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  • floating crane

    crane: …more powerful derrick is the floating crane, which is built on a barge for such purposes as constructing bridges or salvaging sunken objects. The Musashi, a large crane of this type built in Japan in 1974, can lift a 3,000-ton load.

  • floating debt

    international payment and exchange: Short-term flows: A very important distinction must be drawn between the short-term capital that flows in the normal course of industrial and commercial development and that which flows because of exchange-rate movements. The first class of short-term capital may be thought of as going in…

  • floating dry dock

    dry dock: The principal such facility, the floating dry dock, is a trough-shaped cellular structure, used to lift ships out of the water for inspection and repairs. The ship is brought into the channel of the partly submerged dock, which is then floated by removing ballast from its hollow floor and walls…

  • floating exchange rate (economics)

    money: Central banking: If a country has a floating exchange rate, it must choose a policy to go with the floating rate. At times in the past, many countries expected their central bank to pursue several different objectives. Eventually, countries recognized that this was an error because it focused the central bank on…

  • floating foundation (construction)

    soil mechanics: A floating foundation consists of boxlike rigid structures set at such a depth below ground that the weight of the soil removed to place it equals the weight of the building; thus, once the building is completed, the soil under it will bear the same weight…

  • floating garden (agriculture)

    Chinampa, small, stationary, artificial island built on a freshwater lake for agricultural purposes. Chinampan was the ancient name for the southwestern region of the Valley of Mexico, the region of Xochimilco, and it was there that the technique was—and is still—most widely used. It consists in

  • Floating Gardens of Xochimilco (park, Mexico City, Mexico)

    Xochimilco: …famous for its chinampas (floating gardens). The local agriculturalists constructed branch and reed rafts on the lake, covered them with mud from the bottom of the lake, and cultivated fruits, vegetables, and flowers, which they shipped to Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) via canal. In time the rafts took root…

  • floating gate (electronics)

    flash memory: …that has two transistors, the floating gate and the control gate, at each intersection, separated by an oxide layer that insulates the floating gate. When the floating gate is linked to the control gate, the two-transistor cell has a value of 1. To change the value of the cell to…

  • floating heart (plant)

    Menyanthaceae: …water lily, water snowflake, and floating heart, comprises submerged plants with buried rootstalks and floating leaves. Most species bear yellow or white flowers, and many are popular aquarium plants. The genera Liparophyllum and Nephrophyllidium both contain a single species, while Villarsia is larger but not well known.

  • Floating Instrument Platform

    Floating Instrument Platform (FLIP), oceanographic study platform developed in the United States. It combines the advantages of extreme stability while floating on site and ease of movement to new areas. In the horizontal position, FLIP, 109 m (357 feet) long, can be towed behind a ship. When

  • Floating Islands, The (work by Barba)

    theatre: The influence of Grotowski and the Polish Laboratory Theatre: His book The Floating Islands (1979) examines a theatre existing independently that creates from whatever material resources are at hand. Barba has sought to return to theatre as a way of life, seeing this pattern in the origins of the commedia dell’arte, the wandering players, and in…

  • floating moss (fern)

    fern: Annotated classification: …Azolla (about 6 species) and Salvinia (about 10 species), of floating aquatics, distributed nearly worldwide but most diverse in the tropics. Family Marsileaceae (clover ferns) Plants heterosporous; rhizomes long-creeping, slender, glabrous or hairy; leaves with two or four leaflets at the petiole tip or lacking a blade altogether, the venation…

  • Floating Opera, The (novel by Barth)

    American literature: Realism and metafiction: …In fact, Barth’s earliest fiction, The Floating Opera (1956) and The End of the Road (1958), fell partly within the realistic tradition, but in later, more-ambitious works he simultaneously imitated and parodied conventional forms—the historical novel in The Sot-Weed Factor (1960), Greek and Christian myths in Giles Goat-Boy (1966), and…

  • Floating Palace (steamboat)

    Gilbert R. Spaulding: …impresario, creator of the “Floating Palace,” an elaborate two-story steamboat that contained a regulation circus ring and a stage and toured the Mississippi and Ohio rivers during the 1850s. Spalding introduced the quarter poles (for supporting the tent roof), which enable circuses to use larger tents. He lit his…

  • Floating Piers, The (work by Christo and Jeanne-Claude)

    Christo and Jeanne-Claude: Works after Jeanne-Claude’s death: …gas storage tank in Germany; The Floating Piers (2016) connected two islands in Lake Iseo, Italy, via a floating saffron-coloured walkway that stretched 1.86 miles (2.99 km); and The London Mastaba (2018) stacked coloured barrels in the shape of the ancient building type atop a floating platform in the Serpentine…

  • floating rate (economics)

    money: Central banking: If a country has a floating exchange rate, it must choose a policy to go with the floating rate. At times in the past, many countries expected their central bank to pursue several different objectives. Eventually, countries recognized that this was an error because it focused the central bank on…

  • floating rib (anatomy)

    rib: The 11th and 12th pairs—floating ribs—are half the size of the others and do not reach to the front of the body. Each true rib has a small head with two articular surfaces—one that articulates on the body of the vertebra and a more anterior tubercle that articulates with…

  • Floating Theatre (American showboat)

    showboat: …the first showboat, the “Floating Theatre” (14 by 100 feet [4 by 32 m]), at Pittsburgh in 1831. He and his family floated from landing to landing, playing dramas such as The Stranger, by August von Kotzebue, and William Shakespeare’s Taming of the Shrew, with music and dance specialties…

  • floating tone (speech)

    Niger-Congo languages: Tone: …what are known as “floating tones.” Frequently, when a syllable is deleted or when vowels are elided, the tones carried by those syllables are retained, and they interact with preceding and/or succeeding tones to result in tonal perturbations.

  • floating-point calculation (mathematics)

    computer: Central processing unit: …for graphics instructions or for floating-point calculations (arithmetic operations involving noninteger numbers, such as 3.27). With this “superscalar” design, several instructions can execute at once.

  • floatplane (airplane)

    seaplane: …separate pontoons or floats as floatplanes. The first practical seaplanes were built and flown in the United States by Glenn H. Curtiss, in 1911 and 1912. Curtiss’ inventions led to the British F-boats of World War I, which originated such naval air missions as over-ocean patrol, antisubmarine warfare, mine laying,…

  • floc (chemistry)

    water supply system: Coagulation and flocculation: …heavier masses of solids called floc. Aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most common coagulant used for water purification. Other chemicals, such as ferric sulfate or sodium aluminate, may also be used.

  • flocculation (physical chemistry)

    Flocculation, in physical chemistry, separation of solid particles from a liquid to form loose aggregations or soft flakes. These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a force analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. In industrial processes, flocculation may be a

  • flocculation test (medicine)

    serological test: …of serological tests include: (1) Flocculation tests, of which the complement-fixation tests are the most common. They are based on the precipitation, or flocculation, that takes place when antibody and specially prepared antigens are mixed together. (2) Neutralization tests, which depend on the capacity of antibody to neutralize the infectious…

  • flocculator (metallurgy)

    magnesium processing: Electrolysis: …seawater is mixed in a flocculator with lightly burned reactive dolomite. An insoluble magnesium hydroxide precipitates to the bottom of a settling tank, whence it is pumped as a slurry, filtered, converted to magnesium chloride by reaction with hydrochloric acid, and dried in a series of evaporation steps to 25…

  • flocculonodular lobe (anatomy)

    cerebellum: The flocculonodular lobe, the first section of cerebellum to evolve, receives sensory input from the vestibules of the ear; the anterior lobe receives sensory input from the spinal cord; and the posterior lobe, the last to evolve, receives nerve impulses from the cerebrum. All of these…

  • flock (animal behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The range of social behaviour in animals: Other groups include flocks or herds that form during migration and coalitions that form due to group advantages in holding or acquiring a reproductive vacancy. Coalitions of male African lions (Panthera leo) that compete for control of groups of females (called prides) are a classic example of the…

  • flock pigeon (bird)

    columbiform: Distinguishing characteristics: One, the flock pigeon (Phaps histrionica), makes long flights to its feeding and drinking places and has long wings, in many respects apparently living like the sandgrouse of Africa and Eurasia.

  • Flock, Julius Timothy (American stock-car racing driver)

    Tim Flock, American stock-car racing driver who counted the 1952 and 1955 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing Winston Cup series championships among his numerous triumphs; in 1998 he was named one of NASCAR’s 50 greatest drivers (b. May 11, 1924, Fort Payne, Ala.--d. March 31, 1998,

  • Flock, The (film by Lau [2007])

    Avril Lavigne: …Fast Food Nation (2006) and The Flock (2007). She wrote the song “Alice” for Tim Burton’s film Alice in Wonderland (2010). In 2007 two songwriters sued Lavigne over her hit song “Girlfriend,” which they claimed had been plagiarized from their 1979 song “I Wanna Be Your Boyfriend.” The case was…

  • Flock, Tim (American stock-car racing driver)

    Tim Flock, American stock-car racing driver who counted the 1952 and 1955 National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing Winston Cup series championships among his numerous triumphs; in 1998 he was named one of NASCAR’s 50 greatest drivers (b. May 11, 1924, Fort Payne, Ala.--d. March 31, 1998,

  • Flodden, Battle of (British history [1513])

    Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513), English victory over the Scots, fought near Branxton, Northumberland. Ever anxious to protect themselves against their old enemy, the English, the Scots formed an alliance with France in 1295. The Auld Alliance, as it was known, proved to have disastrous

  • Floden, Halvor (Norwegian author)

    children's literature: Norway: …prominent and well-loved moderns are Halvor Floden, whose most famous work, centred on a gypsy waif, is Gjenta fra lands vegen (“The Girl from the Road”); the nonsense versifier Zinken Hopp; the poet Jan-Magnus Bruheim, three of whose collections have won state prizes; Finn Havrevold, whose toughminded boys’ teenage novel…

  • Flodin, Per (Swedish chemist)

    chromatography: Subsequent developments: In 1959 Per Flodin and Jerker Porath in Sweden developed cellulose polymeric materials that acted as molecular sieves for substances dispersed in liquids. This extended the molecular weight range of chromatography to polypeptides, proteins, and high-molecular-weight polymers. The generic term for such separations is size-exclusion

  • Flodoard (Frankish chronicler)

    Flodoard, chronicler whose two major works, the Annales, a chronicle covering the period 919 to 966, and the Historia Remensis ecclesiae (“History of the Church in Reims”), provide the essential documentation for this period. After returning from a visit to Pope Leo VII in Rome, Flodoard became

  • flogging (punishment)

    Flogging, a beating administered with a whip or rod, with blows commonly directed to the person’s back. It was imposed as a form of judicial punishment and as a means of maintaining discipline in schools, prisons, military forces, and private homes. The instruments and methods of flogging have

  • Fl?gstad, Kjartan (Norwegian writer)

    Kjartan Fl?gstad, Norwegian poet, novelist, and essayist best known for his novel Dalen Portland (1977; “Portland Valley”; Eng. trans. Dollar Road). Before he became a successful writer, Fl?gstad was a blue-collar worker and a sailor. He remained sympathetic to the working class in his writings,

  • Floian Stage (geology and stratigraphy)

    Floian Stage, last of two internationally defined stages of the Lower Ordovician Series, encompassing all rocks deposited during the Floian Age (477.7 million to 470 million years ago) of the Ordovician Period. In 2002 the International Commission on Stratigraphy established the Global Stratotype

  • Floire et Blancheflor (French romantic tale)

    Floire et Blancheflor, French metrical romance known in two versions from the 12th and 13th centuries and thought to be of Greco-Byzantine or Moorish origin. Its theme of separation and reunion of young lovers is the same as that treated in Aucassin et Nicolette, though the roles and religion of

  • FloJo (American athlete)

    Florence Griffith Joyner, American sprinter who set world records in the 100 metres (10.49 seconds) and 200 metres (21.34 seconds) that have stood since 1988. Griffith started running at age seven, chasing jackrabbits to increase her speed. In 1980 she entered the University of California, Los

  • Fl?jtbl?sarlycka (poetry by Enckell)

    Rabbe Enckell: …this collection and a sequel, Fl?jtbl?sarlycka (1925; “The Flutist’s Happiness”), Enckell describes with a painter’s eye the exquisite nuances in the phenomena of nature. A modernist, he was associated with the avant-garde journal Quosego in 1928–29. After writing a few semiautobiographical novels, including Ljusdunkel (1930; “Chiaroscuro”), Enckell returned to poetry…

  • Flon, Suzanne (French actress)

    Suzanne Flon, French actress (born Jan. 28, 1918, near Paris, France—died June 15, 2005, Paris), appeared in more than 60 films during a career that spanned 60 years. Flon won two César Awards, the best actress prize at the Venice Film Festival for Thou Shalt Not Kill (1961), and two Molière A

  • flong (printing)

    printing: Preparing stereotypes and plates: In making stereotype plates, a flong, or mat, a thin sheet of pasteboard, pliant enough to register an impression and sufficiently heat-resistant to tolerate the molten type metal, is placed on the type form with paper and cotton packing. It is subjected to heavy pressures in a press at a…

  • flood

    Flood, high-water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks onto normally dry land, such as a river inundating its floodplain. The effects of floods on human well-being range from unqualified blessings to catastrophes. The regular seasonal spring floods of the Nile River prior

  • flood basalt (geology)

    plateau: Formative processes: lava flows (called flood basalts or traps) and volcanic ash bury preexisting terrain, as exemplified by the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States. The volcanism involved in such situations is commonly associated with hot spots. The lavas and ash are generally carried long distances from their sources,…

  • flood control

    conservation: Flood control: In much the same way that human actions suppress fire regimes, they also control water levels, and the resulting changes can have important consequences for endangered species. An example of a species so affected is the Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis)…

  • flood myth (mythology)

    Native American literature: Arctic: …villages, a story about a flood that took place in the first days of the Earth is told. Many stories are especially intended for children and stress proper behaviour. They are often told by young girls to younger ones and are illustrated by incising figures in the snow or on…

  • flood pulse (hydrology)

    inland water ecosystem: Population and community development and structure: …rivers of variable hydrology, the flood pulse concept has been instructive. This concept regards seasonal or occasional flood events as important ecological phenomena determining the biology of the river.

  • flood system (agriculture)

    irrigation and drainage: Water application: In the flood system, water is applied at the edge of a field and allowed to move over the entire surface to the opposite side of the field. Grain and forage crops are quite often irrigated by flood techniques. The furrow system is used for row crops…

  • flood tide (oceanography)

    ebb tide: …rising tides, is called the flood tide. See tide.

  • Flood, Curt (American baseball player)

    Curt Flood, American professional baseball player whose antitrust litigation challenging the major leagues’ reserve clause was unsuccessful but led ultimately to the clause’s demise. Flood began playing baseball as a youth and was signed in 1956 by the National League Cincinnati Reds. He was traded

  • Flood, Curtis Charles (American baseball player)

    Curt Flood, American professional baseball player whose antitrust litigation challenging the major leagues’ reserve clause was unsuccessful but led ultimately to the clause’s demise. Flood began playing baseball as a youth and was signed in 1956 by the National League Cincinnati Reds. He was traded

  • Flood, Henry (Anglo-Irish statesman)

    Henry Flood, Anglo-Irish statesman, founder of the Patriot movement that in 1782 won legislative independence for Ireland. The illegitimate son of Warden Flood, chief justice of the Court of King’s Bench in Ireland, Henry entered the Irish Parliament in 1759. Irish Protestants were becoming

  • Flood, The (novel by Rankin)

    Ian Rankin: …would become his first novel, The Flood (1986). It was published by a student-run press in Edinburgh. Set in a small town based on Rankin’s own birthplace, the debut was an exploration of the prejudices and superstitions of a fading community as reflected in its casting out of a young…

  • Flood, The (painting by Uccello)

    Paolo Uccello: Later years: Human forms in The Flood, especially the nudes, were reminiscent of figures in Masaccio’s frescoes in the Brancacci Chapel (c. 1427), perhaps the most influential of all paintings of the early Renaissance. More than any other painting by Uccello, The Flood illustrates the artist’s love for perspective.

  • Flood, The (work by Stravinsky)

    theatre music: Music for television: …dance-film, or Stravinsky’s mixed media The Flood (1962)—original music to television is chiefly confined to the provision of theme passages or supporting music hopefully intended to enhance verbal or dramatic presentation. Like the cinema pianist who played for silent films, television music has a limited repertory of conventional gestures. Even…

  • flood-frequency analysis (hydrology)

    river: Peak discharge and flooding: In the longer term, flood-frequency analysis based on recorded past events can nevertheless supply useful predictions of future probabilities and risks. Flood-frequency analysis deals with the incidence of peak discharges, whereas frequency analysis generally provides the statistical basis of hydraulic geometry. Percentage frequency analysis has been much used in…

  • floodgate (engineering)

    Floodgate, gate for shutting out or releasing the flow of water over spillways, in connection with the operation of a dam. Vertical lift, or radial, gates rise to permit flow under the gate but over the spillway crest. Drum gates rotate backward, lowering their tops and permitting a measured flow

  • flooding

    Flood, high-water stage in which water overflows its natural or artificial banks onto normally dry land, such as a river inundating its floodplain. The effects of floods on human well-being range from unqualified blessings to catastrophes. The regular seasonal spring floods of the Nile River prior

  • floodlight (lamp)

    Fresnel lens: …lens is convenient for spotlights, floodlights, railroad and traffic signals, and decorative lights in buildings. Cylindrical Fresnel lenses are used in shipboard lanterns to increase visibility.

  • floodplain (geology)

    Floodplain, flat land area adjacent to a stream, composed of unconsolidated sedimentary deposits (alluvium) and subject to periodic inundation by the stream. Floodplains are produced by lateral movement of a stream and by overbank deposition; therefore they are absent where downcutting is d

  • Floodtide of Fate (novel by Duun)

    Olav Duun: …novel, Menneske og maktene (1938; Floodtide of Fate), shows, the struggle between an uplifting human spirit and darker natural forces never ceased to enrich the outcome of his fiction.

  • floor (construction)

    Floor, rigid building assembly that divides space horizontally into stories. It forms the bottom of a room. It may consist of joist-supported wood planks or panels, decking or panels supported by wood or steel beams, a slab of stone or concrete on the ground, or a reinforced-concrete slab carried

  • floor beam (engineering)

    beam: …heavier, transverse members are called floor beams.

  • floor conveyor (mechanical device)

    conveyor: Floor conveyors use chain, cable, or other linkage mounted in or close to the floor in an endless track. They are usually designed to drag a train of four-wheeled carts around in a loop to carry large products or materials for assembly on the conveying…

  • floor covering

    Floor covering, material made from textiles, felts, resins, rubber, or other natural or man-made substances applied or fastened to, or laid upon, the level base surface of a room to provide comfort, durability, safety, and decoration. Such materials include both handmade and machine-made rugs and

  • floor exercise (gymnastics)

    Floor exercise, gymnastics event in which movements are performed on the floor in an area 12 metres (40 feet) square. This area is covered by some type of cloth or mat, usually with some cushioning. No other apparatus is used. Men’s routines are 50 to 70 seconds in duration. The type of exercise

  • floor mosaic

    Tessellated pavement, interior or exterior floor covering composed of stone tesserae (Latin: “dice”), cubes, or other regular shapes closely fitted together in simple or complex designs with a durable and waterproof cement, mortar, clay, or grout. Deriving from Greek pebble mosaic (q.v.) pavings

  • Floor Scrapers, The (painting by Caillebotte)

    Gustave Caillebotte: …the modern urban environment, and The Floor Scrapers (1875) is a realistic scene of urban craftsmen busily at work. Caillebotte’s masterpiece, Paris Street; Rainy Day (1877), uses bold perspective to create a monumental portrait of a Paris intersection on a rainy day. Caillebotte also painted portraits and figure studies, boating…

  • flopper (gambling)

    dice: Cheating with dice: Loaded dice (called tappers, missouts, passers, floppers, cappers, or spot loaders, depending on how and where extra weight has been applied) may prove to be perfect cubes when measured with calipers, but extra weight just below the surface on some sides will make the opposite…

  • floppy disk (computing)

    Floppy disk, magnetic storage medium used with late 20th-century computers. Floppy disks were popular from the 1970s until the late 1990s, when they were supplanted by the increasing use of e-mail attachments and other means to transfer files from computer to computer. They were made of flexible

  • Floquet, Charles-Thomas (French politician)

    Charles Floquet, French politician whose deep attachment to the republic led him to become an antagonist of the political aspirations of Gen. Georges Boulanger. Floquet strongly opposed the Second Empire and rapidly made a name for himself as a republican lawyer and journalist. In 1870–71 he

  • Flor de durazno (work by Wast)

    Hugo Wast: …as Flor de durazno (1911; Peach Blossom), which established his literary reputation, and Desierto de piedra (1925; A Stone Desert)—portray rural people in their struggle against nature and adversity and their ability to endure personal hardship. In such novels as La casa de los cuervos (1916; The House of Ravens),…

  • Flor de mayo (work by Blasco Ibá?ez)

    Vicente Blasco Ibá?ez: …as Flor de mayo (1895; Mayflower, 1921), La barraca (1898; The Cabin, 1917), and Ca?as y barro (1902; Reeds and Mud, 1966), is marked by a vigorous and intense realism and considerable dramatic force in the depiction of the life of Valencia. Later novels, such as La bodega (1906; The…

  • flor de tierra (plant)

    Lennooideae: Flor de tierra (“flower of the earth”; L. madreporoides) usually grows on roots of the Mexican sunflower (Tithonia). The oval mushroomlike stem is 5–15 cm (2–6 inches) tall and is covered at maturity with small starlike flowers, violet with yellow throats.

  • flor sherry

    wine: Fortified wines: The flor sherries, such as the dry or fino-type sherry produced in Spain, are a special type of dessert wine. The base wine is fortified to about 15 percent alcohol, and a special alcohol-tolerant film yeast develops as a film on the wine surface. Acetaldehyde, an…

  • Flor, Roger de (Sicilian mercenary)

    Roger de Flor, Sicilian-born military adventurer and mercenary captain whose service to the Byzantine emperor Andronicus II had disastrous consequences. As a boy he went to sea and became a Knight Templar. When Acre in Palestine fell to the Saracens (1291), he made his fortune by blackmailing

  • Flora (Roman mythology)

    Flora, in Roman religion, the goddess of the flowering of plants. Titus Tatius (according to tradition, the Sabine king who ruled with Romulus) is said to have introduced her cult to Rome; her temple stood near the Circus Maximus. Her festival, called the Floralia, was instituted in 238 bc. A

  • Flora (painting by Rembrandt)

    pentimento: …double hat brim in Rembrandt’s “Flora” (c. 1665; Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City).

  • Flora & Ulysses: The Illuminated Adventures (novel by DiCamillo)

    Kate DiCamillo: Flora & Ulysses: The Illuminated Adventures (2013), which concerned the adventures of a cynical young comic-book lover and a squirrel endowed with human abilities, won the 2014 Newbery Medal. DiCamillo also drew praise for Raymie Nightingale (2016), which centres on a young girl who, in…

  • flora and fauna (botany and biology)

    biogeography: …in the average composition of flora and fauna. It is thought that the present-day distribution patterns of plant and animal forms, as reflected in such biogeographic regions, are the result of many historical and current causes. These causes include present climatic and geographic conditions, the geologic history of the landmasses…

  • Flora and Fauna Within Living Animals, A (work by Leidy)

    Joseph Leidy: …parasitology with the publication of A Flora and Fauna Within Living Animals (1853), the first important study of the parasites of the alimentary canal. His discovery of Trichina spiralis in pork led to Rudolf Leuckart’s discovery of the cause of trichinosis in man.

  • Flora and Fauna: Displaced by Climate Change

    In 2014, in an effort to develop plans to Conserve as many species as possible as the pace of climate change continued to accelerate, ecologists and wildlife officials began envisioning what Earth’s ecosystems would look like 100 years in the future. In September the National Audubon Society

  • Flora Australiensis (monograph by Bentham and Mueller)

    George Bentham: …Flora Hongkongensis (1861) and the Flora Australiensis (7 vol., 1863–78), cataloging and describing more than 7,000 species.

  • Flora Danica (porcelain pattern)

    Royal Copenhagen porcelain: …production, however, was the great “Flora Danica” service (now, but for a few pieces, in Rosenborg Castle, Copenhagen). Intended as a gift for Catherine II of Russia, who died while it was being produced, the service numbered 1,802 items. These include minor objects, such as eggcups, as well as impressive…

  • Flora de Bogotá o de Nueva Granada (work by Mutis)

    José Mutis: …of botanical papers, but his Flora de Bogotá o de Nueva Granada, containing more than 6,000 illustrations, was so massive that the Spanish government could not afford to print it.

  • Flora Gave Me Fairest Flowers (work by Wilbye)

    John Wilbye: …latter and the well-known “Flora Gave Me Fairest Flowers” and “Sweet Honey-sucking Bees” display Wilbye’s skill in vocal orchestration: the full number of voices is not kept in constant play, but for much of the time the composer writes for ever-changing smaller groups within the ensemble.

  • Flora ouerocultura di fiori (work by Ferrari)

    floral decoration: 17th century: Flora ouerocultura di fiori (“Flora: The Cultivation of Flowers”), a renowned garden book published in Rome in 1633 by the horticulturist P. Giovanni Battista Ferrari, illustrates the styles of floral displays preferred by the Italians and also describes arranging techniques and devices. Among the ingenious…

  • Flora, Letter to (work by Ptolemaeus)

    patristic literature: The gnostic writers: 315–403) preserved a Letter to Flora, by the Valentinian gnostic Ptolemaeus (late 2nd century), supplying rules for interpreting the Mosaic Law (the Torah) in a Christian sense, and another disciple of Valentinus, Theodotus (2nd century), published an account of his master’s system that was excerpted by Clement of…

  • Flora, the Red Menace (musical by Kander and Ebb [1965])

    Liza Minnelli: …as the title character in Flora, the Red Menace, the first musical by the songwriting team of John Kander and Fred Ebb. The show ran for only 87 performances, but Minnelli’s performance won her a Tony Award for best actress in a musical, and she remained the youngest winner of…

  • floradora (plant)

    Stephanotis: …member of the genus, the Madagascar jasmine (Marsdenia floribunda), waxflower, or floradora, is a popular greenhouse plant. This woody, twining vine is native to Madagascar. It has leathery, oval leaves that grow up to 10 cm (4 inches) long and clusters of waxy, white flowers that grow to 5 cm…

  • floral and foliate ornament

    jewelry: 17th century: Floral and vegetable decoration therefore became the most fashionable theme for jewelry designers, and its popularity spread throughout Europe. The ornamental motifs of knots, ribbons, and Rococo scrolls also saw a considerable development. There was a corresponding decrease in the amount of figurative decoration, which…

  • floral axis (plant anatomy)

    flower: Form and types: …each flower consists of a floral axis upon which are borne the essential organs of reproduction (stamens and pistils) and usually accessory organs (sepals and petals); the latter may serve to both attract pollinating insects and protect the essential organs. The floral axis is a greatly modified stem; unlike vegetative…

  • floral cup (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: The corolla: …cuplike floral tube called a hypanthium that surrounds the carpels, as in cherries (Prunus; Rosaceae), for example. Fusion and reduction of flower parts are common and have occurred in many unrelated lineages. Many wind-pollinated angiosperms do not have petals, nor do they have floral parts modified as petals; examples of…

  • floral decoration

    Floral decoration, art of arranging living or dried plant material for adornment of the body or home or as a part of public ceremonies, festivals, and religious rituals. Since the earliest days of civilization, humans have used floral decorations, composed of living or dried cut-plant materials or

  • floral envelope (flower part)

    angiosperm: General features: …and corolla together compose the perianth. The sepals and petals are accessory parts or sterile appendages; though they protect the flower buds and attract pollinators, they are not directly involved with sexual reproduction. When the colour and appearance of sepals and petals are similar, as in the tulip tree (Liriodendron…

  • floral kingdom (ecological area)

    Floristic region, any of six areas of the world recognized by plant geographers for their distinctive plant life. These regions, which coincide closely with the faunal regions as mapped by animal geographers, are often considered with them as biogeographic regions. The chief difference is the

  • floral tube (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: The corolla: …cuplike floral tube called a hypanthium that surrounds the carpels, as in cherries (Prunus; Rosaceae), for example. Fusion and reduction of flower parts are common and have occurred in many unrelated lineages. Many wind-pollinated angiosperms do not have petals, nor do they have floral parts modified as petals; examples of…

  • Florante at Laura (poem by Balagtas)

    Southeast Asian arts: The Philippines: …was an epic romance called Florante at Laura by the first native writer to achieve prominence—Francisco Balagtas—who wrote in Tagalog. In the latter half of the 19th century, an intellectual renaissance coincided with the beginnings of a national movement toward freedom; writers began using Spanish, for their work was part…

  • Flore francaise (work by Lamarck)

    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck: Early life and career: …three volumes under the title Flore fran?aise (1778; “French Flora”). Lamarck designed the Flore fran?aise specifically for the task of plant identification and used dichotomous keys, which are classification tools that allow the user to choose between opposing pairs of morphological characters (see taxonomy: The objectives of biological classification) to…

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