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  • free tenure (medieval law)

    feudal land tenure: Of the free tenures, the first was tenure in chivalry, principally grand sergeanty and knight service. The former obliged the tenant to perform some honourable and often personal service; knight service entailed performing military duties for the king or other lord, though by the middle of the…

  • Free Thai Movement (Thailand history)

    Luang Phibunsongkhram: A strong, anti-Japanese Free Thai Movement developed, and, when the war began to turn against Japan, Phibunsongkhram’s government collapsed (July 1944) and a civilian government took power, controlled from behind the scenes by Pridi Phanomyong.

  • free throw (sports)

    basketball: U.S. professional basketball: After a struggle…

  • free thyroxine (hormone)

    hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: …as serum total thyroxine or free thyroxine; the latter is preferable because it is the form of thyroxine that is readily available to the cells of the body and, therefore, is metabolically active. Measurements of serum total thyroxine are high in patients with thyroid disease and in patients producing more…

  • Free to Choose (work by Milton and Rose Friedman)

    Milton Friedman: Contributions to economic theory: …with his wife, Rose, on Free to Choose: A Personal Statement (1980), a book extolling the virtues of a free market system that eventually led to a Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series and a set of educational videos of the same title. In 1998 the Friedmans published their memoirs,…

  • free topos (philosophy)

    foundations of mathematics: The search for a distinguished model: This so-called free topos has been constructed linguistically to satisfy any formalist, but it should also satisfy a moderate Platonist, one who is willing to abandon the principle of the excluded third, inasmuch as the free topos is the initial object in the category of all topoi.…

  • free trade (economics)

    Free trade, a policy by which a government does not discriminate against imports or interfere with exports by applying tariffs (to imports) or subsidies (to exports). A free-trade policy does not necessarily imply, however, that a country abandons all control and taxation of imports and exports.

  • Free Trade Agreement (Canada-United States [1988])

    Canada: The administration of Brian Mulroney, 1984–93: …was more successful with the free trade agreement. Negotiated with the United States over a period of two years, it was signed by Mulroney and Reagan in January 1988. The agreement easily passed the U.S. Congress but was the object of bitter debate in Canada. In the federal general election…

  • Free Trade Area of the Americas

    Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), proposed free-trade zone encompassing all of the Americas. Negotiations to establish the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) ended in failure, however, the state parties having been unable to reach an agreement by the 2005 deadline they had set. The FTAA

  • free trade association (economics)

    international trade: Forms of integration: In free-trade associations no duty is levied on imports from other member states, but different rates of duty may be charged by each member on its imports from the rest of the world. A further stage is the customs union, in which free trade among the…

  • Free Trade, Association for (French organization)

    Frédéric Bastiat: In 1846 he founded the Associations for Free Trade and used its journal, Le Libre-échange (“Free Trade”), to advance his antiprotectionist views. In a well-known satiric parable that appeared in his Sophismes économiques (1845; Sophisms of Protection), Bastiat concocted a petition brought by candlemakers who asked for protection against the…

  • Free Unions–Unions Libres (British journal)

    British Surrealism: Free Unions–Unions Libres (1946) was also the title given to a review edited by Simon Watson Taylor. Its first and only issue published poems, texts, and drawings by French and British Surrealists as an attempt to promote interest in Surrealism in the aftermath of World…

  • Free University of Amsterdam (university, Amsterdam, Netherlands)

    Amsterdam: Cultural life: …founded in 1632, and the Free University, founded in 1880—and numerous academies and conservatories. The architecture of the inner city (and of some of the suburbs) is a delight for many tourists interested in culture, who seek out the superbly preserved canal-side mansions of the Golden Age and the numerous…

  • free variable (logic)

    set theory: Schemas for generating well-formed formulas: A variable is free in a formula if it occurs at least once in the formula without being introduced by one of the phrases “for some x” or “for all x.” Henceforth, a formula S in which x occurs as a free variable will be called “a condition…

  • free verse (poetry)

    Free verse, poetry organized to the cadences of speech and image patterns rather than according to a regular metrical scheme. It is “free” only in a relative sense. It does not have the steady, abstract rhythm of traditional poetry; its rhythms are based on patterned elements such as sounds,

  • free vibration (physics)

    vibration: Free vibrations occur when the system is disturbed momentarily and then allowed to move without restraint. A classic example is provided by a weight suspended from a spring. In equilibrium, the system has minimum energy and the weight is at rest. If the weight is…

  • Free Voice to Make Freedom Safe (work by Stanis?aw I)

    Stanis?aw I: …he published a book entitled Free Voice to Make Freedom Safe, an outline of his proposed changes in the Polish constitution. Editions of his letters to his daughter Marie, to the kings of Prussia, and to Jacques Hulin, his minister at Versailles, have been published.

  • free volume (physics)

    industrial glass: Density: …up what is known as free volume, and they are responsible for the lower density of a glass as opposed to a crystal. For example, the density of silica glass is about 2 percent lower than that of its closest crystalline counterpart, the silica mineral low-cristobalite. The addition of alkali…

  • free walk (horses’ gait)

    walk: During a relaxed, or free, walk the reins are nearly slack, freeing the horse’s head and neck. The extended walk, a variation of the relaxed walk, results in a cadenced swing of long, unhurried strides.

  • free will

    Free will, in humans, the power or capacity to choose among alternatives or to act in certain situations independently of natural, social, or divine restraints. Free will is denied by some proponents of determinism. Arguments for free will are based on the subjective experience of freedom, on

  • Free Will Baptist Church (religion)

    National Association of Free Will Baptists: …traces its history back to Free Will, or Arminian, Baptists in the 18th century. These Baptists believed in free will, free grace, and free salvation, in contrast to most Baptists, who were Calvinists (i.e., who believed that Christ died only for those predestined to be saved).

  • Free Womb, Law of the (Brazil [1871])

    Brazil: Pedro II: In 1871 Brazil enacted the Law of the Free Womb, which granted freedom to all children born to slaves and effectively condemned slavery to eventual extinction. However, this concession did not satisfy abolitionists for long, and the young lawyer and writer Joaquim Nabuco de Araújo led them in demanding immediate…

  • free zone (international trade)

    Free-trade zone, an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing

  • free-air anomaly (geodesy)

    gravity: Gravimetric surveys and geophysics: …it is therefore termed the free-air correction factor. In practice the mass of rock material that occupies part or all of this space must be considered. In an area where the topography is reasonably flat, this is usually calculated by assuming the presence of an infinite slab of thickness equal…

  • free-answer question (psychology)

    public opinion: Phrasing of questions: A free-answer question—for instance, “What do you think are the most important problems facing the country today?”—allows respondents to state their opinions in their own words.

  • free-association test (psychology)

    personality assessment: Word-association techniques: The list of projective approaches to personality assessment is long, one of the most venerable being the so-called word-association test. Jung used associations to groups of related words as a basis for inferring personality traits (e.g., the inferiority “complex”). Administering a word-association test…

  • free-bass accordion (musical instrument)

    accordion: …dominant and diminished sevenths—while “free-bass” accordions overcome melodic restrictions by providing extra buttons or a converter switch for bass melodies and counterpoint. Many accordions include up to five registers for the basses, allowing each bass note to sound over as many as five octaves and each chord to sound…

  • free-central placentation (botany)

    placenta: …central axis of the ovary; free central, derived from the axile, with a central column bearing the ovules; basal, with ovules positioned on a low column at the base of the ovary; or laminar, with ovules scattered over the inner surfaces of carpels.

  • free-electron laser (instrument)

    laser: Types of lasers: In free-electron lasers stimulated emission comes from electrons passing through a magnetic field that periodically varies in direction and intensity, causing the electrons to accelerate and release light energy. Because the electrons do not transition between well-defined energy levels, some specialists question whether a free-electron laser…

  • free-electron model (physics)

    Free-electron model of metals, in solid-state physics, representation of a metallic solid as a container filled with a gas composed of free electrons (i.e., those responsible for high electrical and thermal conductivity). The free electrons, considered identical to the outermost, or valence,

  • free-electron model of metals (physics)

    Free-electron model of metals, in solid-state physics, representation of a metallic solid as a container filled with a gas composed of free electrons (i.e., those responsible for high electrical and thermal conductivity). The free electrons, considered identical to the outermost, or valence,

  • free-fall (physics)

    Free-fall, in mechanics, state of a body that moves freely in any manner in the presence of gravity. The planets, for example, are in free-fall in the gravitational field of the Sun. Newton’s laws show that a body in free-fall follows an orbit such that the sum of the gravitational and inertial

  • free-key xylophone (musical instrument)

    African music: Xylophones: With free-key xylophones, found in parts of West and East Africa, loose slabs may be laid across the player’s outstretched legs or supported on logs or straw bundles, sometimes above a resonating pit. In Uganda and Congo (Kinshasa), from two to six players may perform together…

  • Free-Lance Pallbearers, The (novel by Reed)

    Ishmael Reed: His first novel, The Free-Lance Pallbearers, was published in 1967. It centres on Bukka Doopeyduk, who launches a rebellion in the miserable nation of Harry Sam, ruled by the despotic Harry Sam. A black circus cowboy with cloven hooves, the Loop Garoo Kid, is the hero of the…

  • free-living bacterium (biology)

    nitrogen fixation: …of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are recognized: free-living (non-symbiotic) bacteria, including the cyanobacteria (or blue-green algae) Anabaena and Nostoc and genera such as Azotobacter, Beijerinckia, and Clostridium; and mutualistic (symbiotic) bacteria such as Rhizobium, associated with leguminous plants, and various Azospirillum species, associated with cereal grasses.

  • free-living polychaete (zoology)

    annelid: … (Polychaeta), which are divided into free-moving and sedentary, or tube-dwelling, forms; the earthworms (Oligochaeta); and the leeches (Hirudinea).

  • free-machining steel (metallurgy)

    steel: Free-machining steels: This group, developed for good machinability and fabricated into bolts, screws, and nuts, contains up to 0.35 percent sulfur and 0.35 percent lead; also, it sometimes has small additions of tellurium or selenium. These elements form many inclusions, which are normally avoided but…

  • free-molecule gas (physics)

    gas: Free-molecule gas: The mean free path in a gas may easily be increased by decreasing the pressure. If the pressure is halved, the mean free path doubles in length. Thus, at low enough pressures the mean free path can become sufficiently large that collisions of…

  • free-moving polychaete (zoology)

    annelid: … (Polychaeta), which are divided into free-moving and sedentary, or tube-dwelling, forms; the earthworms (Oligochaeta); and the leeches (Hirudinea).

  • free-net (bulletin-board network)

    Free-net, network of community-based bulletin-board systems (BBSs) that, beginning in 1994, made online public information available to local citizens. Often based in public libraries, free-net community networks were accessible through local phone dial-ups and often were either free or nearly so

  • free-port zone (international trade)

    Free-trade zone, an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing

  • free-radical interlinking (chemistry)

    elastomer: Free-radical interlinking: Interlinking can be carried out with reagents other than sulfur—for example, by free-radical reactions that do not require the presence of C=C bonds. Free radicals are formed by irradiation with ultraviolet light, by electron-beam or nuclear radiation, or by the decomposition of unstable…

  • free-radical theory of aging (biology)

    aging: Oxidative damage theory: …has given rise to the free radical theory of aging, which is concerned in particular with molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This theory was first proposed in the 1950s by American gerontologist Denham Harman and was supported in part by evidence that antioxidant proteins, which neutralize free radicals,…

  • free-skating program (ice skating)

    figure skating: The long program: The long program (also called the free skate) is designed to display skill and grace as well as jumping ability. Senior men skate four and a half minutes, while women skate for four minutes. Although there are no required elements, judges are looking…

  • Free-Soil Party (political party, United States)

    Free-Soil Party, (1848–54), minor but influential political party in the pre-Civil War period of American history that opposed the extension of slavery into the western territories. Fearful of expanding slave power within the national government, Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania in 1846

  • free-space channel (communications)

    telecommunications media: The free-space channel: The loss mechanisms in a free-space optical channel are virtually identical to those in a line-of-sight microwave radio channel. Signals are degraded by beam divergence, atmospheric absorption, and atmospheric scattering. Beam divergence can be minimized by collimating (making parallel) the transmitted light into…

  • free-space photonics

    materials science: Optical switching: Known as free-space photonics, this approach would involve such devices as semiconductor lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs), optical modulators, and photodetectors—all of which would be integrated into systems combined with electronic components.

  • free-tailed bat (mammal)

    Free-tailed bat, (family Molossidae), any of 100 species of bats, so called for the way in which part of the tail extends somewhat beyond the membrane connecting the hind legs. Some free-tailed bats are also known as mastiff bats because their faces bear a superficial resemblance to those dogs.

  • free-text index

    information processing: Machine indexing: …from an unlimited vocabulary (free indexing) or their assignment from a list of authorized descriptors (controlled indexing). A collection of authorized descriptors is called an authority list or, if it also displays various relationships among descriptors such as hierarchy or synonymy, a thesaurus. The result of the indexing process…

  • Free-Thinking Democratic Party (political party, Switzerland)

    FDP. The Liberals, centrist political party of Switzerland formed in 2009 by the merger of the Radical Democratic Party (German: Freisinnig-Demokratische Partei der Schweiz [FDP]) and the Liberal Party (German: Liberale Partei der Schweiz [LPS]). FDP. The Liberals assumed the role previously held

  • free-trade zone (international trade)

    Free-trade zone, an area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities. Only when the goods are moved to consumers within the country in which the zone is located do they become subject to the prevailing

  • freebase (form of cocaine)

    cocaine: …chemically treated form known as freebase; either of these methods produces a markedly more compulsive use of the drug. In the 1980s a new preparation of cocaine appeared, called crack; the smoking of crack produces an even more intense and even more short-lived euphoria that is extremely addicting. This form…

  • freeboard (navigation)

    Freeboard, distance from the waterline to the freeboard deck of a fully loaded ship; it is measured amidships at the side of the hull. The freeboard deck is the deck below which all bulkheads are made watertight; above it that precaution is not necessary. Freeboard represents the safety margin

  • Freeborn, Stuart (British motion picture makeup artist)

    Stuart Freeborn, British motion picture makeup artist (born Sept. 5, 1914, London, Eng.—died Feb. 5, 2013, London), used cosmetics and animatronic technology to fashion creature effects and some of the most iconic characters in film history, notably those for the first three Star Wars movies,

  • freecarving (sport)

    snowboarding: Alpine snowboarding: Alpine snowboarding, often called freecarving, was the most popular style of snowboarding in the mid-1980s during the infancy of the sport, when snowboarders used the existing infrastructure of ski resorts and the venues of ski racing. By the end of the 1990s, however, most die-hard…

  • FREECOG (American organization)

    The Family International: …of the first anticult organization—the Parents’ Committee to Free Our Children from the Children of God (FREECOG)—it attracted attention for alleged child abuse and for its use of sex in missionary work. The group abandoned some of its more extreme sexual practices and has remained a moderately successful movement with…

  • Freed, Alan (American radio personality)

    Alan Freed: Alan Freed did not coin the phrase rock and roll; however, by way of his radio show, he popularized it and redefined it. Once slang for sex, it came to mean a new form of music. This music had been around for several years, but…

  • Freed, Arthur (American producer)

    Arthur Freed, American film producer who reshaped the visual style and narrative structure of the musical comedy genre. Freed attended Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, before embarking on his musical career. He played piano for a Chicago music publisher, worked in vaudeville, and

  • Freed, Barry (American activist)

    Abbie Hoffman, American political activist and founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies), who was known for his successful media events. Hoffman, who received psychology degrees from both Brandeis University (1959) and the University of California, Berkeley (1960), was active in the

  • Freed, James Ingo (American architect)

    James Ingo Freed, German-born American architect (born June 23, 1930, Essen, Ger.—died Dec. 15, 2005, New York, N.Y.), designed numerous Modernist buildings, most notably the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum (1993) and the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center (1998), a mixed-use c

  • Freed, Leonard (American photojournalist)

    Leonard Freed, American photojournalist who was known for his gripping magazine photo-essays, especially those that documented the lives of African Americans and the injustices they suffered. As a young freelance photographer, Freed worked in Israel and throughout Europe and the United States.

  • freedman (labour)

    Freedman, former slave set free. In ancient Athens, former slaves bore no stigma, and some rose to positions of political or economic power. During the later Hellenistic period, however, some Greek communities passed laws providing separate regulations and restrictions for former slaves. To the

  • Freedman’s Village (American commune)

    Arlington National Cemetery: Freedman’s Village, a community for more than 1,000 freed slaves, was constructed on part of the property in 1863 and continued to operate until 1890, when the land was rededicated as a military installation. More than 3,800 former slaves are buried in the cemetery.

  • Freedman, Maurice (British anthropologist)

    Maurice Freedman, British scholar who was one of the world’s leading experts on Chinese anthropology. After studying English at King’s College, London, and serving in the Royal Artillery in World War II, Freedman enrolled as a graduate student of anthropology at the London School of Economics and

  • Freedman, Michael Hartley (American mathematician)

    Michael Hartley Freedman, American mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1986 for his solution of the Poincaré conjecture in four dimensions. Freedman received his Ph.D. from Princeton (N.J.) University in 1973. Following appointments at the University of California, Berkeley (1973–75),

  • Freedmen’s Bank (United States bank)

    Freedmen’s Bank, bank chartered by the U.S. Congress in March 1865 to provide a place for former slaves to safely store their money. After several successful years in which freedmen deposited more than $57 million in the bank, it collapsed in 1874 as a result of mismanagement and fraud. The bank’s

  • Freedmen’s Bureau (American history)

    Freedmen’s Bureau, (1865–72), during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War, popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, established by Congress to provide practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed African Americans in their transition from slavery to

  • Freedmen’s Savings and Trust Company (United States bank)

    Freedmen’s Bank, bank chartered by the U.S. Congress in March 1865 to provide a place for former slaves to safely store their money. After several successful years in which freedmen deposited more than $57 million in the bank, it collapsed in 1874 as a result of mismanagement and fraud. The bank’s

  • freedom

    Free will, in humans, the power or capacity to choose among alternatives or to act in certain situations independently of natural, social, or divine restraints. Free will is denied by some proponents of determinism. Arguments for free will are based on the subjective experience of freedom, on

  • Freedom (album by Young)

    Neil Young: Harvest, Rust Never Sleeps, and Harvest Moon: On Freedom (1989), he resurrected the social engagement and musical conviction of earlier triumphs such as “Ohio.” This disc marked yet another creative resurgence for Young and brought him a younger audience; soon he would tap emerging bands such as Social Distortion and Sonic Youth as…

  • Freedom (novel by Franzen)

    Jonathan Franzen: …to fiction with the novel Freedom (2010), which takes a contemporary family of the American Midwest as its focus and probes its members’ relationships with each other and with those around them. The novel’s realist style and the psychological depth of its characters echoes The Corrections. The Kraus Project (2013)…

  • freedom (human rights)

    Liberty, a state of freedom, especially as opposed to political subjection, imprisonment, or slavery. Its two most generally recognized divisions are political and civil liberty. Civil liberty is the absence of arbitrary restraint and the assurance of a body of rights, such as those found in bills

  • Freedom 7 (United States space capsule)

    Alan B. Shepard, Jr.: …15-minute suborbital flight in the Freedom 7 spacecraft, which reached an altitude of 115 miles (185 km). The flight came 23 days after Soviet cosmonaut Yury Gagarin became the first human to travel in space, but Shepard’s flight energized U.S. space efforts and made him a national hero.

  • Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan, Congress for (Kurdish militant organization)

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), militant Kurdish nationalist organization founded by Abdullah (“Apo”) ?calan in the late 1970s. Although the group initially espoused demands for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state, its stated aims were later tempered to calls for greater Kurdish

  • Freedom and Justice Party (political party, Egypt)

    Mohamed Morsi: Presidency: …end the group formed the Freedom and Justice Party. In April 2012 the party selected Morsi to be its candidate in Egypt’s presidential election after Khayrat al-Shater, the party’s original candidate, was disqualified from running. Morsi won the largest total in the first round of voting in May and defeated…

  • Freedom and Necessity (work by Ayer)

    problem of moral responsibility: Contemporary compatibilism: …have done otherwise? In “Freedom and Necessity” (1946), A.J. Ayer (1910–89) maintained that “to say that I could have acted otherwise is to say that I should have acted otherwise if I had so chosen.” The ability to do otherwise means only that, if the past had been different,…

  • Freedom and Reason (work by Hare)

    ethics: Universal prescriptivism: …publication of his second book, Freedom and Reason (1963). The aim of this work was to show that the moral freedom guaranteed by prescriptivism is, notwithstanding its element of choice, compatible with a substantial amount of reasoning about moral judgments. Such reasoning is possible, Hare wrote, because moral judgments must…

  • Freedom and Resentment (work by Strawson)

    problem of moral responsibility: Contemporary compatibilism: In “Freedom and Resentment” (1962), the British philosopher P.F. Strawson (1919–2006) introduced an influential version of compatibilism grounded in human psychology. Strawson observed that people display emotions such as resentment, anger, gratitude, and so on in response to the actions of others. He argued that holding…

  • Freedom Artist, The (novel by Okri)

    Ben Okri: …Age of Magic (2014); and The Freedom Artist (2019). An African Elegy (1992) is a collection of poems that urges Africans to overcome the forces of chaos within their countries, and Mental Flight (1999) is a long poem. Other collections of poetry included Wild (2012) and Rise Like Lions: Poetry…

  • Freedom Charter (South Africa [1955])

    Southern Africa: The consolidation of white rule in Southern Africa: …Congress Alliance drew up the Freedom Charter, a program of nonracial social democracy. Africanist suspicion of nonracialism and hostility to white Communists, however, led to the formation of the rival Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) in 1959. Both organizations were banned after demonstrations against the pass laws in March 1960 at Sharpeville,…

  • freedom fighter (resistance movements)

    20th-century international relations: The Reagan administration: Such “freedom fighters,” as Reagan termed them, in Afghanistan, Angola, and Nicaragua seemed to offer hope that the United States could contain or even overthrow totalitarian regimes without getting itself involved in new Vietnams. This Reagan Doctrine was thus a natural corollary of the Nixon Doctrine.

  • Freedom Fighters, League of (Estonian movement)

    Baltic states: Politics: In Estonia the “Vaps” (Vabaduss?jalaste Liit; “League of Freedom Fighters”), originally a group of war veterans, emerged as a mass anticommunist and antiparliamentary movement. In October 1933 a referendum on constitutional reform initiated by the Vaps was approved by 72.7 percent. The acting president, Konstantin P?ts, was expected…

  • Freedom for Us (film by Clair)

    René Clair: …de Paris, Le Million, and à nous la liberté! constituted homage to the art of silent film and a manifesto for a new cinema. Clair rigorously constructed comical situations using either images or sounds independently, and his skillful use of music to further the narrative—rather than for production numbers in…

  • Freedom from Empire: An Assessment of Postcolonial Africa

    The following is a special report written for the 2011 Britannica Book of the Year (events of 2010). It reflects on the state of postcolonial Africa 50 years after 17 African countries became independent. The currency of the tag postcolonial as a cognomen for countries that once laboured under

  • Freedom Front (political party, South Africa)

    South Africa: Political process: …and the National Party; the Freedom Front Plus, a right-wing white party originally founded in 1994 as the Freedom Front that was joined by the Conservative Party of South Africa and Afrikaner Eenheid Beweging in 2003; the Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC), a group that broke away from the ANC…

  • Freedom House (American organization)

    Freedom House, U.S. nongovernmental organization that promotes democracy and monitors the extent of political and economic freedom in countries throughout the world. Freedom House was founded in 1941 by a bipartisan group that included Wendell Willkie, the Republican presidential nominee in 1940,

  • Freedom Now Party (political party, United States)

    African Americans: The civil rights movement: …1963 (indeed, a short-lived all-black Freedom Now Party was formed in Michigan and ran candidates in the general election of 1964). National attention in the spring of 1963 was focused on Birmingham, Alabama, where King was leading a civil rights drive. The Birmingham authorities used dogs and fire hoses to…

  • Freedom of a Christian Man, The (work by Luther)

    Christianity: Freedom and responsibility: Luther summarized this in “The Freedom of a Christian Man” (1520): “A Christian is a perfectly free lord of all, subject to none. A Christian is a perfectly dutiful servant of all, subject to all.” The second sentence expressed the theme of Christian vocation developed by Luther and Calvin,…

  • freedom of education

    Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge and research without unreasonable interference or restriction from law, institutional regulations, or public pressure. Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject that

  • freedom of expression (law)

    censorship: Freedom of expression: The shift from the more political to the more individualistic view of liberty may be seen in how the constitutional guarantees with respect to speech and the press are typically spoken of in the United States. Restraints upon speaking and publishing, and…

  • freedom of information (legal right)

    Freedom of information (FOI), a presumptive right of access to official information, qualified by exemptions and subject to independent adjudication by a third party. The adjudicator may be a court, a tribunal, a commissioner, or an ombudsman and may have the power to require, or only to recommend,

  • Freedom of Information Act (United States law [1966])

    Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), federal act signed into law by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on July 4, 1966, that granted American citizens the right to see the contents of files maintained about them by federal executive branch agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the

  • freedom of religion

    Samuel Davies: …placed on religious rights and freedoms resulted (after his death) in the lobbying of Presbyterian leaders who, during the formation of Virginia’s state constitution, helped to defeat a provision for an established church. Davies, whose sermons were printed in some 20 editions, was also one of the first successful American…

  • Freedom of Speech (work by Chafee)

    Zechariah Chafee, Jr.: His first book, Freedom of Speech (1920), was evoked by measures aimed at political dissenters in World War I. A rewritten and expanded version, Free Speech in the United States (1941), became a leading text of U.S. libertarian thought.

  • freedom of speech

    Freedom of speech, right, as stated in the 1st and 14th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States, to express information, ideas, and opinions free of government restrictions based on content. A modern legal test of the legitimacy of proposed restrictions on freedom of speech was stated

  • freedom of teaching

    Academic freedom, the freedom of teachers and students to teach, study, and pursue knowledge and research without unreasonable interference or restriction from law, institutional regulations, or public pressure. Its basic elements include the freedom of teachers to inquire into any subject that

  • freedom of the press (law)

    censorship: Requirements of self-government: …of speech and of the press, particularly as that freedom permits an informed access to information and opinions about political matters. Even the more repressive regimes today recognize this underlying principle, in that their ruling bodies try to make certain that they themselves become and remain informed about what is…

  • Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 (Swedish legislation)

    Freedom of the Press Act of 1766, Swedish legislation regarded as the world’s first law supporting the freedom of the press and freedom of information. Passed by the Swedish Riksdag (parliament) as “His Majesty’s Gracious Ordinance Relating to Freedom of Writing and of the Press” (Konglige

  • freedom of the seas (international law)

    high seas: …subjected to national sovereignty (freedom of the seas) was proposed by the Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius as early as 1609. It did not become an accepted principle of international law, however, until the 19th century. Freedom of the seas was ideologically connected with other 19th-century freedoms, particularly laissez-faire economic…

  • Freedom of the Seas, The (work by Grotius)

    Western philosophy: Political philosophy: …and the resulting two treatises, The Freedom of the Seas (1609) and On the Law of War and Peace (1625), were the first significant codifications of international law. Their philosophical originality lay, however, in the fact that, in defending the rights of a small, militarily weak nation against the powerful…

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