi Su-25 Frogfoot. Late in the Cold War standoff, the…

  • fittest, survival of the (biology)

    Survival of the fittest, term made famous in the fifth edition (published in 1869) of On the Origin of Species by British naturalist Charles Darwin, which suggested that organisms best adjusted to their environment are the most successful in surviving and reproducing. Darwin borrowed the term from

  • Fittig, Rudolf (German chemist)

    Rudolf Fittig, German organic chemist who contributed vigorously to the flowering of structural organic chemistry during the late 19th century. After studying for his Ph.D. (1856-58) under Friedrich W?hler at the University of G?ttingen, Fittig was assistant to W?hler, then became professor at

  • Fitton, Mary (literary subject)

    Mary Fitton, English lady considered by some to be the still-mysterious “dark lady” of William Shakespeare’s sonnets, though her authenticated biography does not suggest acquaintance with him. The identification is now discounted in most serious scholarship. She became maid of honour to Elizabeth I

  • Fitts, Dudley (American teacher, critic, poet and translator)

    Dudley Fitts, American teacher, critic, poet, and translator, best known for his contemporary English versions of classical Greek works. While a student at Harvard University (B.A., 1925), Fitts edited the Harvard Advocate, which published his first writings. His poetry and criticism also appeared

  • Fitz, Reginald H. (American physician)

    appendicitis: …acute appendicitis was American physician Reginald H. Fitz in 1886. His article, “Perforating Inflammation of the Vermiform Appendix with Special Reference to Its Early Diagnosis and Treatment,” was published in the American Journal of Medical Science and led to the recognition that appendicitis is one of the most common causes…

  • Fitz-Boodle (British author)

    William Makepeace Thackeray, English novelist whose reputation rests chiefly on Vanity Fair (1847–48), a novel of the Napoleonic period in England, and The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. (1852), set in the early 18th century. Thackeray was the only son of Richmond Thackeray, an administrator in the

  • Fitz-Gerald, Sarah (Australian athlete)

    Sarah Fitz-Gerald, Australian squash rackets player who dominated the sport in the early years of the 21st century and retired at the top of her game. Fitz-Gerald grew up in Melbourne. Her mother was a four-time Australian Open squash champion who became a coach. Fitz-Gerald’s potential was

  • Fitz-James, Duc de (English noble and marshal of France)

    James Fitzjames, duke of Berwick-upon-Tweed, English nobleman and marshal of France who was a leading military commander in the French service in the earlier wars of the 18th century. Fitzjames was the “illegitimate” son of James, duke of York (later King James II of England), and Arabella

  • Fitzalan family (Scottish family)

    Scotland: David I (1124–53): …Ayrshire and Lauderdale, and the Fitzalans, who became hereditary high stewards and who, as the Stewart dynasty, were to inherit the throne in Renfrewshire. (After the 16th century the Stewart dynasty was known by its French spelling, Stuart.) Such men were often given large estates in outlying areas to bolster…

  • Fitzalan, Henry (English noble)

    Henry Fitzalan, 12th earl of Arundel, prominent English lord during the reign of the Tudors, implicated in Roman Catholic conspiracies against Elizabeth I. Son of William Fitzalan (1483–1544), the 11th earl, he succeeded to the earldom in 1544. He took part in the siege of Boulogne (1544) and was

  • Fitzalan, Richard (English noble)

    Richard Fitzalan, 4th earl of Arundel, one of the chief opponents of Richard II. He began as a member of the royal council during the minority of Richard II and about 1381 was made one of the young king’s governors. About 1385 he joined the baronial party led by the King’s uncle, Thomas of

  • Fitzalan, Thomas (English noble)

    Thomas Fitzalan Arundel, 11th earl of Surrey, only surviving son of Richard Fitzalan, the 4th earl, and a champion of Henry IV and Henry V of England. King Richard II made him a ward of John Holland, duke of Exeter, from whose keeping he escaped about 1398 and joined his uncle, Archbishop Thomas

  • Fitzalan, Walter (English noble)

    Renfrewshire: In 1314 Walter Fitzalan, high steward of Scotland, who resided in Renfrew, married Marjory, daughter of King Robert the Bruce and mother of Robert II. In 1404 Robert III designated the barony of Renfrew and the Stuart estates a separate county.

  • Fitzalan-Howard, Miles Francis Stapelton (British noble)

    Miles Francis Stapleton Fitzalan-Howard, 17th duke of Norfolk, British peer and public servant (born July 21, 1915, London, Eng.—died June 24, 2002, Hambleden, Buckinghamshire, Eng.), inherited (1975) the oldest dukedom in Britain (created by King Richard II in 1397) and with it the ceremonial r

  • Fitzcarraldo (film by Herzog [1982])

    Werner Herzog: …ship over a mountain for Fitzcarraldo. Herzog’s subject matter has often led to such offbeat casting choices as dwarfs in Auch Zwerge haben klein angefangen and Bruno S., a lifelong inmate of prisons and mental institutions, in The Mystery of Kaspar Hauser and Stroszek.

  • FitzClarence, Charles (British brigadier general)

    First Battle of Ypres: The Battle of the Yser and the main German attack: Charles FitzClarence and delivered by the 2nd Battalion Worcestershire Regiment against Gheluvelt from the north drove the Germans out of the village. Later in the day this success was confirmed by another counterattack on a larger scale organized and directed by Maj. Gen. Edward Bulfin.…

  • Fitzempress, Henry (king of England)

    Henry II, duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou (from 1151), duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from 1154), who greatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthened the royal administration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, and with

  • Fitzgerald (Georgia, United States)

    Fitzgerald, city, seat (1906) of Ben Hill county, south-central Georgia, U.S., about 80 miles (130 km) south of Macon. It was settled in 1895 after the governor of Georgia, William J. Northern, sponsored a relief train to Midwesterners suffering from a severe drought. Philander H. Fitzgerald of

  • Fitzgerald, Barry (Irish actor)

    And Then There Were None: Cast:

  • FitzGerald, Edward (British author)

    Edward FitzGerald, English writer, best known for his Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám, which, though it is a very free adaptation and selection from the Persian poet’s verses, stands on its own as a classic of English literature. It is one of the most frequently quoted of lyric poems, and many of its

  • Fitzgerald, Ella (American singer)

    Ella Fitzgerald, American jazz singer who became world famous for the wide range and rare sweetness of her voice. She became an international legend during a career that spanned some six decades. As a child, Fitzgerald wanted to be a dancer, but when she panicked at an amateur contest in 1934 at

  • Fitzgerald, Ella Jane (American singer)

    Ella Fitzgerald, American jazz singer who became world famous for the wide range and rare sweetness of her voice. She became an international legend during a career that spanned some six decades. As a child, Fitzgerald wanted to be a dancer, but when she panicked at an amateur contest in 1934 at

  • Fitzgerald, F. Scott (American writer)

    F. Scott Fitzgerald, American short-story writer and novelist famous for his depictions of the Jazz Age (the 1920s), his most brilliant novel being The Great Gatsby (1925). His private life, with his wife, Zelda, in both America and France, became almost as celebrated as his novels. Fitzgerald was

  • Fitzgerald, Francis Scott Key (American writer)

    F. Scott Fitzgerald, American short-story writer and novelist famous for his depictions of the Jazz Age (the 1920s), his most brilliant novel being The Great Gatsby (1925). His private life, with his wife, Zelda, in both America and France, became almost as celebrated as his novels. Fitzgerald was

  • FitzGerald, Garret (prime minister of Ireland)

    Garret FitzGerald, taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland (June 1981–March 1982, December 1982–March 1987), as leader of the Fine Gael party in coalition with the Labour Party. FitzGerald was born into a political family of revolutionary persuasions during the infancy of the Irish Free State; his

  • FitzGerald, Garret Michael (prime minister of Ireland)

    Garret FitzGerald, taoiseach (prime minister) of Ireland (June 1981–March 1982, December 1982–March 1987), as leader of the Fine Gael party in coalition with the Labour Party. FitzGerald was born into a political family of revolutionary persuasions during the infancy of the Irish Free State; his

  • FitzGerald, George Francis (Irish physicist)

    George Francis FitzGerald, physicist who first suggested a method of producing radio waves, thus helping to lay the basis of wireless telegraphy. He also developed a theory, now known as the Lorentz–-FitzGerald contraction, which Einstein used in his own special theory of relativity. FitzGerald

  • Fitzgerald, Geraldine (American actress)

    Geraldine Mary Fitzgerald, Irish-born actress (born Nov. 24, 1913, Greystones, County Wicklow, Ire.—died July 17, 2005, New York, N.Y.), was a versatile performer whose long career was especially notable for her supporting roles in films that included Wuthering Heights (1939), Dark Victory (

  • FitzGerald, James (New Zealand politician)

    New Zealand: Responsible government: Henry Sewell and James FitzGerald, of Canterbury, led the representatives in this struggle; heading the opposition against them was Edward Gibbon Wakefield, who, having first moved the resolution for responsible government, then secretly opposed it while serving as extra-official adviser to the acting governor. The Colonial Office (which…

  • Fitzgerald, James Fitzmaurice (Irish noble)

    James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald, Irish Roman Catholic nobleman who led two unsuccessful uprisings against English rule in the province of Munster in southwest Ireland. In 1568, following the arrest and imprisonment of his cousin Gerald Fitzgerald, 14th earl of Desmond, on charges of resisting the

  • Fitzgerald, Len (Australian rules football player)

    Len Fitzgerald, Australian rules football player (born May 17, 1929—died April 17, 2007), was one of Australia’s finest “footy” players in the era before the separate state leagues evolved into the national Australian Football League (AFL). Fitzgerald made his professional debut in 1945 at age 15

  • Fitzgerald, Lord Edward (Irish rebel)

    Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Irish rebel who was renowned for his gallantry and courage, who was a leading conspirator behind the uprising of 1798 against British rule in Ireland. The son of James Fitzgerald, 1st duke of Leinster, he joined the British army and in 1781 fought against the colonists in

  • Fitzgerald, P. A. (British philosopher)

    animal rights: Animals and the law: Repeating the phrase, P.A. Fitzgerald’s 1966 treatise Salmond on Jurisprudence declared, “The law is made for men and allows no fellowship or bonds of obligation between them and the lower animals.” The most important consequence of this view is that animals have long been categorized as “legal things,”…

  • Fitzgerald, Patrick (American lawyer)

    Patrick Fitzgerald, American lawyer who, as the U.S. attorney (Northern District of Illinois) in Chicago (2001–12) and as a special prosecutor, supervised a number of high-profile investigations in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Fitzgerald was born to Irish immigrant parents in New York City. He

  • Fitzgerald, Patrick J. (American lawyer)

    Patrick Fitzgerald, American lawyer who, as the U.S. attorney (Northern District of Illinois) in Chicago (2001–12) and as a special prosecutor, supervised a number of high-profile investigations in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Fitzgerald was born to Irish immigrant parents in New York City. He

  • Fitzgerald, Penelope (British author)

    Penelope Fitzgerald, English novelist and biographer noted for her economical, yet evocative, witty, and intricate works often concerned with the efforts of her characters to cope with their unfortunate life circumstances. Although she did not begin writing until she was in her late 50s, she

  • Fitzgerald, Peter (United States senator)

    Carol Moseley Braun: …seat to her Republican challenger, Peter Fitzgerald. From 1999 to 2001 she served as U.S. ambassador to New Zealand. She unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party presidential nomination in 2004. Moseley Braun subsequently founded (2005) an organic food company. In 2010 she announced that she would run for mayor of Chicago,…

  • FitzGerald, R. D. (Australian poet)

    R.D. FitzGerald, Australian poet known for his technical skill and seriousness. FitzGerald studied science at the University of Sydney but left after two years to become a surveyor in Fiji. During World War II he worked on engineering surveys in New South Wales, then with the Department of the

  • Fitzgerald, Robert (American poet)

    Robert Fitzgerald, American poet, educator, and critic who was best known for his translations of Greek classics. Fitzgerald grew up in Springfield, Illinois, and attended Harvard University, from which he received a B.A. in 1933. He worked as a journalist at the New York Herald Tribune (1933–35)

  • FitzGerald, Robert David (Australian poet)

    R.D. FitzGerald, Australian poet known for his technical skill and seriousness. FitzGerald studied science at the University of Sydney but left after two years to become a surveyor in Fiji. During World War II he worked on engineering surveys in New South Wales, then with the Department of the

  • Fitzgerald, Robert Stuart (American poet)

    Robert Fitzgerald, American poet, educator, and critic who was best known for his translations of Greek classics. Fitzgerald grew up in Springfield, Illinois, and attended Harvard University, from which he received a B.A. in 1933. He worked as a journalist at the New York Herald Tribune (1933–35)

  • Fitzgerald, Roy (American actor)

    Rock Hudson, American actor noted for his good looks and movie roles during the 1950s and ’60s and popular television series in the 1970s. A well-liked actor of modest talent, Hudson was one of the first known Hollywood celebrities to die of AIDS-related complications; the extensive publicity

  • Fitzgerald, Thomas, 10th Earl of Kildare (Irish leader)

    Thomas Fitzgerald, 10th earl of Kildare, leader of a major Irish rebellion against King Henry VIII of England. The failure of the uprising ended the Fitzgerald family’s hereditary viceroyalty of Ireland and led to the tightening of English control over the country. When his father, the Irish lord

  • Fitzgerald, Zelda (American writer and artist)

    Zelda Fitzgerald, American writer and artist, best known for personifying the carefree ideals of the 1920s flapper and for her tumultuous marriage to F. Scott Fitzgerald. Zelda was the youngest daughter of Alabama Supreme Court Justice Anthony Dickinson Sayre and Minnie Buckner Machen Sayre. She

  • Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys, The (work by Goodwin)

    Doris Kearns Goodwin: Goodwin’s next book, The Fitzgeralds and the Kennedys (1987), was a best seller and was made into a television miniseries in 1990, but in 2002 it became publicly known that the book contained unattributed quotations from author Lynne McTaggart. Goodwin maintained that her plagiarism was unintentional and was…

  • Fitzgibbon, Catherine (American Roman Catholic nun)

    Sister Irene Fitzgibbon, American Roman Catholic nun who established programs in New York City for the welfare of foundling children and unwed mothers. Fitzgibbon immigrated to the United States with her parents in 1832 and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. In 1850 she entered the novitiate of the

  • Fitzgibbon, Sister Irene (American Roman Catholic nun)

    Sister Irene Fitzgibbon, American Roman Catholic nun who established programs in New York City for the welfare of foundling children and unwed mothers. Fitzgibbon immigrated to the United States with her parents in 1832 and grew up in Brooklyn, New York. In 1850 she entered the novitiate of the

  • FitzHamon, Robert (Norman landowner)

    Cardiff: The Norman landowner Robert FitzHamon built a fortification within the remains of the Roman fort, possibly as early as 1081. Cardiff Castle became the base of the lords of Glamorgan, governing the county on behalf of the English crown for the next 450 years. By 1150 a stone…

  • Fitzhenry, Henry (king designate of England)

    Henry The Young King, second son of King Henry II of England by Eleanor of Aquitaine; he was regarded, after the death of his elder brother, William, in 1156, as his father’s successor in England, Normandy, and Anjou. In 1158 Henry, only three years of age, was betrothed to Margaret, daughter of

  • Fitzherbert, Maria (British consort)

    Maria Fitzherbert, secret wife of the prince of Wales, the future George IV of Great Britain. Of an old Roman Catholic family, she was educated at a French convent. Her first marriage, in 1775, was to Edward Weld, who died within a year, and her second, in 1778, was to Thomas Fitzherbert, who died

  • Fitzherbert, Maria Anne (British consort)

    Maria Fitzherbert, secret wife of the prince of Wales, the future George IV of Great Britain. Of an old Roman Catholic family, she was educated at a French convent. Her first marriage, in 1775, was to Edward Weld, who died within a year, and her second, in 1778, was to Thomas Fitzherbert, who died

  • Fitzjames, James (English noble and marshal of France)

    James Fitzjames, duke of Berwick-upon-Tweed, English nobleman and marshal of France who was a leading military commander in the French service in the earlier wars of the 18th century. Fitzjames was the “illegitimate” son of James, duke of York (later King James II of England), and Arabella

  • FitzMary, Simon (English sheriff)

    Bedlam: …outside the London wall, by Simon FitzMary, former sheriff of London; it was then known as the Priory of St. Mary of Bethlehem (from which sprang the variant spellings Bedlam and Bethlem). Bedlam was mentioned as a hospital in 1329, and some permanent patients were accommodated there by 1403. In…

  • Fitzmaurice, George (film director)

    The Son of the Sheik: Production notes and credits:

  • Fitzneale, Richard (English bishop)

    Richard Fitzneale, bishop of London and treasurer of England under kings Henry II and Richard I and author of the Dialogus de scaccario (“Dialogue of the Exchequer”). Fitzneale was the son of Nigel, bishop of Ely (1133), and the great nephew of Roger, bishop of Salisbury, who had organized the

  • FitzOsbern, William, 1st Earl of Hereford (French noble)

    William FitzOsbern, 1st earl of Hereford, Norman soldier and lord, one of William the Conqueror’s closest supporters. The son of Osbern (or Obbern) de Crépon, seneschal of Normandy, FitzOsbern himself became seneschal of Normandy and in 1060 was given the lordship and castle of Bréteuil. He took a

  • FitzOsbern, William, 1st Earl of Hereford, Seigneur de Bréteuil (French noble)

    William FitzOsbern, 1st earl of Hereford, Norman soldier and lord, one of William the Conqueror’s closest supporters. The son of Osbern (or Obbern) de Crépon, seneschal of Normandy, FitzOsbern himself became seneschal of Normandy and in 1060 was given the lordship and castle of Bréteuil. He took a

  • FitzOsbert, William (English crusader)

    William FitzOsbert, English crusader and populist, a martyr for the poorer classes of London. A London citizen of good family, FitzOsbert took part in the English expedition against the Muslims in Portugal (1190). On his return he made himself leader of the common people of London against the mayor

  • Fitzpatrick, Sean (New Zealand athlete)

    Sean Fitzpatrick, New Zealand rugby union football player who was a powerful and mobile hooker who came to be regarded by many as the all-time greatest at his position. At the time of his retirement in 1997, Fitzpatrick had appeared in more Test (international) matches than any other forward in the

  • Fitzralph, Matthew (American scholar and mystery writer)

    Ralph Matthew McInerny, (Harry Austin; Matthew Fitzralph; Ernan Mackey; Edward Mackin; Monica Quill), American scholar and mystery writer (born Feb. 24, 1929, Minneapolis, Minn.—died Jan. 29, 2010, Mishawaka, Ind.), had a dual career as a medieval scholar (1955–2009) at the University of Notre

  • Fitzroy River (river, Queensland, Australia)

    Fitzroy River, river in eastern Queensland, Australia, formed by the confluence of the Dawson and Mackenzie rivers, on the slopes of the Great Dividing Range. The united stream flows northeast across the Broadsound Range and then southeast through distributaries to enter Keppel Bay of the Coral Sea

  • Fitzroy River (river, Western Australia, Australia)

    Fitzroy River, river in northern Western Australia. It rises in the Durack Range in east Kimberley and traces a 325-mile (525-kilometre) course that flows southwest through the rugged King Leopold Ranges and the Geikie Gorge (where many freshwater crocodiles are found) and turns northwest through

  • Fitzroy, Augustus Henry (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd duke of Grafton, British prime minister (1768–70) and a prominent figure in the period of the American Revolutionary War. Grandson of the 2nd duke, Charles Fitzroy (1683–1757), and great-grandson of the 1st, he was educated at Westminster School and Peterhouse,

  • Fitzroy, Charles (English noble)

    Charles Fitzroy, 1st duke of Southampton, the natural son of Charles II by Barbara Villiers, countess of Castlemaine. When his mother became duchess of Cleveland and countess of Southampton in 1670, he was allowed to assume the name of Fitzroy and the courtesy title of earl of Southampton. In 1675

  • Fitzroy, Henry (English noble)

    Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey: …Windsor with his father’s ward, Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Richmond, who was the son of Henry VIII and his mistress Elizabeth Blount. In 1532, after talk of marriage with the princess Mary (daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon), he married Lady Frances de Vere, the 14-year-old daughter of…

  • Fitzroy, James (English noble)

    James Scott, duke of Monmouth, claimant to the English throne who led an unsuccessful rebellion against King James II in 1685. Although the strikingly handsome Monmouth had the outward bearing of an ideal monarch, he lacked the intelligence and resolution needed for a determined struggle for power.

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