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  • flaxseed (seed and food)

    Flaxseed, edible seeds harvested from flax (Linum usitatissimum) plants, used as a health food and as a source of linseed, or flaxseed, oil. Consumed as food by the ancient Greeks and Romans, flaxseed has reemerged as a possible “superfood” because of its high dietary fibre and omega-3 fatty acid

  • Flay, Bobby (American chef and restaurateur)

    Bobby Flay, American chef, restaurateur, and television personality who was best known for his frequent appearances on the cable station Food Network, where he first garnered attention as one of the original competitors on Iron Chef America (1994– ). Flay, who grew up on New York City’s Upper East

  • Flay, Robert William (American chef and restaurateur)

    Bobby Flay, American chef, restaurateur, and television personality who was best known for his frequent appearances on the cable station Food Network, where he first garnered attention as one of the original competitors on Iron Chef America (1994– ). Flay, who grew up on New York City’s Upper East

  • FLB (linguistics)

    Noam Chomsky: Philosophy of mind and human nature: …computational system alone, whereas the faculty in the broad sense (FLB) includes perceptual-articulatory systems (for sound and sign) and conceptual-intentional systems (for meaning). These are the systems with which the computational system interacts at its interfaces. Regarding evolution, the authors point out that, although there are homologues and analogs in…

  • flea (insect)

    Flea, (order Siphonaptera), any of a group of bloodsucking insects that are important carriers of disease and can be serious pests. Fleas are parasites that live on the exterior of the host (i.e., are ectoparasitic). As the chief agent transmitting the Black Death (bubonic plague) in the Middle

  • Flea (American musician)

    Damon Albarn: …the Red Hot Chili Peppers’ Flea on bass.

  • flea beetle (insect)

    Flea beetle, any member of the insect subfamily Alticinae (Halticinae) belonging to the leaf beetle family Chrysomelidae (order Coleoptera). These tiny beetles, worldwide in distribution, are usually less than 6 mm (0.25 inch) in length and dark or metallic in colour. The enlarged hindlegs are

  • fleabane (plant)

    Fleabane, any of the plants of the genus Erigeron of the family Asteraceae, order Asterales, containing about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs native primarily to temperate parts of the world. Some species are cultivated as rock garden or border ornamentals, especially E.

  • FLEC (Angolan organization)

    Cabinda: …of various factions of the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) as well as other groups, which were fighting for Cabindan independence from Angola. In 2004 some of the groups formed an umbrella organization, Cabinda Forum for Dialogue (which also included civil and religious groups), and…

  • flèche (architecture)

    Flèche, in French architecture, any spire; in English it is an architectural term for a small slender spire placed on the ridge of a church roof. The flèche is usually built of a wood framework covered with lead or occasionally copper and is generally of rich, light, delicate design, in which

  • Flecheln (metalwork)

    metalwork: Pewter: …technique known in German as Flecheln, in which the straight line made by the burin is broken up into a series of long or short zigzag strokes. The last method makes the design look fuller and broader and also makes it stand out more sharply. This type of decoration first…

  • flechette (ammunition)

    hard-target munition: …long thin rod called a fléchette surrounded by a casing (or sabot) that allows the round to fit into the barrel of the firing weapon. After the round is fired, the sabot falls away, and the fléchette continues to the target. Upon impact, the nose of the fléchette splits in…

  • Fleck, Béla (American musician)

    Béla Fleck, American musician recognized as one of the most inventive and commercially successful banjo players of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Fleck became fascinated by bluegrass music during his youth in New York City. He began to play banjo when he was 15 years old, inspired by the

  • Fleck, Béla Anton Leo? (American musician)

    Béla Fleck, American musician recognized as one of the most inventive and commercially successful banjo players of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Fleck became fascinated by bluegrass music during his youth in New York City. He began to play banjo when he was 15 years old, inspired by the

  • Flecknoe, Richard (English author)

    Richard Flecknoe, English poet, dramatist, and traveller, whose writings are notable for both the praise and the ridicule they evoked. Flecknoe was possibly a Jesuit of Irish extraction. The most authentic information about him is contained in his Relation of Ten Years’ Travels in Europe, Asia,

  • Flecktones (American musical group)

    Béla Fleck: …in 1988, Fleck assembled the Flecktones, the group with which he would record most consistently for the next two decades. The original lineup of the band included harmonica and keyboard player Howard Levy, bassist Victor Wooten, and drummer Roy (“Futureman”) Wooten. Levy left the Flecktones in 1992, and the group…

  • flection (linguistics)

    Inflection, in linguistics, the change in the form of a word (in English, usually the addition of endings) to mark such distinctions as tense, person, number, gender, mood, voice, and case. English inflection indicates noun plural (cat, cats), noun case (girl, girl’s, girls’), third person singular

  • Flectonotus (amphibian genus)

    Anura: Direct development from egg to froglet: In Flectonotus and Fritziana the eggs are contained in one large basinlike depression in the back, whereas in other genera, such as the Surinam toad (Pipa pipa) and its relatives, each egg occupies its own individual depression. In Hemiphractus gill-like structures and cords similar to those…

  • Fled Bricrenn (Irish literature)

    Bricriu’s Feast, in early Irish literature, a comic, rowdy account of rivalry between Ulster warriors. One of the longest hero tales of the Ulster cycle, it dates from the 8th century and is preserved in The Book of the Dun Cow (c. 1100). Bricriu, the trickster, promises the hero’s portion of his

  • Fledermaus, Die (operetta by Strauss)

    Die Fledermaus, (German: “The Bat”) operetta by the Austrian composer Johann Strauss the Younger (German libretto by Carl [or Karl] Haffner and Richard Genée) that premiered in Vienna on April 5, 1874. It is the best-known stage work by Strauss, whose fame rested mainly on his ballroom dance

  • Fleece, The (work by Dyer)

    John Dyer: Dyer’s longest poem, The Fleece (1757), a blank-verse poem on the subject of tending sheep, is a typically 18th-century attempt to imitate Virgil’s Georgics. Dyer also wrote The Ruins of Rome (1740), which again combines description and meditation.

  • fleet (military force unit)

    military unit: …which in turn form a fleet. For operations, however, many navies organize their vessels into task units (3–5 ships), task or battle groups (4–10 ships), task forces (2–5 task groups), and fleets (several task forces).

  • fleet admiral (military rank)

    admiral: Navy a fleet admiral ranks with a general of the army or general of the air force. Admiral ranks with general and vice admiral with lieutenant general. The upper half of the rear admirals’ list rank with major generals, the lower half with brigadier generals. Rank insignia…

  • Fleet Prison (historical prison, London, United Kingdom)

    rackets: History.: In Fleet Prison the game was well established by the middle of the 18th century, and in the new Fleet of 1782 it achieved such popularity that its fame spread to taverns and other public houses. Robert Mackey, an inmate of Fleet, is listed as the…

  • fleet system (Spanish history)

    Spanish treasure fleet, from the 16th to the 18th century, Spanish convoy of ships transporting European goods to the Spanish colonies in the Americas and transporting colonial products, especially gold and silver, back to the mother country. Beginning in the 1560s, shipping between Spain and the

  • Fleet’s In!, The (painting by Cadmus)

    Paul Cadmus: …that program that he painted The Fleet’s In! (1934), a work of social satire that depicts sailors on shore leave and contains elements of prostitution, homoeroticism, and drunkenness. The work infuriated navy officials, and it was pulled from an exhibition at the Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., in 1934…

  • Fleet, Frederick (British ship lookout)

    Titanic: Final hours: Two lookouts, Frederick Fleet and Reginald Lee, were stationed in the crow’s nest of the Titanic. Their task was made difficult by the fact that the ocean was unusually calm that night: because there would be little water breaking at its base, an iceberg would be more…

  • Fleetway Press (British periodical industry)

    Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, Viscount Northcliffe: …the Amalgamated Press (from 1959 Fleetway Press), the largest periodical-publishing empire in the world.

  • Fleetwing (ship)

    yacht: Transatlantic racing and global circumnavigation: 6-metre length: Fleetwing, Vesta, and Henrietta. Henrietta, owned by the American newspaper publisher James Gordon Bennett, won in 13 days of sailing. The first single-sailor transatlantic voyage was made in a 6-metre boat by Alfred Johnson in 1876 to commemorate the centenary of U.S. independence. The first…

  • Fleetwood (England, United Kingdom)

    Wyre: Fleetwood is the major fishing port on the west coast of England and is an important port for containerized shipping. Chemicals, plastics, and leather goods are the principal products manufactured at Fleetwood. Retired people favour the seaside resorts of Thornton Cleveleys and Fleetwood. Poulton-le-Fyld, in…

  • Fleetwood Mac (British-American rock group)

    Fleetwood Mac, British blues band that evolved into the hugely popular Anglo-American pop-rock group whose 1977 album Rumours was one of the biggest-selling albums of all time. The original members were Mick Fleetwood (b. June 24, 1947, Redruth, Cornwall, England), John McVie (b. November 26, 1945,

  • Fleetwood, Charles (English general)

    Charles Fleetwood, English Parliamentary general, son-in-law and supporter of Oliver Cromwell. He joined the Parliamentary army at the beginning of the Civil War between Parliament and King Charles I and fought in the major Parliamentary victories at Naseby (June 1645), Dunbar (September 1650), and

  • Fleetwood, Mick (British musician)

    Fleetwood Mac: The original members were Mick Fleetwood (b. June 24, 1947, Redruth, Cornwall, England), John McVie (b. November 26, 1945, London, England), Peter Green (original name Peter Greenbaum; b. October 29, 1946, London), and Jeremy Spencer (b. July 4, 1948, West Hartlepool, Durham, England). Later members included Danny Kirwan (b.…

  • Fleetwood, Susan Maureen (British actress)

    Susan Maureen Fleetwood, British actress who was a mainstay of the British classical theatre for almost 30 years, particularly in dozens of acclaimed roles with the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre (b. Sept. 21, 1944--d. Sept. 29,

  • Flegel, Eduard Robert (German explorer)

    Eduard Robert Flegel, German explorer in Africa who was the first European to reach the source of the Benue River. In 1879 Flegel travelled about 525 miles (845 kilometres) up the Benue River and in 1880 went by way of the Niger to Sokoto, in northwestern Nigeria, where he obtained permission from

  • Flegenheimer, Arthur (American gangster)

    Dutch Schultz, American gangster of the 1920s and ’30s who ran bootlegging and other rackets in New York City. Born in the Bronx, Schultz took his alias from an old-time Bronx gangster and advanced from burglaries to bootlegging, ownership of breweries and speakeasies, and policy rackets in the

  • Flegrei, Campi (field, Naples, Italy)

    Naples: … to the east and the Campi Flegrei (Phlegraean Fields) to the northwest. The most recent eruption of Vesuvius occurred in 1944. In 1980 an earthquake damaged Naples and its outlying towns, and since then Pozzuoli to the west has been seriously afflicted by bradyseism (a phenomenon involving a fall or…

  • flehmen (animal behaviour)

    chemoreception: Terrestrial vertebrates: This is called flehmen and is seen during courtship, when it is used by males to assess the estrus state of females, and during the investigation of new odours, when it is used by both males and females to explore their surroundings. Changes in the internal volume of…

  • Fleischer brothers (American animators)

    Fleischer brothers, American brothers, producers of animated cartoons featuring such characters as Betty Boop and Popeye. Producer Max Fleischer (b. July 19, 1883, Vienna, Austria—d. Sept. 11, 1972, Woodland Hills, Calif., U.S.) and director Dave Fleischer (b. July 14, 1894, New York, N.Y., U.S.—d.

  • Fleischer, Dave (American animator)

    Fleischer brothers: Brother Dave’s on-camera performance in a clown suit was rotoscoped into the character Ko-Ko the Clown, who starred in the Out of the Inkwell series (1919–29), produced and distributed by the Bray Studio in New York City. The basic premise for the series is a live-action…

  • Fleischer, Max (American animator)

    Fleischer brothers: The mechanically inclined Max invented the rotoscope, a time- and labour-saving device in which live-action film frames are traced as a guide for animated action. Brother Dave’s on-camera performance in a clown suit was rotoscoped into the character Ko-Ko the Clown, who starred in the Out of the…

  • Fleischer, Nat (American sports journalist)

    Nat Fleischer, American sports journalist who was an outstanding authority on boxing. Fleischer, a sportswriter for the New York Press, was encouraged by the promoter Tex Rickard to found the authoritative monthly magazine The Ring, the first issue of which appeared in February 1922. In 1942 he

  • Fleischer, Nathaniel Stanley (American sports journalist)

    Nat Fleischer, American sports journalist who was an outstanding authority on boxing. Fleischer, a sportswriter for the New York Press, was encouraged by the promoter Tex Rickard to found the authoritative monthly magazine The Ring, the first issue of which appeared in February 1922. In 1942 he

  • Fleischer, Richard (American director)

    Richard Fleischer, American filmmaker who directed a number of popular movies, notably the science-fiction classics 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954), Fantastic Voyage (1966), and Soylent Green (1973). Fleischer, the son of animation pioneer Max Fleischer, attended Brown University before

  • Fleischman, Albert Sidney (American author)

    Sid Fleischman, (Albert Sidney Fleischman ), American children’s author (born March 16, 1920, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died March 17, 2010, Santa Monica, Calif.), used humour to inform the tall tales in his McBroom books and to relate the escapades of his characters in the 1987 Newbery Medal-winning book The

  • Fleischman, Sid (American author)

    Sid Fleischman, (Albert Sidney Fleischman ), American children’s author (born March 16, 1920, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died March 17, 2010, Santa Monica, Calif.), used humour to inform the tall tales in his McBroom books and to relate the escapades of his characters in the 1987 Newbery Medal-winning book The

  • Fleischmann, Annelise Elsa Frieda (German-born textile designer)

    Anni Albers, German-born textile designer who was one of the most influential figures in textile arts in the 20th century. In addition to creating striking designs for utilitarian woven objects, she helped to reestablish work in textiles as an art form. She was married to the innovative painter and

  • Fleischmann, Martin (chemist)

    Martin Fleischmann, Czechoslovak-born British scientist (born March 19, 1927, Karlovy Vary, Czech. [now in Czech Republic]—died Aug. 3, 2012, Tisbury, Eng.), was an accomplished electrochemist who attained international renown when he and a colleague, Stanley Pons, announced in 1989 that they had

  • Fleisher, Leon (American pianist and conductor)

    Leon Fleisher, American pianist and conductor who overcame a debilitating neurological condition to resume playing his full concert repertoire. A child prodigy, Fleisher began studying the piano at age four, gave his first public recital at eight, and at nine was taken under the wing of the

  • Flemael, Bertholot (Flemish painter)

    Bertholet Flémalle, Franco-Flemish painter, a pioneer of the classicist movement in his country. Flémalle studied under Henri Trippet and Gérard Douffet. He went to Italy in 1638, returning via Paris, where he decorated the churches of the Grands Augustines and the Carmes Déchaussés. He returned to

  • Flemal, Bertholot (Flemish painter)

    Bertholet Flémalle, Franco-Flemish painter, a pioneer of the classicist movement in his country. Flémalle studied under Henri Trippet and Gérard Douffet. He went to Italy in 1638, returning via Paris, where he decorated the churches of the Grands Augustines and the Carmes Déchaussés. He returned to

  • Flémalle, Bertholet (Flemish painter)

    Bertholet Flémalle, Franco-Flemish painter, a pioneer of the classicist movement in his country. Flémalle studied under Henri Trippet and Gérard Douffet. He went to Italy in 1638, returning via Paris, where he decorated the churches of the Grands Augustines and the Carmes Déchaussés. He returned to

  • Flémalle, Master of (Flemish painter)

    Master of Flémalle, an unknown Flemish painter and leading artist of the northern Renaissance, whose work is characterized by naturalistic and sculptural conceptions that signalize the replacement of the decorative International Style of the late Middle Ages. By the late 20th century, after several

  • Fleming (people)

    Fleming and Walloon, members of the two predominant cultural and linguistic groups of modern Belgium. The Flemings, who constitute more than half of the Belgian population, speak Dutch (sometimes called Netherlandic), or Belgian Dutch (also called Flemish by English-speakers), and live mainly in

  • Fleming Mill (windmill, La Salle, Montreal, Quebec, Canada)

    La Salle: Fleming Mill, a four-story conical windmill built in 1816, is a local landmark.

  • Fleming Survey (Canadian history)

    railroad: Canadian railroads: A Canadian Pacific Railway survey was begun under the direction of Sandford Fleming, former chief engineer of the Intercolonial Railway in the Maritime Provinces. There was some question as to the best route across the Canadian Shield from Callender in eastern Ontario (then the head of steel production in…

  • Fleming valve (electronics)

    electronics: The vacuum tube era: Coolidge and Fleming’s thermionic valve (a two-electrode vacuum tube) for use in radio receivers. The detection of a radio signal, which is a very high-frequency alternating current (AC), requires that the signal be rectified; i.e., the alternating current must be converted into a direct current (DC) by a…

  • Fleming’s rule (electromagnetism)

    electromagnetism: Experimental and theoretical studies of electromagnetic phenomena: …was able to express the right-hand rule for the direction of the force on a current in a magnetic field. He also established experimentally and quantitatively the laws of magnetic force between electric currents. He suggested that internal electric currents are responsible for permanent magnets and for highly magnetizable materials…

  • Fleming, Alexander (Scottish bacteriologist)

    Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist best known for his discovery of penicillin. Fleming had a genius for technical ingenuity and original observation. His work on wound infection and lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme found in tears and saliva, guaranteed him a place in the history of

  • Fleming, Ian (British author)

    Ian Fleming, suspense-fiction novelist whose character James Bond, the stylish, high-living British secret service agent 007, became one of the most successful and widely imitated heroes of 20th-century popular fiction. The son of a Conservative MP and the grandson of a Scottish banker, Fleming was

  • Fleming, Ian Lancaster (British author)

    Ian Fleming, suspense-fiction novelist whose character James Bond, the stylish, high-living British secret service agent 007, became one of the most successful and widely imitated heroes of 20th-century popular fiction. The son of a Conservative MP and the grandson of a Scottish banker, Fleming was

  • Fleming, Paul (German poet)

    Paul Fleming, outstanding lyrical poet of 17th-century Germany. He brought a new immediacy and sincerity to the innovations of metre and stanza introduced by his teacher, Martin Opitz. The son of a Lutheran pastor, Fleming was studying medicine and composing Latin verse at Leipzig when he met Opitz

  • Fleming, Peggy (American figure skater)

    Peggy Fleming, American figure skater who dominated world-level women’s competition from 1964 through 1968. Fleming began skating at age nine. She worked with many coaches, including Carlo Fassi, who would eventually guide her to an Olympic gold medal. The United States dominated men’s and women’s

  • Fleming, Peggy Gale (American figure skater)

    Peggy Fleming, American figure skater who dominated world-level women’s competition from 1964 through 1968. Fleming began skating at age nine. She worked with many coaches, including Carlo Fassi, who would eventually guide her to an Olympic gold medal. The United States dominated men’s and women’s

  • Fleming, Peter (American tennis player)

    John McEnroe: With partner Peter Fleming, McEnroe won several doubles titles at the U.S. Open and Wimbledon, as well as Championship Tennis tournaments. From 1983 to 1985 he won 75 matches on indoor carpet, setting a record for most consecutive victories on one surface; his record was broken in…

  • Fleming, Renée (American singer)

    Renée Fleming, American soprano noted for the beauty and richness of her voice and for the thought and sensitivity she brought to the texts. Fleming’s repertoire was extraordinarily broad, spanning three centuries and ranging from Handel and Mozart through 19th-century bel canto to the works of a

  • Fleming, Richard H. (American oceanographer)

    Richard H. Fleming, Canadian-born American oceanographer who conducted wide-ranging studies in the areas of chemical and biochemical oceanography, ocean currents (particularly those off the Pacific coast of Central America), and naval uses of oceanography. Fleming joined the Scripps Institution in

  • Fleming, Richard Howell (American oceanographer)

    Richard H. Fleming, Canadian-born American oceanographer who conducted wide-ranging studies in the areas of chemical and biochemical oceanography, ocean currents (particularly those off the Pacific coast of Central America), and naval uses of oceanography. Fleming joined the Scripps Institution in

  • Fleming, Sir Alexander (Scottish bacteriologist)

    Alexander Fleming, Scottish bacteriologist best known for his discovery of penicillin. Fleming had a genius for technical ingenuity and original observation. His work on wound infection and lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme found in tears and saliva, guaranteed him a place in the history of

  • Fleming, Sir Arthur Percy Morris (British engineer)

    Sir Arthur Percy Morris Fleming, English engineer who was a major figure in developing techniques for manufacturing radar components. In 1900 Fleming went to the United States to undergo training at the Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa. Upon returning to England

  • Fleming, Sir John Ambrose (British engineer)

    Sir John Ambrose Fleming, English engineer who made numerous contributions to electronics, photometry, electric measurements, and wireless telegraphy. After studying at University College, London, and at Cambridge University under James Clerk Maxwell, Fleming became a consultant to the Edison

  • Fleming, Sir Sandford (Canadian engineer and scientist)

    Sir Sandford Fleming, civil engineer and scientist who was the foremost railway engineer of Canada in the 19th century. Fleming emigrated in 1845 from Scotland to Canada, where he was trained as an engineer. By 1857 he had become chief engineer for the Ontario, Simcoe, and Huron Railway (now part

  • Fleming, Victor (American director)

    Victor Fleming, American filmmaker who was one of Hollywood’s most popular directors during the 1930s. He was best known for his work on the 1939 classics Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz. Fleming started in the film industry as a stunt car driver in 1910. A year later he began working for

  • Fleming, Williamina Paton Stevens (American astronomer)

    Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming, American astronomer who pioneered in the classification of stellar spectra. Mina Stevens was educated in public schools and from age 14 was a teacher as well as student. In May 1877 she married James O. Fleming, with whom she immigrated to the United States and

  • Flemington Racecourse (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia)

    Melbourne: Recreation: …Rules football, and at the Flemington Racecourse, where the valuable Melbourne Cup race is held every November. Melbourne hosted the 1956 Summer Olympic Games. New sports facilities, including a large tennis stadium near the Melbourne Cricket Ground, have been added since the Olympics. Sailing and fishing on Port Phillip Bay…

  • Flemish (people)

    Fleming and Walloon, members of the two predominant cultural and linguistic groups of modern Belgium. The Flemings, who constitute more than half of the Belgian population, speak Dutch (sometimes called Netherlandic), or Belgian Dutch (also called Flemish by English-speakers), and live mainly in

  • Flemish art

    Flemish art, art of the 15th, 16th, and early 17th centuries in Flanders and in the surrounding regions including Brabant, Hainaut, Picardy, and Artois, known for its vibrant materialism and unsurpassed technical skill. From Hubert and Jan van Eyck through Pieter Bruegel the Elder to Peter Paul

  • Flemish bond (masonry)

    Flemish bond, in masonry, method of bonding bricks or stones in courses. See

  • Flemish Brabant (province, Belgium)

    Belgium: >Flemish Brabant, Antwerp, and Limburg). Just north of the boundary between Walloon Brabant (Brabant Walloon) and Flemish (Vlaams) Brabant lies the officially bilingual but majority French-speaking Brussels-Capital Region, with approximately one-tenth of the total population. (See also

  • Flemish language

    Dutch language, a West Germanic language that is the national language of the Netherlands and, with French and German, one of the three official languages of Belgium. Although speakers of English usually call the language of the Netherlands “Dutch” and the language of Belgium “Flemish,” they are

  • Flemish Liberal Party (political party, Belgium)

    Guy Verhofstadt: …of the PVV to the Liberal and Democratic Flemish Party (VLD) in hopes of attracting more centrist voters. In 1997 he was reelected as president of the VLD. In elections in 1999 the VLD defeated Prime Minister Jean-Luc Dehaene’s centre-left coalition, and Verhofstadt became the first liberal prime minister of…

  • Flemish literature

    Flemish literature, the body of written works in the Flemish- (Dutch-) language produced by Belgians. The other literatures of Belgium are discussed in Belgian literature. Any consideration of the Dutch-language literature of Belgium must take into account that the Belgian territories were broadly

  • Flemish movement (Belgian political movement)

    Flemish movement, the 19th- and 20th-century nationalist movement of Flemish-speaking people in Belgium. It has sought political and cultural equality with, or separation from, the less numerous but long-dominant French-speaking Walloons. The movement had its origins in the 1830s; at first, under

  • Flemish Region (region, Belgium)

    Flanders, region that constitutes the northern half of Belgium. Along with the Walloon Region and the Brussels-Capital Region, the self-governing Flemish Region was created during the federalization of Belgium, largely along ethnolinguistic lines, in the 1980s and ’90s. Its elected government has

  • Flemish school

    Flemish art, art of the 15th, 16th, and early 17th centuries in Flanders and in the surrounding regions including Brabant, Hainaut, Picardy, and Artois, known for its vibrant materialism and unsurpassed technical skill. From Hubert and Jan van Eyck through Pieter Bruegel the Elder to Peter Paul

  • Flemish school (musical composition style)

    Franco-Netherlandish school, designation for several generations of major northern composers, who from about 1440 to 1550 dominated the European musical scene by virtue of their craftsmanship and scope. Because of the difficulty of balancing matters of ethnicity, cultural heritage, places of

  • Flemish School of Music (school, Antwerp, Belgium)

    Peter Benoit: …School of Music (later the Royal Flemish Conservatory), which he directed until his death.

  • Flemish strapwork (architecture)

    Western architecture: England: …corner towers are decorated with Flemish strapwork (i.e., bands raised in relief assuming curvilinear forms suggestive of leather straps). Other examples of this style are Hardwick Hall (1590–97) in Derbyshire, probably by Smythson; Kirby Hall (about 1570–78) in Northamptonshire, perhaps by the mason Thomas Thorpe; and Montacute House (1588–1601) in…

  • Flemish Vlaams

    Dutch language, a West Germanic language that is the national language of the Netherlands and, with French and German, one of the three official languages of Belgium. Although speakers of English usually call the language of the Netherlands “Dutch” and the language of Belgium “Flemish,” they are

  • Flemmi, Stephen (American criminal)

    Whitey Bulger: A fellow FBI informant, Stephen Flemmi, became his top lieutenant. Establishing a racket by which he extorted money from bookmakers, loan sharks, drug dealers, and other local criminals, Bulger soon acquired a fearsome reputation both within and beyond the illicit underworld.

  • Flemming, Walther (German biologist)

    Walther Flemming, German anatomist, a founder of the science of cytogenetics (the study of the cell’s hereditary material, the chromosomes). He was the first to observe and describe systematically the behaviour of chromosomes in the cell nucleus during normal cell division (mitosis). After serving

  • Flensborg (Germany)

    Flensburg, city, Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), Germany. A port at the head of Flensburg Fjord, it is Germany’s most northerly large city. First mentioned in 1240, it was chartered in 1284 and was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643. It became the capital of Schleswig under Danish rule

  • Flensburg (Germany)

    Flensburg, city, Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), Germany. A port at the head of Flensburg Fjord, it is Germany’s most northerly large city. First mentioned in 1240, it was chartered in 1284 and was frequently pillaged by the Swedes after 1643. It became the capital of Schleswig under Danish rule

  • Flerov, Georgy N. (Soviet scientist)

    nuclear weapon: Atomic weapons: In early 1942 Soviet physicist Georgy N. Flerov noticed that articles on nuclear fission were no longer appearing in Western journals—an indication that research on the subject had become classified. In response, Flerov wrote to, among others, Premier Joseph Stalin, insisting that “we must build the uranium bomb without delay.”…

  • flerovium (chemical element)

    Flerovium (Fl), artificially produced transuranium element of atomic number 114. In 1999 scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, produced atoms of flerovium from colliding atoms of calcium-48

  • Flesch Károly (Hungarian violinist and teacher)

    Károly Flesch, Hungarian violinist and teacher who was largely responsible for raising international awareness of Hungarian music. From 1886 to 1889 Flesch was the student of Jakob Grün at the conservatory in Vienna, and then from 1890 to 1894 he was taught by Martin Marsick and Eugene Sauzay at

  • Flesch, Károly (Hungarian violinist and teacher)

    Károly Flesch, Hungarian violinist and teacher who was largely responsible for raising international awareness of Hungarian music. From 1886 to 1889 Flesch was the student of Jakob Grün at the conservatory in Vienna, and then from 1890 to 1894 he was taught by Martin Marsick and Eugene Sauzay at

  • Flesche, Francis La (American ethnologist)

    Francis La Flesche, U.S. ethnologist and champion of the rights of American Indians who wrote a book of general literary interest about his experiences as a student in a mission school in the 1860s. This memoir, The Middle Five (1900, new edition 1963), is rare in providing an account from an

  • Flesche, Susette La (American author and activist)

    Susette La Flesche, Native American writer, lecturer, and activist in the cause of American Indian rights. La Flesche was the daughter of an Omaha chief who was the son of a French trader and an Omaha woman. The father was familiar with both cultures, and though he lived as an Indian he sent his

  • Flesh and the Devil (film by Brown [1927])

    Clarence Brown: Early life and work: …picture for the studio was Flesh and the Devil (1927), a melodrama starring a recent Swedish import named Greta Garbo (in her third American movie) alongside matinee idol John Gilbert. The film helped establish her as a top-ranking star, and it was the first of the seven pictures she would…

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