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  • Flanders (medieval principality and historical region, Europe)

    Flanders, medieval principality in the southwest of the Low Countries, now included in the French département of Nord (q.v.), the Belgian provinces of East Flanders and West Flanders (qq.v.), and the Dutch province of Zeeland (q.v.). The name appeared as early as the 8th century and is believed to

  • Flanders (region, Belgium)

    Flanders, region that constitutes the northern half of Belgium. Along with the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region, the self-governing Flemish Region was created during the federalization of Belgium, largely along ethnolinguistic lines, in the 1980s and ’90s. Its elected government has

  • Flanders poppy (plant)

    Corn poppy, (Papaver rhoeas), annual (rarely biennial) plant of the poppy family (Papaveraceae), native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. The plant has been introduced into Australia, New Zealand, and North America and is one of the most commonly cultivated garden poppies. The corn poppy is also

  • Flanders, John (Belgian author)

    Jean Ray, Belgian novelist, short-story writer, and journalist who is known for his crime fiction and narratives of horror and the fantastic in both French and Flemish (Dutch). De Kremer worked as a city employee, from 1910 to 1919, before working as a journalist (1919–40). He began to publish

  • Flanders, plain of (plain, Belgium)

    Belgium: Relief, drainage, and soils: …the Schelde is the low-lying plain of Flanders, which has two main sections. Maritime Flanders, extending inland for about 5 to 10 miles (8 to 16 km), is a region of newly formed and reclaimed land (polders) protected by a line of dunes and dikes and having largely clay soils.…

  • Flandin, Pierre-étienne (French politician)

    Pierre-étienne Flandin, lawyer, politician, and several times a minister during the final years of France’s Third Republic. Flandin was a deputy from 1914 to 1940 and, in addition, held various ministerial posts. He also served as premier from November 1934 to May 1935. When in March 1936 the

  • Flandre (medieval principality and historical region, Europe)

    Flanders, medieval principality in the southwest of the Low Countries, now included in the French département of Nord (q.v.), the Belgian provinces of East Flanders and West Flanders (qq.v.), and the Dutch province of Zeeland (q.v.). The name appeared as early as the 8th century and is believed to

  • Flandre Occidentale (province, Belgium)

    Belgium: …northern and northeastern provinces (West Flanders, East Flanders [West-Vlaanderen, Oost-Vlaanderen], Flemish Brabant, Antwerp, and Limburg). Just north of the boundary between Walloon Brabant (Brabant Walloon) and Flemish (Vlaams) Brabant lies the officially bilingual

  • Flandre Orientale (province, Belgium)

    Belgium: (West Flanders, East Flanders [West-Vlaanderen, Oost-Vlaanderen], Flemish Brabant, Antwerp, and Limburg). Just north of the boundary between Walloon Brabant (Brabant Walloon) and Flemish (Vlaams) Brabant lies the officially bilingual but majority French-speaking Brussels-Capital

  • Flandrensis (historical region, Europe)

    Flanders: …Flanders lay in the pagus Flandrensis, an area composed of Brugge (Bruges) and its immediate environs under the administration of the Frankish empire. At first Flandrensis was an inconspicuous district, but beginning in the 9th century, a remarkable line of Flemish counts succeeded in erecting a quasi-independent state on the…

  • Flandrian Transgression (geology)

    Holocene Epoch: Continental shelf and coastal regions: …where it was named the Flandrian Transgression by Georges Dubois in 1924.

  • Flanigan, Bob (American singer)

    Bob Flanigan, (Robert Lee Flanigan), American singer (born Aug. 22, 1926, Greencastle, Ind.—died May 15, 2011, Las Vegas, Nev.), cofounded (1948) the close-harmony group the Four Freshmen while attending Butler University, Indianapolis, and served as its lead vocalist, as well as trombonist and

  • Flanigan, Robert Lee (American singer)

    Bob Flanigan, (Robert Lee Flanigan), American singer (born Aug. 22, 1926, Greencastle, Ind.—died May 15, 2011, Las Vegas, Nev.), cofounded (1948) the close-harmony group the Four Freshmen while attending Butler University, Indianapolis, and served as its lead vocalist, as well as trombonist and

  • flank attack (military operation)

    tactics: Combined infantry and cavalry: …troops came the heavy phalanx, flanked by cavalry on both sides. The action would start with each side’s light troops trying to drive the opponents back upon their phalanx, thus throwing it into disorder. Meanwhile, the cavalry stood on both sides. Usually one wing, commanded either by the king in…

  • Flanker (Soviet aircraft)

    Sukhoi Su-27, Russian air-superiority fighter plane, introduced into the air forces of the Soviet Union beginning in 1985 and now one of the premier fighters of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Indonesia, India, China, and Vietnam. Versions of the plane are built under license in

  • flanking rudder (steering mechanism)

    ship: Ship maneuvering and directional control: …with a pair of “flanking rudders” for each propeller. These are positioned forward of the propeller, one on each side of the shaft.

  • Flannagan, John Bernard (American sculptor)

    John Bernard Flannagan, American sculptor notable for his technique of direct carving and for his sculptures of animals, birds, fish, and birth themes. Flannagan trained as a painter at the Minneapolis (Minnesota) Institute of Arts (now the Minneapolis College of Art and Design) and eventually

  • flannel (fabric)

    Flannel, fabric made in plain or twill weave, usually with carded yarns. It is napped, most often on both sides, the degree of napping ranging from slight to so heavy that the twill weave is obscured. Fibre composition and amount of napping are dependent on the intended use. Flannel is a

  • flannel moth (insect)

    lepidopteran: Annotated classification: Family Megalopygidae (flannel moths) 240 species in Central and South America; larvae similar to those of Limacodidae, but with normal prolegs and traces of additional ones; setae very toxic and nettling. Family Zygaenidae (burnet and forester moths) More than 1,000 species, mainly in subtropical and tropical Asia…

  • flannelbush (plant)

    Flannelbush, (Fremontodendron californicum), shrub of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), native to southwestern North America. The lower leaf surfaces have a felty texture. The shrub grows up to 5 metres (16 feet) tall and bears alternate, lobed leaves about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. The

  • Flanner, Hildegarde (American writer)

    Hildegarde Flanner, American poet, essayist, and playwright known for her traditional poems that conjured images of nature and the California landscape and spoke to her passion for the environment. Flanner was the youngest of three daughters born to Francis William and Mary Ellen Hockett Flanner,

  • Flanner, Janet (American writer)

    Janet Flanner, American writer who was the Paris correspondent for The New Yorker magazine for nearly half a century. Flanner was the child of Quakers. She attended the University of Chicago in 1912–14 and then returned to Indianapolis and took a job with the Indianapolis Star, becoming the paper’s

  • Flanner, June Hildegarde (American writer)

    Hildegarde Flanner, American poet, essayist, and playwright known for her traditional poems that conjured images of nature and the California landscape and spoke to her passion for the environment. Flanner was the youngest of three daughters born to Francis William and Mary Ellen Hockett Flanner,

  • Flannery, Tim (Australian zoologist)

    Tim Flannery, Australian zoologist and outspoken environmentalist who was named Australian of the Year in 2007 in recognition of his role as an effective communicator in explaining environmental issues and in bringing them to the attention of the Australian public. Flannery received a B.A. in

  • Flannery, Timothy Fridtjof (Australian zoologist)

    Tim Flannery, Australian zoologist and outspoken environmentalist who was named Australian of the Year in 2007 in recognition of his role as an effective communicator in explaining environmental issues and in bringing them to the attention of the Australian public. Flannery received a B.A. in

  • Flannery, Viola Spiess (American socialite)

    Elie Nadelman: In 1919 Nadelman married Viola Spiess Flannery, a wealthy socialite, and the couple, folk-art enthusiasts, opened the Museum of Folk and Peasant Art (later called the Museum of Folk Arts) in Riverdale, New York, in 1926. During the Great Depression, however, the Nadelmans lost their wealth and were forced…

  • Flannery, William (American art director and designer)
  • flap (aircraft part)

    fluid mechanics: Lift: …take the form of hinged flaps that are lowered at takeoff. Lowering the flaps increases K and therefore also the lift, but the flaps need to be raised when the aircraft has reached its cruising altitude because they cause undesirable drag. The circulation and the lift can also be increased…

  • flap (speech sound)

    Flap, in phonetics, a consonant sound produced by a single quick flip of the tongue against the upper part of the mouth, often heard as a short r in Spanish (e.g., in pero, “but”) and similar to the pronunciation of the sound represented by the double letter in American English “Betty” and some

  • flap (medicine)

    plastic surgery: Grafts and flaps: …blood supply and are called flaps. The pioneering work of Australian plastic surgeon Ian Taylor led to the characterization of angiosomes—the networks of blood vessels that supply flaps—which has allowed for rational matching of flaps to defects. Flaps may be transferred from neighbouring tissue, or they may be disconnected from…

  • flap (medicine)

    transplant: Flaps: Flaps as used by Tagliacozzi are particularly valuable if adipose (fat) tissue as well as skin has been lost. This is because flaps are thicker than skin grafts; they consist of the full thickness of skin, with fascia and fat, or may also contain…

  • flap and elbow table (furniture)

    Pembroke table, light, drop-leaf table designed for occasional use, probably deriving its name from Henry Herbert, 9th Earl of Pembroke (1693–1751), a noted connoisseur and amateur architect. The table has two drawers and flaps on either side that can be raised by brackets on hinges (known as

  • flap gate (engineering)

    harbours and sea works: Entrances: …the sliding caisson and the flap gate, or box gate, are perhaps the most popular. The sliding caisson is usually housed in a recess, or camber, at the side of the entrance and can be drawn aside or hauled across with winch and wire rope gear to open and close…

  • flap-footed lizard (reptile)

    Flap-footed lizard, (family Pygopodidae), any of approximately 40 species of lizards that make up the seven genera of the family Pygopodidae. Confined to Australia and southern New Guinea, these lizards have elongated bodies and tails, a transparent scale (or spectacle) over the eye similar to

  • flapper (United States history)

    Louise Brooks: …a symbol of the disdainful flapper of the 1920s.

  • flare (lighting)

    Flare, combustible device used to emit a dazzlingly bright light for signaling or illumination on railroads and highways and in military operations. In pyrotechnics the term is applied either to a coloured-fire composition burned in a loose heap or to a similar composition rolled into a paper case

  • flare (petroleum refinery)

    petroleum refining: Flares: One of the prominent features of every oil refinery and petrochemical plant is a tall stack with a small flame burning at the top. This stack, called a flare, is an essential part of the plant safety system. In the event of equipment failure…

  • flare (astronomy)

    Solar flare, sudden intense brightening in the solar corona, usually in the vicinity of a magnetic inversion near a sunspot group. The flare develops in a few minutes, or even seconds, and may last several hours. High-energy particles, electron streams, hard X-rays, and radio bursts are often

  • flare star (astronomy)

    Flare star, any star that varies in brightness, sometimes by more than one magnitude, within a few minutes. The cause is thought to be the eruption of flares much larger than, but otherwise similar to, those observed on the Sun. Flare stars are sometimes called UV Ceti stars, from a prototype s

  • flare-horned markhor (mammal)

    markhor: The flare-horned markhor (C. f. falconeri) occurs in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India; the straight-horned markhor (C. f. megaceros) lives in Afghanistan and Pakistan; and the Bukharan markhor (C. f. heptneri) is present in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan. All subspecies are considered endangered to critically endangered.…

  • Flash (animation software)

    Adobe Flash, animation software produced by Adobe Systems Incorporated. The development of Adobe Flash software can be traced back to American software developer Jonathan Gay’s first experiments with writing programs on his Apple II computer in high school during the 1980s. Before long, Gay had

  • flash boiler (equipment)

    boiler: The flash boiler may not require a steam drum, because the tubes operate at such high temperatures that the feed water flashes into steam and superheats before leaving the tubes. The largest units are found in the central-station power plants of public utilities. Units of substantial…

  • flash candling (food processing)

    Candling, egg-grading process in which the egg is inspected before a penetrating light in a darkened room for signs of fertility, defects, or freshness. First used to check embryo development in eggs being incubated, candling is used in modern commercial egg production primarily to rate quality.

  • flash dryer (device)

    cereal processing: Starch from tubers: The flash type of dryer, using hot air, is widely employed for starches derived from both tubers and cereals. Sulfurous acid is generally introduced into the process to prevent the development of various microorganisms.

  • flash flood

    flood: …of this variability is the flash flood, a sudden, unexpected torrent of muddy and turbulent water rushing down a canyon or gulch. It is uncommon, of relatively brief duration, and generally the result of summer thunderstorms or the rapid melting of snow and ice in mountains. A flash flood can…

  • Flash Gordon (fictional character)

    Flash Gordon, spaceman hero of the science-fiction comic strip Flash Gordon, created in 1934 by illustrator Alex Raymond and writer Don Moore as a Sunday feature for King Features Syndicate. Intended to compete with the popular comic strip Buck Rogers (which it soon surpassed in popularity), the

  • flash lamp (lighting)

    Flash lamp, any of several devices that produce brief, intense emissions of light useful in photography and in the observation of objects in rapid motion. The first flash lamp used in photography was invented in Germany in 1887; it consisted of a trough filled with Blitzlichtpulver (“flashlight

  • flash lock (civil engineering)

    canals and inland waterways: Medieval revival: …developed with the construction of stanches, or flash locks, in the weirs (dams) of water mills and at intervals along the waterways. Such a lock could be opened suddenly, releasing a torrent that carried a vessel over a shallow place. The commercially advanced and level Low Countries developed a system…

  • flash memory (electronics)

    Flash memory, data-storage medium used with computers and other electronic devices. Unlike previous forms of data storage, flash memory is an EEPROM (electronically erasable programmable read-only memory) form of computer memory and thus does not require a power source to retain the data. Flash

  • flash mob (technology and sociology)

    Internet: Instant broadcast communication: “Flash mobs”—groups of strangers who are mobilized on short notice via Web sites, online discussion groups, or e-mail distribution lists—often take part in bizarre though usually harmless activities in public places, such as engaging in mass free-for-alls around the world on Pillow Fight Day.)

  • flash photolysis (chemical process)

    chemical kinetics: Measuring fast reactions: and George Porter, was the flash-photolysis method, for which Norrish and Porter won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1967. In this technique a flash of light of high intensity but short duration brings about the formation of atomic and molecular species, the reactions of which can be studied kinetically…

  • flash point (physics)

    Flash point, the lowest temperature at which a liquid (usually a petroleum product) will form a vapour in the air near its surface that will “flash,” or briefly ignite, on exposure to an open flame. The flash point is a general indication of the flammability or combustibility of a liquid. Below the

  • flash powder (chemistry)

    flash lamp: The first flash lamp used in photography was invented in Germany in 1887; it consisted of a trough filled with Blitzlichtpulver (“flashlight powder”), a mixture of magnesium, potassium chlorate, and antimony sulfide. Upon ignition the powder burned quickly, providing a brilliant white light, but it also released…

  • flash roaster (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Matte smelting: Flash smelting is a relatively recent development that has found worldwide acceptance. It is an autogenous process, using the oxidation of sulfides in an unroasted charge to supply the heat required to reach reaction temperatures and melt the feed material. The most widely used furnace…

  • flash signaling (communications)

    military communication: The advent of electrical signaling: Vice Admiral Philip Colomb’s flash signaling, adopted in the British navy in 1867, was an adaptation of the Morse code to lights. The first application of the telegraph in time of war was made by the British in the Crimean War in 1854, but its capabilities were not well…

  • flash smelting (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Matte smelting: Flash smelting is a relatively recent development that has found worldwide acceptance. It is an autogenous process, using the oxidation of sulfides in an unroasted charge to supply the heat required to reach reaction temperatures and melt the feed material. The most widely used furnace…

  • flash spectrum (astronomy)

    Flash spectrum, array of wavelengths detectable in the emissions from the limb of the Sun during the flash periods of a few seconds just after the beginning of totality during a solar eclipse or just before the instant of its termination. When the solar photosphere is occulted by the Moon, the

  • flash spotting

    artillery: Target acquisition: Flash spotting relied upon observers noting the azimuth of gun flashes and plotting these so as to obtain intersections. Both methods were highly effective, and sound ranging remained a major means of target acquisition for the rest of the century. Flash spotting fell into disuse…

  • flash steam geothermal power (physics)

    geothermal energy: Electric power generation: …power plants, built around the flash steam and binary cycle designs, use a mixture of steam and heated water (“wet steam”) extracted from the ground to start the electrical generation process.

  • flash tank (container)

    geothermal energy: Electric power generation: …containers at the surface, called flash tanks, where the sudden decrease in pressure causes the liquid water to “flash,” or vaporize, into steam. The steam is then used to power the turbine-generator set. In contrast, binary-cycle power plants use steam driven off a secondary working fluid (such as ammonia and…

  • flash tube (photography)

    Flashtube, electric discharge lamp giving a very bright, very brief burst of light, useful in photography and engineering. See flash

  • Flash, the (comic-book character)

    The Flash, American comic strip superhero created for DC Comics by writer Gardner Fox and artist Harry Lampert. The character first appeared in Flash Comics no. 1 (January 1940). In the Flash’s origin story, student Jay Garrick is experimenting one night in the lab at Midwestern University when he

  • flash-cyclone-oxygen-electric smelting process (chemical reaction)

    metallurgy: Reduction smelting: …the QSL (Queneau-Schuhmann-Lurgi) and the KIVCET (a Russian acronym for “flash-cyclone-oxygen-electric smelting”). In the QSL reactor a submerged injection of shielded oxygen oxidizes lead sulfide to lead metal, while the KIVCET is a type of flash-smelting furnace in which fine, dried lead sulfide concentrate combines with oxygen in a shaft…

  • flash-flood farming (agriculture)

    Tohono O'odham: …instead practicing a form of flash-flood farming. After the first rains, they planted seeds in the alluvial fans at the mouths of washes that marked the maximum reach of the water after flash floods. Because the floods could be heavy, it was necessary for the seeds to be planted deeply,…

  • flashback (cinematography and literature)

    Flashback, in motion pictures and literature, narrative technique of interrupting the chronological sequence of events to interject events of earlier occurrence. The earlier events often take the form of reminiscence. The flashback technique is as old as Western literature. In the Odyssey, most of

  • flashbulb (photography)

    Flashbulb, one-time light bulb giving a single bright burst of light, used in photography. See flash

  • Flashdance (film by Lyne [1983])
  • Flashdance...What a Feeling (song by Moroder, Cara, and Forsey)
  • flashed glass (decorative art)

    stained glass: Developments in the 14th century: …new technique, the abrasion of flashed glass. Ruby glass, whose unique composition made this technique possible, was a laminated glass, although it appears to be coloured intrinsically throughout like all of the other glass in the early windows. Because the metallic agent used to produce its colour was so dense,…

  • Flashes of Light (work by Jāmī)

    Jāmī: …his mystical treatise Lava’i? (Flashes of Light), a clear and precise exposition of the ?ūfī doctrines of wa?dat al-wujūd (the existential unity of Being), together with a commentary on the experiences of other famous mystics.

  • flashing (brick and tile manufacturing)

    brick and tile: Natural colours: The process is known as flashing, and in general the change of colour of the bricks is only on the surface, the body of the unit retaining its natural colour. Some metals, such as manganese, are mixed with the clays to develop special colours.

  • flashing (geyser)

    geyser: …exceeds its boiling point and flashes into steam, forcing more water from the conduit and lowering the pressure further. This chain reaction continues until the geyser exhausts its supply of boiling water.

  • flashing light (lighthouse signal pattern)

    lighthouse: Identification: This is known as a flashing light. Alternatively, it may exhibit groups of two, three, or four flashes, with a short eclipse between individual flashes and a long eclipse of several seconds between successive groups. The whole pattern is repeated at regular intervals of 10 or 20 seconds. These are…

  • flashing light (pathology)

    eye disease: Floaters, blind spots, and flashes: Flashing lights in the field of vision are caused by stimulation of the retina by mechanical means. Most commonly this occurs when the vitreous degenerates and pulls slightly on its attachments to the retina. Similar symptoms also arise when the retina becomes torn or detached,…

  • flashlight fish

    Flashlight fish, any of three species of fishes in the family Anomalopidae (order Beryciformes), characterized by the presence of luminescent organs just below the eye. They are among the few species of non-deep-sea fishes to possess such organs. Bioluminescent bacteria create the light

  • flashlight powder (chemistry)

    flash lamp: The first flash lamp used in photography was invented in Germany in 1887; it consisted of a trough filled with Blitzlichtpulver (“flashlight powder”), a mixture of magnesium, potassium chlorate, and antimony sulfide. Upon ignition the powder burned quickly, providing a brilliant white light, but it also released…

  • flashpan (weaponry)

    military technology: The matchlock: …contact with powder in the flashpan, a small, saucer-shaped depression surrounding the touchhole atop the barrel. This arrangement made it possible for one gunner to aim and fire, and it was quickly improved on. The first and most basic change was the migration of the touchhole to the right side…

  • flashtube (photography)

    Flashtube, electric discharge lamp giving a very bright, very brief burst of light, useful in photography and engineering. See flash

  • Flast v. Cohen (law case)

    standing to sue: Supreme Court noted in Flast v. Cohen (1968) that “the issue of standing is related only to whether the dispute sought to be adjudicated will be presented in an adversary context and in a form historically viewed as capable of judicial resolution.” Clearly, a plaintiff who claims physical injury…

  • flat (dice)

    dice: Cheating with dice: …odds and is called a shape, a brick, or a flat. For example, a cube that has been shaved down on one or more sides so that it is slightly brick-shaped will tend to settle down most often on its larger surfaces, whereas a cube with bevels, on which one…

  • flat (geology)

    Playa, (Spanish: shore or beach) flat-bottom depression found in interior desert basins and adjacent to coasts within arid and semiarid regions, periodically covered by water that slowly filtrates into the ground water system or evaporates into the atmosphere, causing the deposition of salt, sand,

  • flat (music)

    accidental: …note by a semitone; a flat (?) lowers it by a semitone; a natural (?) restores it to the original pitch. Double sharps (×) and double flats (??) indicate that the note is raised or lowered by two semitones. Sharps or flats that are placed at the beginning of a…

  • flat bark beetle (insect)

    Flat bark beetle, (family Cucujidae), any of approximately 500 species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) that are red, yellow, or brown and easily recognized by their narrow, flattened bodies. Cucujids can be found throughout the world. Most are less than 13 mm (0.5 inch) in length and are

  • Flat Bow River (river, North America)

    Kootenay River, stream in western North America, rising in the Rocky Mountains west of Banff, Alta., Can. It flows southward through Kootenay National Park in British Columbia, Can., breaking out of the Rockies to flow generally south in the Rocky Mountain trench. It swings southward into Montana,

  • flat bread (food)

    baking: Flat breads: A large part of the world’s population consumes so-called flat breads on a daily basis. Tortillas and pita bread are representative examples. Traditional tortillas are made from a paste of ground corn kernels that have been soaked in hot lime water. Corn tortillas…

  • flat breaking (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Primary tillage equipment: …of furrows, it is called flat broken. If land is broken in alternate back furrows and dead furrows, it is said to be bedded or listed.

  • flat bug (insect)

    Flat bug, (family Aradidae), any of about 1,000 species of small, flat, dark-coloured insects (order Heteroptera) that are usually found under stones, in crevices in dead or dying trees, or under loose bark. Nearly all flat bugs range in size from 3 to 11 mm (0.12 to 0.43 inch) and feed on fungi

  • flat character (literature)

    Flat and round characters, characters as described by the course of their development in a work of literature. Flat characters are two-dimensional in that they are relatively uncomplicated and do not change throughout the course of a work. By contrast, round characters are complex and undergo

  • flat chasing (metalwork)

    chasing: …particular form of chasing, called flat chasing, which involves hammering with small, blunt tools to give a low-relief ornamentation, was popular for silver decoration in Europe in the early 18th century and was widely used in the United States during the second half of the same century.

  • flat database (computer science)

    database: In flat databases, records are organized according to a simple list of entities; many simple databases for personal computers are flat in structure. The records in hierarchical databases are organized in a treelike structure, with each level of records branching off into a set of smaller…

  • flat figure (puppetry)

    puppetry: Flat figures: Hitherto, all the types of puppets that have been considered have been three-dimensional rounded figures. But there is a whole family of two-dimensional flat figures. Flat figures, worked from above like marionettes, with hinged flaps that could be raised or lowered, were sometimes…

  • flat glass

    industrial glass: Flat glass: The Romans were perhaps the first to develop flat glass for use as windows: a bathhouse window of greenish blue colour, most likely obtained by casting, was discovered in the ruins of Pompeii. In the Middle Ages the crown process for making window…

  • flat grain beetle (insect)

    Flat grain beetle, any member of the insect family Silvanidae (order Coleoptera), closely related to and sometimes included in the flat bark beetle (q.v.) family Cucujidae. These beetles are usually less than 3 millimetres (0.1 inch) in length. Many species live under the bark of trees. Others

  • flat kite (aircraft)

    kite: Kite structure: The flat, bowed, box, sled, and delta require a rigid framework fitted with a sail material, as does the compound, which is formed by integrating two or more of the above types to form one kite. A radical departure in design, the parafoil, a soft airplane-wing…

  • flat knitting (textile)

    knitting: …pattern, and double knits—and the warp knits—including tricot, raschel, and milanese. In knitting, a wale is a column of loops running lengthwise, corresponding to the warp of woven fabric; a course is a crosswise row of loops, corresponding to the filling.

  • flat molding (architecture)

    molding: Flat or angular: of architectural design, as follows: (1) The fascia, face, or band is a continuous member with a flat surface, parallel to the surface that it ornaments and either projecting from or slightly receding into it. (2) The fillet, listel, or regula is a relatively narrow band, usually…

  • flat plate (construction)

    construction: The invention of reinforced concrete: …floor slabs without beams (called flat slabs or flat plates) that used diagonal and orthogonal patterns of reinforcing bars. The system still used today—which divides the bays between columns into column strips and middle strips and uses only an orthogonal arrangement of bars—was devised in 1912 by the Swiss engineer…

  • flat roof (construction)

    roof: …main types of roofs are flat roofs and sloping ones. The flat roof (see the Figure) has historically been widely used in the Middle East, the American Southwest, and anywhere else where the climate is arid and the drainage of water off the roof is thus of secondary importance. Flat…

  • flat shading (art)

    computer graphics: Shading and texturing: In flat shading, no textures are used and only one colour tone is used for the entire object, with different amounts of white or black added to each face of the object to simulate shading. The resulting model appears flat and unrealistic. In Gouraud shading, textures…

  • flat slab (construction)

    construction: The invention of reinforced concrete: …floor slabs without beams (called flat slabs or flat plates) that used diagonal and orthogonal patterns of reinforcing bars. The system still used today—which divides the bays between columns into column strips and middle strips and uses only an orthogonal arrangement of bars—was devised in 1912 by the Swiss engineer…

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