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  • Foale, Michael (British-born American astronaut)

    Tim Peake: …official British spacewalker; the British-born Michael Foale had walked in space in 1995 but as a NASA astronaut. Peake returned to Earth on June 18, 2016, shortly after becoming the first British subject to be honoured by the queen—as Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George—while in…

  • foam (chemical compound)

    Foam, in physical chemistry, a colloidal system (i.e., a dispersion of particles in a continuous medium) in which the particles are gas bubbles and the medium is a liquid. The term also is applied to material in a lightweight cellular spongy or rigid form. Liquid foams are sometimes made

  • foam fractionation (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Foam fractionation and flotation: There are a few methods that employ foams to achieve separations. In these, the principle of separation is adsorption on gas bubbles or at the gas-liquid interface. Two of these methods are foam fractionation, for the separation of molecular species, and…

  • foam glass (chemical compound)

    Foam glass, lightweight, opaque glass material having a closed-cell structure. It is made in molds that are packed with crushed or granulated glass mixed with a chemical agent such as carbon or limestone. At the temperature at which the glass grains become soft enough to cohere, the agent gives

  • foam rubber (chemical compound)

    Foam rubber, flexible, porous substance made from a natural or synthetic latex compounded with various ingredients and whipped into a froth. The resulting product contains roughly 85 percent air and 15 percent rubber and can be molded and vulcanized. Its uses include padding for furniture,

  • foam stabilizer (chemical compound)

    foam: Liquid foams are sometimes made relatively long-lasting—e.g., for fire fighting—by adding some substance, called a stabilizer, that prevents or retards the coalescence of the gas bubbles. Of the great variety of substances that act as foam stabilizers, the best known are soaps, detergents, and proteins. Proteins,…

  • foamed plastic

    Foamed plastic, synthetic resin converted into a spongelike mass with a closed-cell or open-cell structure, either of which may be flexible or rigid, used for a variety of products including cushioning materials, air filters, furniture, toys, thermal insulation, sponges, plastic boats, panels for

  • foamed thermoplastic (thermoplastic)

    plastic: Foamed thermoplastics: Polystyrene pellets can be impregnated with isopentane at room temperature and modest pressure. When the pellets are heated, they can be made to fuse together at the same time that the isopentane evaporates, foaming the polystyrene and cooling the assembly at the same…

  • foamed thermoset (plastic)

    plastic: Foamed thermosets: The rapid reaction of isocyanates with hydroxyl-bearing prepolymers to make polyurethanes is mentioned above in Reaction injection molding. These materials also can be foamed by incorporating a volatile liquid, which evaporates under the heat of reaction and foams the reactive mixture to a…

  • foaming agent

    food additive: Processing agents: The formation and stabilization of foam in a food product occurs by a similar mechanism, except that the oil phase is replaced by a gas phase. The compounds also act to inhibit the formation of ice or sugar crystals in foods and can be used to encapsulate flavour compounds.

  • FOB (play by Hwang)

    David Henry Hwang: …1979), where his first play, FOB (an acronym for “fresh off the boat”), was first produced in 1979 (published 1983). The work, which examines the immigrant experience from an Asian American perspective, won an Obie Award in 1980–81 for best new American play. Between graduating from college and winning the…

  • FOB (finance)

    international payment and exchange: The current account: … valued on an FOB (free on board) basis and imports valued on a CIF basis (including cost, insurance, and freight to the point of destination). This swells the import figures relative to the export figures by the amount of the insurance and freight included. The reason for this practice…

  • FOBS (missile)

    rocket and missile system: Multiple warheads: …reentry vehicles (MRVs), and the Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS). The Soviets introduced both of these capabilities with the SS-9 Scarp, the first “heavy” missile, beginning in 1967. FOBS was based on a low-trajectory launch that would be fired in the opposite direction from the target and would achieve only…

  • Foca (Turkey)

    Phocaea, ancient Ionian city on the northern promontory of the Gulf of Smyrna, Anatolia (now the Gulf of ?zmir, Turkey). It was the mother city of several Greek colonies. The Phocaeans arrived in Anatolia perhaps as late as the 10th century bce and, lacking arable land, established colonies in the

  • focal area (dialects)

    dialect: Focal, relic, and transitional areas: Dialectologists often distinguish between focal areas, which provide sources of numerous important innovations and usually coincide with centres of lively economic or cultural activity, and relic areas, places toward which such innovations are spreading but have not usually arrived. (Relic…

  • focal attention (psychology)

    attention: Memory and habituation: …attention can be characterized as focal and automatic. Someone who is focally attentive is highly aware, consciously in control, and selective in handling sensory phenomena. A person in such a state also uses the brain for short-term storage. (Indeed, some focal attention is almost certainly necessary for storing information in…

  • focal distance (optics)

    photoreception: Diversity of eyes: …lens surface, which shortens its focal length (the distance from the retina to the centre of the lens). One of the most interesting examples of amphibious optics occurs in the “four-eyed fish” of the genus Anableps, which cruises the surface meniscus with the upper part of the eye looking into…

  • focal dystonia (pathology)

    dystonia: …the extent of muscle involvement: focal, affecting only one muscle group, such as the vocal cords (e.g., spastic dysphonia); segmental, involving two adjacent muscle groups, such as the neck muscles (e.g., spastic torticollis); or general, affecting the entire body.

  • focal length (optics)

    photoreception: Diversity of eyes: …lens surface, which shortens its focal length (the distance from the retina to the centre of the lens). One of the most interesting examples of amphibious optics occurs in the “four-eyed fish” of the genus Anableps, which cruises the surface meniscus with the upper part of the eye looking into…

  • focal point (optics)

    lens: Optical principles for lenses: This point is called the focal point, or principal focus, of the lens (often depicted in ray diagrams as F). Refraction of the rays of light reflected from or emitted by an object causes the rays to form a visual image of the object. This image may be either real—photographable…

  • focal ratio (optics)

    Relative aperture, the measure of the light-gathering power of an optical system. It is expressed in different ways according to the instrument involved. The relative aperture for a microscope is called the numerical aperture (NA) and is equal to the sine of half the angle subtended by the

  • focal seizure (pathology)

    epilepsy: Partial-onset seizures: A partial seizure originates in a specific area of the brain. Partial seizures consist of abnormal sensations or movements, and a lapse of consciousness may occur. Epileptic individuals with partial seizures may experience unusual sensations called auras that precede the onset of a…

  • focal-plane shutter (photography)

    shutter: The focal-plane shutter, located directly in front of the image plane, consists of a pair of overlapping blinds that form an adjustable slit or window; driven mechanically by spring or electronically, the slit moves across the film in one direction, exposing the entire frame in its…

  • Focas, Antonio de Curtis Gagliardi Griffo (Italian actor)

    Totò, Italian comic, most popular for his film characterization of an unsmiling but sympathetic bourgeois figure, likened by international film critics to the American film comic Buster Keaton. Totò was born to a family of impoverished Italian nobility. He served in the military during World War I

  • Foccart, Jacques (French politician)

    Jacques Foccart, French businessman and politician who served as an adviser to several French presidents, including Charles de Gaulle; Foccart shaped France’s African policy with behind-the-scenes maneuvers that enabled the country to maintain influence in its former colonies (b. Aug. 31, 1913--d.

  • Foch, Ferdinand (marshal of France)

    Ferdinand Foch, marshal of France and commander of Allied forces during the closing months of World War I, generally considered the leader most responsible for the Allied victory. Foch was the son of a civil servant. His family had originally lived in Valentine, a village in the Comminges area to

  • Foch, Nina (American actress and teacher)

    Nina Foch, (Nina Consuelo Maud Fock), Dutch-born American actress and teacher (born April 20, 1924, Leiden, Neth.—died Dec. 5, 2008, Los Angeles, Calif.), specialized in portraying coolly manipulative women over a prolific seven-decade career. Foch grew up in New York City and studied at the

  • foci (conic section)

    ellipse: …from a fixed point (the focus) and a fixed straight line (the directrix) is a constant less than one. Any such path has this same property with respect to a second fixed point and a second fixed line, and ellipses often are regarded as having two foci and two directrixes.…

  • Fock, Jeno (Hungarian politician)

    Jeno Fock, Hungarian politician (born May 17, 1916, Budapest, Austria-Hungary—died May 23, 2001, Budapest, Hung.), was a moderate communist who tried to institute economic reforms while serving as Hungarian deputy prime minister (1961–67) and prime minister (1967–75). His efforts were blocked by t

  • Fock, Nina Consuelo Maud (American actress and teacher)

    Nina Foch, (Nina Consuelo Maud Fock), Dutch-born American actress and teacher (born April 20, 1924, Leiden, Neth.—died Dec. 5, 2008, Los Angeles, Calif.), specialized in portraying coolly manipulative women over a prolific seven-decade career. Foch grew up in New York City and studied at the

  • Fock, Vladimir Aleksandrovich (Russian mathematical physicist)

    Vladimir Aleksandrovich Fock, Russian mathematical physicist who made seminal contributions to quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity. Fock became progressively deaf at a young age because of injuries sustained during military service in World War I. In 1922 he graduated from

  • Focke-Wulf 190 (German aircraft)

    Fw 190, German fighter aircraft that was second in importance only to the Bf 109 during World War II. A low-wing monoplane powered by a BMW air-cooled radial engine, it was ordered by the Luftwaffe in 1937 as a hedge against shortages of the liquid-cooled Daimler-Benz DB601 engine, which powered

  • Focke-Wulf 190A-2 (German aircraft)

    Fw 190: The Fw 190A-2, the first mass-produced version, had a top speed of about 410 miles (660 km) per hour and a ceiling of 35,000 feet (10,600 metres). The fighter’s heavy cannon armament made it a potent bomber destroyer, and it played a major role in turning…

  • Focke-Wulf 190D (German aircraft)

    Fw 190: The result was the Fw 190D, which entered service in the winter of 1943–44 with a top speed of about 440 miles (710 km) per hour and an armament of two cowling-mounted machine guns and a pair of 20-mm cannons in the wing roots. In principle, the Fw 190D…

  • Focke-Wulf 190F (German aircraft)

    Fw 190: In the meantime, the Fw 190F and G had become the Luftwaffe’s standard fighter-bomber for ground attack. Though used in small numbers by Allied standards, the planes were effective in this role. Both ground-attack variants had additional armour protection, and the G version also could carry a single 4,000-pound…

  • foco theory (political doctrine)

    Che Guevara: The Cuban Revolution: …included Guevara’s delineation of his foco theory (foquismo), a doctrine of revolution in Latin America drawn from the experience of the Cuban Revolution and predicated on three main tenets: 1) guerrilla forces are capable of defeating the army; 2) all the conditions for making a revolution do not have to…

  • Foc?ani (Romania)

    Foc?ani, city, capital of Vrancea jude? (county), east-central Romania. The city lies 100 miles (160 km) north-northeast of Bucharest. It is situated on the Milcov River, which was once the boundary between Moldavia and Walachia. In the city is a monument marking the old frontier. Foc?ani is the

  • focus (conic section)

    ellipse: …from a fixed point (the focus) and a fixed straight line (the directrix) is a constant less than one. Any such path has this same property with respect to a second fixed point and a second fixed line, and ellipses often are regarded as having two foci and two directrixes.…

  • Focus (film by Ficarra and Requa [2015])

    Will Smith: …con artist in the thriller Focus and the doctor who discovered the epidemic of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) among NFL players in Concussion. In 2016 he played the assassin Deadshot in the action thriller Suicide Squad and a grieving father in Collateral Beauty. The following year he starred as a…

  • Focus (album by Getz)

    Stan Getz: …arranger Eddie Sauter to record Focus, an album that many regard as Getz’s masterpiece. He worked with guitarist Charlie Byrd on the album that ushered in the bossa nova era, Jazz Samba (1962), which included their hit recording of “Desafinado.” Getz became further associated with bossa nova through his subsequent…

  • focus (optics)

    lens: Optical principles for lenses: This point is called the focal point, or principal focus, of the lens (often depicted in ray diagrams as F). Refraction of the rays of light reflected from or emitted by an object causes the rays to form a visual image of the object. This image may be either real—photographable…

  • focus (seismology)

    earthquake: Principal types of seismic waves: …the Earth, is called the focus, or hypocentre. The point at the surface immediately above the focus is known as the epicentre.

  • focus group (research)

    Focus group, gathering of a small number of individuals who share common interests in specific issues or events and who are asked to take part in an interactive discussion. Focus groups typically are used to understand how people with common interests feel and think about an issue, a product, a

  • Focus on the Family (American organization)

    Focus on the Family, American Christian ministry devoted to promoting conservative political and religious principles through a variety of media outlets. Headquarters are in Colorado Springs, Colo. Focus on the Family was founded as a radio program in 1977 in Arcadia, Calif., by the American

  • focus, depth of (optics)

    optics: Longitudinal magnification: …large, which explains why the depth of field (δp) of a microscope is extremely small. On the other hand, if m is small, less than one as in a camera, then m is very small, and all objects within a considerable range of distances (δp) appear substantially in focus.

  • focusing (optics)

    Focusing, ability of the lens to alter its shape to allow objects to be seen clearly. In humans, the forward surface of the lens is made more convex for seeing objects up close. At the same time, the pupil becomes smaller, and the two eyes turn inward (i.e., cross or converge) to the point that

  • focusing (particle physics)

    particle accelerator: Classical cyclotrons: Some means of focusing is required; otherwise, a particle that starts out in a direction making a small angle with the orbital plane will spiral into the dees and be lost. While the energy of the particle is still low, this focusing is supplied by the accelerating electric…

  • focusing collector (technology)

    solar energy: Electricity generation: concentrating, or focusing, collectors to concentrate sunlight received from a wide area onto a small blackened receiver, thereby considerably increasing the light’s intensity in order to produce high temperatures. The arrays of carefully aligned mirrors or lenses can focus enough sunlight to heat a target…

  • focusing screen (optics)

    technology of photography: Methods of focusing and framing: The ground-glass (now mostly grained plastic) screen is the most direct way of viewing the image for framing and for sharpness control. The screen localizes the image plane for observation. The image is also visible without a screen, but then the eye…

  • focusing spectroscope (instrument)

    mass spectrometry: Focusing spectroscopes: The spectroscopes discussed so far are analogous to the pinhole camera in optics, because no focusing of the ion beams is involved. The introduction of focusing types of mass spectroscopes came in the years 1918–19 and was due to the British chemist and…

  • focussing (optics)

    Focusing, ability of the lens to alter its shape to allow objects to be seen clearly. In humans, the forward surface of the lens is made more convex for seeing objects up close. At the same time, the pupil becomes smaller, and the two eyes turn inward (i.e., cross or converge) to the point that

  • Fodor, Eugene (American writer)

    Eugene Fodor, Hungarian-born American travel writer who created a series of popular tourist guidebooks that provided entertaining reading, historical background, and cultural insights into the people and places described, as well as reliable, practical information designed to assist even the most

  • Fodor, Jerry A. (American philosopher)

    philosophy of mind: The computational-representational theory of thought (CRTT): …Putnam, Gilbert Harman, and especially Jerry Fodor. Fodor was the most explicit and influential advocate of the computational-representational theory of thought, or CRTT—the idea that thinking consists of the manipulation of electronic tokens of sentences in a “language of thought.” Whatever the ultimate merits or difficulties of this view, Fodor…

  • Fodrejse fra Holmens Kanal til ?stpynten af Amager i aarene 1828 og 1829 (work by Andersen)

    Hans Christian Andersen: …his first important literary work, Fodrejse fra Holmens Kanal til ?stpynten af Amager i aarene 1828 og 1829 (1829; “A Walk from Holmen’s Canal to the East Point of the Island of Amager in the Years 1828 and 1829”), a fantastic tale in the style of the German Romantic writer…

  • fodrum (tax)

    Frederick I: Attempt to regain imperial rights.: A tax called the fodrum was levied on all the inhabitants of imperial Italy; in return the Italian nobles and communes were excused from service in Frederick’s armies and were guaranteed his protection. A portion of the Italian money went to the German princes; this enabled Frederick to win…

  • Foe (novel by Coetzee)

    J.M. Coetzee: …colonizer and the colonized in Foe (1986), his reworking of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. Coetzee’s female narrator comes to new conclusions about power and otherness and ultimately concludes that language can enslave as effectively as can chains. In Age of Iron (1990) Coetzee dealt directly with circumstances in contemporary South…

  • foedera (treaty)

    Foedus, treaty or compact contracted by ancient Rome with one or more allied states (foederati). The treaty contained various conditions establishing permanent friendly relations between the contracting parties. A foedus aequum was a bilateral agreement recognizing both parties as equals obliged to

  • Foedera (work by Rymer)

    Thomas Rymer: …work, whose short title is Foedera (“Treaties”), is a considerable and valuable achievement.

  • foederati (allied state)

    United Kingdom: The decline of Roman rule: …when in 442 these Saxon foederati (allies) rebelled and called in others of their race to help them, it was found that they had been given a stranglehold on Britain. A long period of warfare and chaos was inaugurated, which was economically disastrous. It was probably this period that saw…

  • foedus (treaty)

    Foedus, treaty or compact contracted by ancient Rome with one or more allied states (foederati). The treaty contained various conditions establishing permanent friendly relations between the contracting parties. A foedus aequum was a bilateral agreement recognizing both parties as equals obliged to

  • Foedus Cassianum (treaty)

    foedus: …earliest known foedus is the Foedus Cassianum signed by the consul Spurius Cassius Vecellinus in 493 bc, which established a common army of defense between the Romans and the collective Latin states. The terms of the treaty are preserved in the work of the Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Roman…

  • foehn (wind)

    Foehn, warm and dry, gusty wind that periodically descends the leeward slopes of nearly all mountains and mountain ranges. The name was first applied to a wind of this kind that occurs in the Alps, where the phenomenon was first studied. A foehn results from the ascent of moist air up the w

  • foehn wall (cloud bank)

    foehn: …of clouds known as a foehn wall, which marks the upper limit of precipitation on the windward slopes. As the air makes its leeward descent, it is compressed and warms rapidly all the way downslope because there is little water left to evaporate and absorb heat; thus, the air is…

  • Foeniculum vulgare (herb)

    Fennel, (Foeniculum vulgare), perennial herb of the carrot family (Apiaceae) grown for its edible shoots, leaves, and seeds. Native to southern Europe and Asia Minor, fennel is cultivated in temperate regions worldwide and is considered an invasive species in Australia and parts of the United

  • Foeniculum vulgare variety azoricum (plant)

    fennel: …the bulblike stem base of Florence fennel (variety azoricum) and the blanched shoots are eaten as a vegetable. The seeds and extracted oil are suggestive of anise in aroma and taste and are used for scenting soaps and perfumes and for flavouring candies, liqueurs, medicines, and foods, particularly pastries, sweet…

  • foenugreek (herb)

    Fenugreek, (Trigonella foenum-graecum), fragrant herb of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its dried, flavourful seeds. Native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region, fenugreek is cultivated in central and southeastern Europe, western Asia, India, and northern Africa. The seeds’ aroma and

  • Foer, Jonathan Safran (American author)

    Jonathan Safran Foer, In 2016 best-selling American author Jonathan Safran Foer published the aptly titled novel Here I Am, his first work of fiction in more than a decade. The title, taken from the biblical book of Genesis, refers to Abraham’s words to God before being ordered to sacrifice his

  • Foerster, Josef Bohuslav (Czech composer)

    Josef Bohuslav F?rster, Czech composer belonging to the school of Leo? Janác?ek and Josef Suk. The son of the organ composer Josef F?rster, he studied at the Prague Conservatory and was organist at several Prague churches and music critic of Národní Listy. From 1893 to 1903 he lived at Hamburg,

  • foetal alcohol syndrome (pathology)

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), various congenital abnormalities in the newborn infant that are caused by the mother’s ingestion of alcohol about the time of conception or during pregnancy. Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most-severe type of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The syndrome appears

  • foetal blood sampling (medicine)

    human genetic disease: Prenatal diagnosis: Both percutaneous umbilical blood sampling (PUBS) and preimplantation testing are rare, relatively high-risk, and performed only in very unusual cases. Preimplantation testing of embryos derived by in vitro fertilization is a particularly new technique and is currently used only in cases of couples who are at…

  • foetal doppler ultrasound (medicine)

    prenatal testing: Prenatal diagnostic tests: …amniotic cavity, and fetus; and fetal doppler ultrasound, which is used to examine blood flow in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetal organs (certain conditions, such as sickle-cell anemia, can restrict fetal blood flow, leading to fetal abnormalities). Invasive prenatal diagnostic tests are associated with an increased risk of miscarriage.

  • foetal period (biology)

    Gestation, in mammals, the time between conception and birth, during which the embryo or fetus is developing in the uterus. This definition raises occasional difficulties because in some species (e.g., monkeys and man) the exact time of conception may not be known. In these cases the beginning of

  • Foeth, Afanasy Afanasyevich (Russian author)

    Afanasy Afanasyevich Fet, Russian poet and translator, whose sincere and passionate lyric poetry strongly influenced later Russian poets, particularly the Symbolist Aleksandr Blok. The illegitimate son of a German woman named Fet (or Foeth) and of a Russian landowner named Shenshin, whose name he

  • foetus (embryology)

    Fetus, the unborn young of any vertebrate animal, particularly of a mammal, after it has attained the basic form and structure typical of its kind. A brief treatment of the fetus follows. For more information on the human fetus, see pregnancy. Biologists arbitrarily speak of the earliest stages of

  • FOFA (nuclear weapons)

    nuclear strategy: Conventional strategy: The strategy of “follow-on forces attack” (FOFA), for example, envisaged the holding of a Pact offensive on the ground while attacking the Pact’s follow-on forces in the rear with air strikes. Such aggressive defense was criticized by peace movements as being too provocative. Instead, they proposed nonprovocative strategies…

  • fog (weather)

    Fog, cloud of small water droplets that is near ground level and sufficiently dense to reduce horizontal visibility to less than 1,000 metres (3,281 feet). The word fog also may refer to clouds of smoke particles, ice particles, or mixtures of these components. Under similar conditions, but with

  • fog dispersal (weather modification)

    Fog dispersal, artificial dissipation of fogs, usually by seeding or heating. It is done primarily at airports to improve visibility. Many attempts have been made to clear fogs at temperatures above freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) by seeding them with salt particles, by downwash mixing (that is, using

  • fog dissipation (weather modification)

    Fog dispersal, artificial dissipation of fogs, usually by seeding or heating. It is done primarily at airports to improve visibility. Many attempts have been made to clear fogs at temperatures above freezing (0 °C [32 °F]) by seeding them with salt particles, by downwash mixing (that is, using

  • fog drip (precipitation)

    Fog drip, water that drips to the ground from trees and other objects wetted by drifting fog droplets. The needle-shaped leaves of conifers are efficient fog droplet collectors, and fog drip in mountainous regions may supply enough water to maintain forests. During the foggy but nearly rainless

  • Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara, The (film by Morris [2003])

    Philip Glass: …History of Time (1991) and The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara (2003).

  • Fog over Frisco (film by Dieterle [1933])

    William Dieterle: Warner Brothers: Dieterle reteamed with Davis for Fog over Frisco, with the actress portraying a bored heiress involved in stolen securities; the crime drama was especially notable for its brisk pacing. Dieterle’s last films from 1934 were Madame Du Barry, a highly imaginative account of the infamous French courtesan (played by Dolores…

  • fog signal

    Fog signal, sound or light signal emitted in fog or mist by lighthouses and buoys to indicate a shoreline, channel, or dangerous stretch of water and by vessels to indicate their position. Each signal has a distinctive code. All vessels, whether stationary or moving, are required by law to utilize

  • Fog Warning (painting by Homer)

    Winslow Homer: The move to Prouts Neck: …most impressive of those works, Fog Warning (1885), night is falling, fog is rolling in, and a lone fisherman in a dory calculates the distance and the time remaining for him to get back to his home ship in safety. Although the monumental narrative paintings Homer produced in his studio…

  • Fogaras (Romania)

    F?g?ra?, town, Bra?ov jude? (county), central Romania. It lies north of the F?g?ra? Mountains, a range of the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathian Mountains), on the Olt River. First mentioned in documents in 1291, F?g?ra? became a military centre during the Middle Ages. The F?g?ra? Castle,

  • Fogarasch (Romania)

    F?g?ra?, town, Bra?ov jude? (county), central Romania. It lies north of the F?g?ra? Mountains, a range of the Transylvanian Alps (Southern Carpathian Mountains), on the Olt River. First mentioned in documents in 1291, F?g?ra? became a military centre during the Middle Ages. The F?g?ra? Castle,

  • Fogarty, Anne Whitney (American fashion designer)

    Anne Whitney Fogarty, American fashion designer, best known for her original dress design. Fogarty created her unique design in the early 1950s. Her ultra-feminine shirtwaist dress featured a tiny waist and a bouffant ballerina skirt, supported by as many as a dozen petticoats. Fogarty’s design

  • Fogazzaro, Antonio (Italian author)

    Antonio Fogazzaro, Italian novelist whose works reflect the conflict between reason and faith. Fogazzaro came from a wealthy family. He cultivated his interest in music and literature at his leisure and established his reputation as a novelist only late in life with Malombra (1881; The Woman),

  • Fogel, Robert William (American economist)

    Robert William Fogel, American economist who, with Douglass C. North, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Economics in 1993. The two were cited for having developed cliometrics, the application of statistical analysis to the study of economic history. Fogel attended Cornell University (B.A., 1948),

  • Fogelberg, Dan (American singer-songwriter)

    Dan Fogelberg, (Daniel Grayling Fogelberg), American singer-songwriter (born Aug. 13, 1951, Peoria, Ill.—died Dec. 16, 2007, Maine), captured the essence of the mellow, acoustic folk-tinged pop music that emerged on the American college scene in the 1960s and ’70s. Although detractors derided his

  • Fogelberg, Daniel Grayling (American singer-songwriter)

    Dan Fogelberg, (Daniel Grayling Fogelberg), American singer-songwriter (born Aug. 13, 1951, Peoria, Ill.—died Dec. 16, 2007, Maine), captured the essence of the mellow, acoustic folk-tinged pop music that emerged on the American college scene in the 1960s and ’70s. Although detractors derided his

  • Fogerty, Elsie (British voice teacher)

    Elsie Fogerty, British teacher of voice and dramatic diction, a major figure in theatrical training. Trained under Hermann Vezin and at the Paris Conservatoire, Fogerty in 1889 became a teacher of elocution at the Crystal Palace School of Art and Literature and later at Sir Frank Benson’s London

  • Fogerty, John (American musician)

    Creedence Clearwater Revival: John Fogerty and his brother Tom, both singer-guitarists, joined forces in 1959 with bassist Cook and drummer Clifford, their junior-high-school classmates in El Cerrito, California, a suburb in the San Francisco Bay area. After achieving marginal success under names such as the Blue Velvets and…

  • Fogerty, Tom (American musician)

    Creedence Clearwater Revival: ), Tom Fogerty (b. Nov. 9, 1941, Berkeley—d. Sept. 6, 1990, Scottsdale, Ariz.), Stu Cook (b. April 25, 1945, Oakland, Calif.), and Doug Clifford (b. April 24, 1945, Palo Alto, Calif.).

  • Fogg Art Museum (museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States)

    Fogg Art Museum, museum founded at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass., in 1895 as a study collection of Eastern and Western art from prehistory to the present, as well as an important art reference library of more than 150,000 volumes. The Fogg Museum is especially distinguished for its

  • Fogg, Heath (American musician)

    Alabama Shakes: April 19, 1985), and guitarist Heath Fogg (b. August 10, 1984).

  • Fogg, Phileas (fictional character)

    Phileas Fogg, fictional character, a wealthy, eccentric Englishman who wagers that he can travel around the world in 80 days in Jules Verne’s novel Around the World in Eighty Days

  • foggara (water-supply system)

    Qanāt, ancient type of water-supply system, developed and still used in arid regions of the world. A qanāt taps underground mountain water sources trapped in and beneath the upper reaches of alluvial fans and channels the water downhill through a series of gently sloping tunnels, often several

  • Foggia (Italy)

    Foggia, city, Puglia (Apulia) regione (region), southeastern Italy, in the centre of the Puglia Tableland, west-northwest of Barletta. Foggia is believed to have been founded by the inhabitants of Arpi (also called Argyrippa, Greek Argos Hippion), a Greek and Roman town that declined after the

  • Foggini, Giovanni Battista (Italian sculptor)

    Western sculpture: Late Baroque: …century is less spectacular, and Giovanni Battista Foggini took back from Rome the compromise style of Ferrarza, while Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi seems to have been instrumental in the brilliant revival there of small-scale bronze statuettes. Giovanni Marchiori worked in Venice with an attractive painterly style, in part based on the wood…

  • Foggy Bottom (neighborhood, Washington, D.C., United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Foggy Bottom: West of Downtown, between the White House and Georgetown, is Foggy Bottom—roughly bounded by Pennsylvania Avenue to the north, by 17th Street to the east, by Constitution Avenue to the south, and by the Potomac and Rock Creek to the west. Its name derives…

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