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  • flesh fly (insect)

    Flesh fly, (family Sarcophagidae), any member of a family of insects in the fly order, Diptera, that are similar in appearance to the house fly but are characterized by blackish stripes on the gray thorax (region behind the head) and a checkered pattern of light and dark gray on the abdomen. Most

  • flesh-eating disease (pathology)

    Necrotizing fasciitis, rapidly spreading infection of the underlying skin and fat layers caused by a variety of pathogenic bacteria, principally Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as the group A streptococcus. Popularly known as the flesh-eating disease, necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon

  • fleshing grease (lubricant)

    grease: Fleshing grease is the fatty material trimmed from hides and pelts. Bone grease, hide grease, and garbage grease are named according to their origin. In some factories, food offal is used along with animal carcasses, butcher-shop scraps, and garbage from restaurants for recovery of fats.

  • fleshless diet (human dietary practice)

    Vegetarianism, the theory or practice of living solely upon vegetables, fruits, grains, legumes, and nuts—with or without the addition of milk products and eggs—generally for ethical, ascetic, environmental, or nutritional reasons. All forms of flesh (meat, fowl, and seafood) are excluded from all

  • fleshly school of poetry (English group)

    Fleshly school of poetry, a group of late 19th-century English poets associated with Dante Gabriel Rossetti. The term was invented by the Scottish author Robert Williams Buchanan (1841–1901) and appeared as the title of a pseudonymous article in the Contemporary Review (October 1871) in which he

  • fleshy fruit (botany)

    fruit: Types of fruits: …two broad categories of fruits: fleshy fruits, in which the pericarp and accessory parts develop into succulent tissues, as in eggplants, oranges, and strawberries; and dry fruits, in which the entire pericarp becomes dry at maturity. Fleshy fruits include (1) the berries, such as tomatoes, blueberries, and

  • fleshy-finned fish (fish taxon)

    vertebrate: Annotated classification: Subclass Sarcopterygii (lobe-finned fishes) Usually possess a choana; paired fins with a fleshy base over a bony skeleton; persisting notochord; 2 dorsal fins; nares are internal. Class Amphibia Cold-blooded; respire by lungs, gills, skin, or mouth lining; larval stage in water or in egg; skin is…

  • Fletch (film by Ritchie [1985])

    Michael Ritchie: The 1980s: …Ritchie found box-office success with Fletch (1985). Adapted from a humorous mystery novel by Gregory Mcdonald, it became a vehicle for comedian Chevy Chase, who starred as an investigative journalist. Less popular was Wildcats (1986), a formulaic but efficient comedy that had Goldie Hawn as a teacher who quits her…

  • Fletch (novel by Mcdonald)

    Michael Ritchie: The 1980s: Adapted from a humorous mystery novel by Gregory Mcdonald, it became a vehicle for comedian Chevy Chase, who starred as an investigative journalist. Less popular was Wildcats (1986), a formulaic but efficient comedy that had Goldie Hawn as a teacher who quits her job in the suburbs to coach football…

  • Fletcher (Colorado, United States)

    Aurora, city, Adams, Arapahoe, and Douglas counties, north-central Colorado, U.S. An eastern suburb of Denver, Aurora was the third most populous city in Colorado at the start of the 21st century. It was founded during the silver boom of 1891 and named Fletcher after its Canadian-born founder,

  • Fletcher v. Peck (law case)

    judicial restraint: …Court decisions as early as Fletcher v. Peck (1810) state that judges should strike down laws only if they “feel a clear and strong conviction” of unconstitutionality. Early scholars also endorsed the idea; one notable example is Harvard law professor James Bradley Thayer (1831–1902), who observed that a legislator might…

  • Fletcher’s Ice Island (ice station, Arctic Ocean)

    Arctic Ocean: Oceanography: Fletcher’s Ice Island (T-3) made two orbits in this gyre over a 20-year period, which is some indication of the current speed. The northern extremity of the gyre bifurcates and jets out of the Greenland-Spitsbergen passage as the East Greenland Current, attaining speeds of 6 to 16 inches…

  • Fletcher, Alice Cunningham (American anthropologist)

    Alice Cunningham Fletcher, American anthropologist whose stature as a social scientist, notably for her pioneer studies of Native American music, has overshadowed her influence on federal government Indian policies that later were considered to be unfortunate. Fletcher taught school for a number of

  • Fletcher, Brian (English jockey)

    Red Rum: In 1973, ridden by Brian Fletcher, Red Rum won his first Grand National by spurting ahead in the last 100 yards of the course to pass Crisp, who had held the lead during most of the race, and beating him by 34 length in the record time of 9:01.9.…

  • Fletcher, Cyril (British entertainer)

    Cyril Fletcher, British entertainer (born June 25, 1913, Watford, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Jan. 2, 2005, St. Peter Port, Guernsey), appeared regularly on BBC radio and television for more than six decades. Fletcher first introduced his witty “Odd Odes” on BBC TV’s new service in 1937; he later r

  • Fletcher, Esmé Valerie (British editor)

    Valerie Eliot, (Esmé Valerie Fletcher), British editor (born Aug. 17, 1926, Leeds, Eng.—died Nov. 9. 2012, London, Eng.), was the executor of the literary work of the seminal poet T.S. Eliot (1888–1965), to whom she was married from 1957 until his death, and the guardian of his legacy. She won

  • Fletcher, Frank J. (United States admiral)

    Battle of the Coral Sea: Frank J. Fletcher struck the landing group, sinking one destroyer and some minesweepers and landing barges. Most of the naval units covering the main Japanese invasion force that left Rabaul, New Britain, for Port Moresby on May 4 took a circuitous route to the east,…

  • Fletcher, Giles, the Elder (English author)

    Giles Fletcher the Elder, English poet and author, and father of the poets Phineas Fletcher and Giles Fletcher the Younger; his writings include an account of his visit to Russia. Educated at Eton and at King’s College, Cambridge, Fletcher was employed on diplomatic service in Scotland, Germany,

  • Fletcher, Giles, the Younger (English poet)

    Giles Fletcher the Younger, English poet principally known for his great Baroque devotional poem Christs Victorie. He was the younger son of Giles Fletcher the Elder. He was educated at Westminster School and at Trinity College, Cambridge. After his ordination, he held a college position, and

  • Fletcher, Harvey (American physicist)

    Harvey Fletcher, U.S. physicist, a leading authority in the fields of psychoacoustics and acoustical engineering. Fletcher graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, in 1907 and received a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Chicago in 1911. In 1916 he joined the staff of Bell

  • Fletcher, John (English dramatist)

    John Fletcher, English Jacobean dramatist who collaborated with Francis Beaumont and other dramatists on comedies and tragedies between about 1606 and 1625. His father, Richard Fletcher, was minister of the parish in which John was born and became afterward queen’s chaplain, dean of Peterborough,

  • Fletcher, Louise (American actress)

    Louise Fletcher, American actress who was perhaps best known for her skillfully underplayed portrayal of the rigidly authoritarian Nurse Ratched in One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975), which earned her the Academy Award for best actress. Fletcher’s father was an Episcopal priest, and both of her

  • Fletcher, Lucille (American writer)

    Sorry, Wrong Number: …1948, that was based on Lucille Fletcher’s hit 1943 radio play of the same name.

  • Fletcher, Penelope (British author)

    Penelope Mortimer, British journalist and novelist whose writing, depicting a nightmarish world of neuroses and broken marriages, influenced feminist fiction of the 1960s. After her graduation from the University of London, she began to write poetry, book reviews, and short stories. She was married

  • Fletcher, Phineas (English poet)

    Phineas Fletcher, English poet best known for his religious and scientific poem The Purple Island; or, The Isle of Man (1633). The elder son of Giles Fletcher the Elder and brother of Giles Fletcher the Younger, he was educated at Eton and at King’s College, Cambridge. His pastoral drama Sicelides:

  • Fletcher, Susannah Yolande (British actress)

    Susannah York, (Susannah Yolande Fletcher), British actress (born Jan. 9, 1939, London, Eng.—died Jan. 15, 2011, London), was initially cast as a blue-eyed blonde ingenue, but her gamine beauty belied acting skills that came to the fore in such roles as the feisty Sophie Western, the object of the

  • Fletcher-Munson curve (measurement)

    sound: Dynamic range of the ear: …of equal-loudness curves, sometimes called Fletcher-Munson curves after the investigators, the Americans Harvey Fletcher and W.A. Munson, who first measured them. The curves show the varying absolute intensities of a pure tone that has the same loudness to the ear at various frequencies. The determination of each curve, labeled by…

  • Flettner Fl 282 (German helicopter)

    military aircraft: Helicopters: …used a handful of Flettner Fl 282s, powered by two noncoaxial, contrarotating lifting rotors, for ship-based artillery spotting and visual reconnaissance.

  • Flettner, Anton (German inventor)

    Anton Flettner, German inventor of the rotor ship, a vessel propelled by revolving cylinders mounted vertically on the deck. He also invented the Flettner trim-tab control for aircraft and the Flettner marine rudder. Flettner directed an aeronautical and hydrodynamic research institute in Amsterdam

  • fleur-de-lis (emblem)

    Fleur-de-lis, (French: “lily flower”) stylized emblem or device much used in ornamentation and, particularly, in heraldry, long associated with the French crown. One legend identifies it as the lily given at his baptism to Clovis, king of the Franks (466–511), by the Virgin Mary. The lily was said

  • fleur-de-luce (emblem)

    Fleur-de-lis, (French: “lily flower”) stylized emblem or device much used in ornamentation and, particularly, in heraldry, long associated with the French crown. One legend identifies it as the lily given at his baptism to Clovis, king of the Franks (466–511), by the Virgin Mary. The lily was said

  • fleur-de-lys (emblem)

    Fleur-de-lis, (French: “lily flower”) stylized emblem or device much used in ornamentation and, particularly, in heraldry, long associated with the French crown. One legend identifies it as the lily given at his baptism to Clovis, king of the Franks (466–511), by the Virgin Mary. The lily was said

  • fleurdelisé flag (Canadian provincial flag)

    Canadian provincial flag consisting of a blue field (background) divided into quarters by a central white cross; within each quarter is a white fleur-de-lis.The origin of the provincial flag can be traced to France, which controlled vast areas of North America during colonial times. Since at least

  • Fleuron, The (English journal)

    typography: Mechanical composition: …joined Oliver Simon in publishing The Fleuron, a journal of printing history and design in which he published a number of important articles on calligraphy and typography.

  • Fleurs boréales, Les (poem by Fréchette)

    Louis-Honoré Fréchette: Fréchette made literary history when Les Fleurs boréales (1879; “The Northern Flowers”) and Les Oiseaux de neige (1879; “The Snow Birds”) were awarded the Prix Montyon in 1880, the first time the work of a Canadian had been honoured by the French Academy. A controversial representative of liberal nationalism, Fréchette…

  • Fleurs du mal, Les (poetry by Baudelaire)

    Les Fleurs du mal, (French: “The Flowers of Evil”) collection of poems published in 1857 by Charles Baudelaire. A second edition, published in 1861, was greatly enlarged and enhanced but omitted six poems that had been banned. (These were first republished in 1866 in Belgium in the collection Les

  • Fleurus (Belgium)

    Fleurus, municipality, Wallonia Region, south-central Belgium, located between the industrial region of Charleroi and the hills sloping toward Waterloo. Built on the site of a Gallo-Roman agricultural settlement and first mentioned in 868, it was chartered in 1115 and was the scene of several

  • Fleurus, Battle of (European history)

    Battle of Fleurus, (June 26, 1794), the most significant battle in the First Coalition phase of the French Revolutionary Wars. Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and Jean-Baptiste Kléber led 73,000 French troops against 52,000 Austrians and Dutch, under Friedrich Josias, prince of Saxe-Coburg, and William V,

  • Fleury (French actor)

    Fleury, French actor of the Comédie-Fran?aise, one of the greatest comedians of his time. Fleury began his stage apprenticeship at Nancy, Fr., where his father was an actor at the court of Stanis?aw I, duke of Lorraine and Bar. After encouragement from Voltaire, he acted at the Comédie-Fran?aise i

  • Fleury, André-Hercule de (French cardinal)

    André-Hercule de Fleury, French cardinal and chief minister who controlled the government of King Louis XV from 1726 to 1743. The son of a collector of ecclesiastical revenue, Fleury became a priest and eventually almoner to the King in 1683 and bishop of Fréjus in 1698. Shortly before his death in

  • Fleury, Claude (French priest and historian)

    Claude Fleury, French ecclesiastical historian and Cistercian abbot, who steered cleverly through contemporary doctrinal controversies. As a young man Fleury practiced law in Paris for nine years and became a protégé of Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet. He then turned to the priesthood, becoming

  • Fleury, Jean (French naval officer)

    Jean Ango: One of his captains, Jean Fleury, seized three ships carrying Aztec treasures from Mexico to Spain in 1523. Francis I, who generally upheld Ango, borrowed his ships for use against Spain and England. In 1530 Francis authorized Ango to raid Portuguese shipping to compensate for losses sustained at Portuguese…

  • Fleury, Marc-Andreé (Canadian hockey player)

    Vegas Golden Knights: …and three-time Stanley Cup winner Marc-Andre Fleury). But the team shocked even the most optimistic observers by posting the fifth best record in the NHL and capturing a division title during the regular season. Vegas then dominated the Western Conference playoffs, losing just three games en route to capturing a…

  • Fleury, Theo (Canadian hockey player)

    Calgary Flames: …strong play of right wingers Theo Fleury (until 1999) and Jarome Iginla. In 2003–04 the team returned to the playoffs and proceeded to defeat three higher-seeded teams to make an unlikely appearance in the Stanley Cup finals. There the Flames played a thrilling series with the Tampa Bay Lightning in…

  • Flevoland (province, Netherlands)

    Flevoland, provincie (province), central Netherlands. It consists of three polders reclaimed from the eastern side of Lake IJssel (IJsselmeer), part of the former Zuiderzee. Flevoland province was established in 1986 and includes the municipalities of Almere and Zeewolde on South (Zuidelijk)

  • Flew, Antony (English philosopher)

    Antony Flew, English philosopher who became a prominent defender of atheism but later declared himself a deist. Flew was the son of a Methodist minister and was educated at a Christian boarding school. As a teenager, he decided that the traditional Christian concept of a good God was inconsistent

  • Flew, Antony Garrard Newton (English philosopher)

    Antony Flew, English philosopher who became a prominent defender of atheism but later declared himself a deist. Flew was the son of a Methodist minister and was educated at a Christian boarding school. As a teenager, he decided that the traditional Christian concept of a good God was inconsistent

  • Flewelling, Ralph Tyler (American philosopher)

    Ralph Tyler Flewelling, American Idealist philosopher whose writings and teaching established the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, as one of the strongholds of Personalism. Flewelling studied at Boston University (Ph.D., 1909) with Bordon Parker Bowne, founder of Personalism in the

  • flexagon (mathematics)

    number game: Flexagons: A flexagon is a polygon constructed from a strip of paper or thin metal foil in such a way that the figure possesses the property of changing its faces when it is flexed. First discussed in 1939, flexagons have become a fascinating mathematical recreation.…

  • FlexFuel vehicle (automobile)

    automobile: Ethanol and fuel cells: …the country had to be FlexFuel vehicles (FFVs)—vehicles certified to run on gasoline containing up to 85 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol), marketed as E85. This initiative led numerous American, European, and Japanese manufacturers to certify some of their models as E85-compliant, which is indicated by the eighth character in the…

  • flexibility (mineralogy)

    mineral: Tenacity: …and copper exhibit this property); flexible, bending easily and staying bent after the pressure is removed (talc is flexible); brittle, showing little or no resistance to breakage, and as such separating into fragments under the blow of a hammer or when cut by a knife (most silicate minerals are brittle);…

  • flexible automation (technology)

    automation: Manufacturing applications of automation and robotics: Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. The disadvantage with programmable automation is the time required to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each batch of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation, the variety of…

  • flexible budget (finance)

    accounting: Budgetary planning: …budgets is known as the flexible budget. The practice of flexible budgeting has been adopted widely by factory management to facilitate the evaluation of cost performance at different volume levels and has also been extended to other elements of the profit plan.

  • flexible coaxial cable (electronics)

    telecommunications media: Applications of wire: Standard flexible coaxial cable is manufactured with characteristic impedance ranging from 50 to 92 ohms. The high attenuation of flexible cable restricts its utility to short distances—e.g., spans of less than one kilometre, or approximately a half-mile—unless signal repeaters are used. For high-capacity long-distance transmission, a…

  • Flexible Deterrent Options (warfare)

    Flexible Response, U.S. defense strategy in which a wide range of diplomatic, political, economic, and military options are used to deter an enemy attack. The term flexible response first appeared in U.S. General Maxwell D. Taylor’s book The Uncertain Trumpet (1960), which sharply criticized U.S.

  • flexible manufacturing system (technology)

    automation: Flexible manufacturing systems: A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is a form of flexible automation in which several machine tools are linked together by a material-handling system, and all aspects of the system are controlled by a central computer. An FMS is distinguished from an automated…

  • flexible mold (sculpture)

    sculpture: Casting and molding: …as gelatin, vinyl, and rubber, flexible molds are used for producing more than one cast; they offer a much simpler alternative to piece molding when the original model is a rigid one with complex forms and undercuts. The material is melted and poured around the original positive in sections, if…

  • flexible pavement

    roads and highways: Pavement: Pavements are called either flexible or rigid, according to their relative flexural stiffness. Flexible pavements (see figure, left) have base courses of broken stone pieces either compacted into place in the style of McAdam or glued together with bitumen to form asphalt. In order to maintain workability, the stones…

  • Flexible Response (warfare)

    Flexible Response, U.S. defense strategy in which a wide range of diplomatic, political, economic, and military options are used to deter an enemy attack. The term flexible response first appeared in U.S. General Maxwell D. Taylor’s book The Uncertain Trumpet (1960), which sharply criticized U.S.

  • flexible shaft (mechanics)

    Flexible shaft, in practical mechanics, a number of superimposed, tightly wound, helical coil springs wrapped around a centre wire, or mandrel. Because of its construction, the shaft can be bent, without fracture, to a much smaller radius than a solid shaft of the same outside diameter. The shaft

  • flexible-fuel vehicle (automobile)

    automobile: Ethanol and fuel cells: …the country had to be FlexFuel vehicles (FFVs)—vehicles certified to run on gasoline containing up to 85 percent ethanol (ethyl alcohol), marketed as E85. This initiative led numerous American, European, and Japanese manufacturers to certify some of their models as E85-compliant, which is indicated by the eighth character in the…

  • Flexicalymene (trilobite genus)

    Calymene: Calymene and its close relative Flexicalymene are frequently preserved as tightly rolled fossils. The rolling may be either a death position or a defensive one that the animal assumed to protect its soft, vulnerable underside.

  • flexion (physiology)

    birth: Fetal presentation and passage through the birth canal: …lie against the breastbone (see flexion in the figure). As a consequence of this flexion mechanism, the top of the head becomes the leading pole and the ovoid head circumference that entered the birth canal is succeeded by a smaller, almost circular circumference, the long diameter of which is about…

  • Flexner, Abraham (American educator)

    Abraham Flexner, educator who played a major role in the introduction of modern medical and science education to American colleges and universities. Founder and director of a progressive college-preparatory school in Louisville (1890–1904), Flexner issued an appraisal of American educational

  • Flexner, Simon (American pathologist and bacteriologist)

    Simon Flexner, American pathologist and bacteriologist who isolated (1899) a common strain (Shigella dysenteriae) of dysentery bacillus and developed a curative serum for cerebrospinal meningitis (1907). Simon Flexner was the brother of the educator Abraham Flexner. After teaching at Johns Hopkins

  • flexography (printing)

    Flexography, form of rotary printing in which ink is applied to various surfaces by means of flexible rubber (or other elastomeric) printing plates. The inks used in flexography dry quickly by evaporation and are safe for use on wrappers that come directly in contact with foods. In flexography,

  • flexor muscle (anatomy)

    Flexor muscle, any of the muscles that decrease the angle between bones on two sides of a joint, as in bending the elbow or knee. Several of the muscles of the hands and feet are named for this function. The flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris stretch from the humerus (upper-arm bone)

  • flexor pollicis longus (muscle)

    human evolution: Refinements in hand structure: …unique, fully independent muscle (the flexor pollicis longus) gives this digit remarkable strength in pinch and power grips. The fingertips are broad and equipped with highly sensitive pads of skin. The proportional lengths of the thumb and other fingers give us an opposable thumb with precise, firm contact between its…

  • flexor reflex

    human nervous system: Reflex actions: The flexor reflex, which removes a limb from a noxious stimulus, has a minimum of two interneurons and three synapses.

  • flexular psoriasis (skin disorder)

    psoriasis: psoriasis, including guttate, pustular, inverse (or flexular), and erythrodermic.

  • Fleyta pozvonochnik (work by Mayakovsky)

    Vladimir Mayakovsky: …Cloud in Trousers”) and “Fleyta pozvonochnik” (written 1915, published 1916; “The Backbone Flute”). Both record a tragedy of unrequited love and express the author’s discontent with the world in which he lived. Mayakovsky sought to “depoetize” poetry, adopting the language of the streets and using daring technical innovations. Above…

  • fli (food)

    Kosovo: Daily life and social customs: …popular traditional Albanian dishes are fli, a dish of pancakelike pastry layered with cream and yogurt, and pite, a phyllo pastry with cheese, meat, or vegetable filling. A distinctive dish is llokuma (sometimes translated as “wedding doughnuts”), deep-fried dough puffs eaten with yogurt and garlic or with honey. Baklava is…

  • Flick Group (German company)

    Flick Group, former diversified industrial and manufacturing company founded in Germany in the early 1920s by Friedrich Flick, who rapidly gained control of a massive empire in both steel and coal. The end of World War II, however, found three-fourths of the Flick operations inside the Soviet zone

  • Flick Gruppe (German company)

    Flick Group, former diversified industrial and manufacturing company founded in Germany in the early 1920s by Friedrich Flick, who rapidly gained control of a massive empire in both steel and coal. The end of World War II, however, found three-fourths of the Flick operations inside the Soviet zone

  • Flick, Friedrich (German industrialist)

    Friedrich Flick, industrialist who amassed two fortunes in his life, one before and one after World War II, and was thought to be Germany’s wealthiest man at his death. Flick’s first job after studying in Cologne was as clerk in a coal-mining business. Within eight years he had become a member of

  • Flick, The (play by Baker)

    Annie Baker: …Baker won international acclaim for The Flick, which premiered at Playwrights Horizons. The play revealed the lives and desires of three workers at the last film-projection theatre in Massachusetts. Somewhat controversial for its 314-hour duration, The Flick nevertheless received largely positive reviews, though some reviewers found the pauses that characterized…

  • Flickan som lekte med elden (work by Larsson)

    Stieg Larsson: …som lekte med elden (2006; The Girl Who Played with Fire), which delved into the seedy world of sex trafficking, and Luftslottet som spr?ngdes (2007; “The Air Castle That Blew Up”; Eng. trans. The Girl Who Kicked the Hornets’ Nest), an adrenaline-fueled exploration of institutional corruption—earned similar acclaim. Though some…

  • flicker (electronics)

    television: Flicker: The first requirement to be met in image analysis is that the reproduced picture shall not flicker, since flicker induces severe visual fatigue. Flicker becomes more evident as the brightness of the picture increases. If flicker is to be unobjectionable at brightness suitable for…

  • flicker (vision)

    human eye: Flicker: Another visual phenomenon that brings out the importance of inhibition is the sensation evoked when a visual stimulus is repeated rapidly. For example, one may view a screen that is illuminated by a source of light the rays from which may be intercepted at…

  • flicker (bird)

    Flicker, any of several New World woodpeckers of the genus Colaptes, family Picidae (q.v.), that are noted for spending much time on the ground eating ants. The flicker’s sticky saliva is alkaline, perhaps to counteract the formic acid that ants secrete. Its bill is slenderer than in most

  • flicker-fusion frequency (vision)

    movement perception: Apparent movement: …occurs is called the perceiver’s flicker-fusion frequency (or critical flicker frequency) and represents the temporal resolving power of his visual system at the time. Another process on which apparent movement depends is a tendency (called visual closure or phi) to fill in the spaces between adjacent visual objects. This means…

  • flicker-photometer (instrument)

    human eye: Spectral sensitivity curve: …a special instrument called the flicker-photometer. There is a characteristic shift in the maximum sensitivity from 5000 angstroms for scotopic (night) vision to 5550 angstroms for photopic (day) vision, the so-called Purkinje shift. It has been suggested that the cones have a pigment that shows a maximum of absorption at…

  • Flickr.com (Web site)

    Flickr.com, photo-sharing Web site owned by Yahoo! Inc., and headquartered in Sunnyvale, Calif. Flickr is an ad-supported service, free to the general public, that allows users to upload digital photographs from their own computers and share them online with either private groups or the world at

  • Fliedner, Theodor (German clergyman)

    Christianity: Care for the sick: She was an inspiration to Theodor Fliedner, who founded the first Protestant hospital in Kaiserswerth in 1836 and created at the same time the female diaconate, an order of nurses that soon found worldwide membership and recognition. Florence Nightingale received training at Kaiserswerth, which was an important model for modern…

  • Flieg, Helmut (German author and politician)

    Stefan Heym, (Helmut Flieg), German writer and political activist (born April 10, 1913, Chemnitz, Ger.—died Dec. 16, 2001, Jerusalem, Israel), as the author of over a dozen novels, including The Crusaders (1948), provoked controversy with his dissident writings. Although he was an avowed M

  • Fliegende Hamburger (German railway)

    locomotive: Diesel development: There, the Fliegende Hamburger, a two-car, streamlined, diesel-electric train, with two 400-horsepower engines, began running between Berlin and Hamburg on a schedule that averaged 124 km (77 miles) per hour. By 1939 most of Germany’s principal cities were interconnected by trains of this kind, scheduled to run…

  • fliegende Holl?nder, Der (opera by Wagner)

    Flying Dutchman: …the basis of the opera Der fliegende Holl?nder (1843) by the German composer Richard Wagner.

  • Flies, The (play by Sartre)

    tragedy: Aeschylus: the first great tragedian: … (1939), and Jean-Paul Sartre, in The Flies (1943), found modern relevance in its archetypal characters, situations, and themes, and in the 21st century the Oresteia is still considered one of the greatest spiritual works written.

  • Fliess, Wilhelm (German physician)

    Sigmund Freud: Early life and training: …friendship, with the Berlin physician Wilhelm Fliess, whose role in the development of psychoanalysis has occasioned widespread debate. Throughout the 15 years of their intimacy Fliess provided Freud an invaluable interlocutor for his most daring ideas. Freud’s belief in human bisexuality, his idea of erotogenic zones on the body, and…

  • Fligeli Cape (cape, Rudolf Island, Russia)

    Franz Josef Land: …easternmost includes Rudolf Island, whose Fligeli Cape is the northernmost point in Russia, and the large islands of Zemlya Vilcheka and Greem-Bell (Graham Bell). This group is separated from the central group, which contains most of the islands, by the Avstriysky (Austrian) Strait. The western group, divided from the rest…

  • flight (animal locomotion)

    Flight, in animals, locomotion of either of two basic types—powered, or true, flight and gliding. Winged (true) flight is found only in insects (most orders), most birds, and bats. The evolutionary modifications necessary for true flight in warm-blooded animals include those of the forelimbs into

  • Flight (novel by Alexie)

    Sherman Alexie: The 2007 novel Flight centres on a teenage orphan who travels through time, viewing moments of historical and personal significance through the eyes of others. Blasphemy (2012) collected new and previously published short stories. Alexie also contributed writing on a variety of subjects to the Seattle weekly The…

  • Flight (film by Capra [1929])

    Frank Capra: Early life and work: Flight (also released in 1929) was notable for Capra’s insistence on staging and filming all of its aerial action without tricks or special effects.

  • Flight (film by Zemeckis [2012])

    Robert Zemeckis: …to traditional live-action filmmaking with Flight (2012), a drama about an airplane pilot (Denzel Washington) whose heroic actions on the job are undermined by the revelation of his substance abuse, and The Walk (2015), about Frenchman Philippe Petit’s (Joseph Gordon-Levitt) 1974 high-wire walk between the towers of the World Trade…

  • flight

    Aviation, the development and operation of heavier-than-air aircraft. The term “civil aviation” refers to the air-transportation service provided to the public by airlines, while “military aviation” refers to the development and use of military aircraft. A brief treatment of aviation follows. For

  • Flight 93 National Memorial (memorial, Shanksville, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Shanksville: …passengers are commemorated by the Flight 93 National Memorial near the crash site. The first stage of the memorial—a walkway and wall displaying the victims’ names—was opened in 2011, on the 10th anniversary of the crash. In 2015 new elements were added to the memorial, including a museum and a…

  • Flight Behavior (novel by Kingsolver)

    Barbara Kingsolver: …warming parable set in Appalachia, Flight Behavior (2012) chronicles a community’s reactions to the astonishing arrival of thousands of monarch butterflies, which have forgone their winter migration because of warming temperatures in northern climes. In Unsheltered (2018) Kingsolver chronicled the struggles of two families that lived in the same house…

  • flight control

    airplane: Primary flight controls: All four forces—lift, thrust, drag, and weight—interact continuously in flight and are in turn affected by such things as the torque effect of the propeller, centrifugal force in turns, and other elements, but all are made subject to the pilot by means of…

  • flight conveyor (mechanical device)

    conveyor: Flight conveyors have scrapers, or flights, mounted at intervals perpendicular to the direction of travel on endless power-driven chains operating within a trough. Bulk materials such as sawdust, sand, gravel, coal, and chemicals may be pushed along the trough.

  • flight data recorder (aviation device)

    flight recorder: …of two functional devices, the flight data recorder (FDR) and the cockpit voice recorder (CVR), though sometimes these two devices are packaged together in one combined unit. The FDR records many variables, not only basic aircraft conditions such as airspeed, altitude, heading, vertical acceleration, and pitch but hundreds of individual…

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