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  • Ikhtimanska Sredna Mountains (mountains, Bulgaria)

    Sredna Mountains: Westernmost is the Ikhtimanska (Ikhtiman) Sredna, 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Sofia. It is an irregular, forested, hilly region with a sparse population. Its eastern limit is the Topolnitsa River. From the Topolnitsa to the Stryama River, a distance of 42 miles (68 km), lie the S?shtinska,…

  • Ikhwān (Saudi Arabian military-religious organization)

    Ikhwān, (Arabic: Brethren), in Arabia, members of a religious and military brotherhood that figured prominently in the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under Ibn Sa?ūd (1912–30); in modern Saudi Arabia they constitute the National Guard. Ibn Sa?ūd began organizing the Ikhwān in 1912 with hopes

  • Ikhwān al-Muslimūn, al-

    Muslim Brotherhood, religiopolitical organization founded in 1928 at Ismailia, Egypt, by ?asan al-Bannā?. It advocated a return to the Qur?ān and the Hadith as guidelines for a healthy modern Islamic society. The Brotherhood spread rapidly throughout Egypt, Sudan, Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, and

  • Ikhwān a?-?afā? (Arab organization)

    Ikhwān a?-?afā?, (Arabic: Brethren of Purity), a secret Arab confraternity, founded at Basra, Iraq, that produced a philosophical and religious encyclopaedia, Rasā?il ikhwān a?-?afā? wa khillān al-wafā? (“Epistles of the Brethren of Purity and Loyal Friends”), sometime in the second half of the

  • Iki (island, Japan)

    Iki, island, north-central Nagasaki ken (prefecture), western Kyushu, Japan. It lies in the Eastern Channel, about 10 miles (16 km) off the coast of Kyushu, and occupies 52 square miles (134 square km). Most of its area is tableland; cereals, oranges, and tobacco are the important crops. The

  • ikigami (Japanese religion)

    Japan: Religious attitudes: …belief in living gods (ikigami) who could respond to the various needs and desires of the common people and who became revered as founders (kyōso) of new religious sects. Among such sects were Kurozumikyō, founded by Kurozumi Munetada, Konkōkyō of Kawate Bunjirō, and Tenrikyō of Nakayama Miki, all of…

  • Ikimono no kiroku (film by Kurosawa [1955])

    Kurosawa Akira: Films of the 1950s: …I Live in Fear, or Record of a Living Being) is a deeply honest film portraying a Japanese foundry owner’s terror of the atomic tests conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Its pessimistic conclusion, however, made it a commercial failure.

  • Ikire (Nigeria)

    Ikire, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. The town lies along the road from Ibadan to Ile-Ife. A collecting point for local cash crops (cacao, palm oil and kernels), it also serves as a trade centre for yams, corn (maize), cassava (manioc), palm produce, cotton, and kola nuts. Cotton weaving

  • Ikiru (film by Kurosawa [1952])

    Kurosawa Akira: Films of the 1950s: Ikiru (“To Live”) is regarded by many critics as one of the finest works in the history of the cinema. It concerns a petty governmental official who learns he has only half a year until he will die from cancer. He searches for solace in…

  • Ikirun (Nigeria)

    Ikirun, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies along the railroad from Lagos and at the intersection of roads from Oshogbo, Inisha (Inisa), Igbajo, and Ila (Illa). Mainly inhabited by Yoruba people, the town was raided for slaves in the 19th century by Fulani warriors from Ilorin (42 miles

  • Ikitsuki Bridge (bridge, Japan)

    truss bridge: History and uses: …in the world is the Ikitsuki Bridge (1991) in Japan, with a main span of 400 metres (1,300 feet). The Astoria Bridge (1966), spanning the mouth of the Columbia River between the states of Oregon and Washington in the United States, consists of three spans reaching a total length of…

  • ikki (Japanese revolt)

    Ikki, peasant uprisings in Japan beginning in the Kamakura period (1192–1333) and continuing through the Tokugawa (Edo) period (1603–1867). Though the welfare of the city dweller improved during Tokugawa times, the welfare of poor peasants worsened: excessive taxation and rising numbers of famines

  • Iklīl, Al- (encyclopaedia by al-Hamdānī)

    al-Hamdānī: His encyclopaedia Al-Iklīl (“The Crown”; Eng. trans. of vol. 8 by N.A. Faris as The Antiquities of South Arabia) and his other writings are a major source of information on Arabia, providing a valuable anthology of South Arabian poetry as well as much genealogical, topographical, and historical…

  • Ikokusen uchiharairei (Japanese history)

    Japan: The growth of the northern problem: …Drive Away Foreign Ships (Ikokusen uchiharairei), which also enjoined coastal authorities to arrest or kill any foreigners who came ashore. This was also known as the ninen nashi or “no second thought” law. It was never fully carried out because of opposition by a number of officials, including Matsudaira…

  • ikonostasis (religious furniture)

    ceremonial object: Sacred furniture and related objects: the Eastern Orthodox iconostasis (image screen), which hides the chancel from the view of the faithful except on certain ritual occasions when it is opened to them. Hindu sanctuaries also are concealed by hangings. In Roman Catholic, Lutheran, and Anglican churches the chancel has usually been separated from…

  • Ikorodu (Nigeria)

    Ikorodu, town, Lagos state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies near the Lagos Lagoon, on the Bight of Benin, 14 miles (23 km) northwest of Lagos. A traditional settlement of the Awori people (a subgroup of the Yoruba), it became important in the mid-19th century as a trading post of the Remo

  • Ikot Abasi (Nigeria)

    Ikot Abasi, port town, Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. The town lies near the mouth of the Imo (Opobo) River. Situated at a break in the mangrove swamps and rain forest of the eastern Niger River delta, it served in the 19th century as a collecting point for slaves. In 1870 Jubo Jubogha, a

  • Ikot Ekpene (Nigeria)

    Ikot Ekpene, town, Akwa Ibom state, southern Nigeria. The town lies along the coastal highway between Calabar and Aba. It is the chief trade centre (yams, cassava [manioc], taro, corn [maize], and palm produce) for a densely populated area known for its export of palm oil and kernels. It is mainly

  • Ikpelweme (African masking society)

    African dance: Masquerade dancers: The Ikpelweme ancestral masqueraders of the Afemai people of Bendel State, Nigeria, wear richly coloured, close-fitting costumes with face masks and elaborate headpieces of embroidered cloth, which allow for a dance that accelerates into a climax of rapid, abrupt movement. The Nago and Akakayi ancestral masqueraders…

  • Ikpo Okme (African dance step)

    African dance: Rhythm: …the dance steps: in the Ikpo Okme, the performers hop from one foot to the other; for Ebenebe, a stamping pattern leads into a cartwheel; Iza requires an upright carriage with high kicks; Nkpopi is a leaping dance; Etukwa requires the torso to be inclined to the earth as the…

  • Iksan (South Korea)

    Iksan, city, North Ch?lla (Jeolla) do (province), western South Korea. Located about 15 miles (25 km) east of the port city of Kunsan (Gunsan), it lies in the northern part of the Honam Plain, the largest granary of South Korea. Iksan city was formed in 1995 through the merger of the city of Iri

  • Ik?vāku (people)

    India: The Andhras and their successors: The Iksvakus succeeded in the Krishna-Guntur region. The Cutu dynasty in Kuntala (southern Maharashtra) had close connections with the Satavahanas. The Bodhis ruled briefly in the northwestern Deccan. The Brihatphalayanas came to power at the end of the 3rd century in the Masulipatam area. In these…

  • Iktár, Gabriel Bethlen von (king of Hungary)

    Gábor Bethlen, Calvinist prince of Transylvania and briefly titular king of Hungary (August 1620 to December 1621), in opposition to the Catholic emperor Ferdinand II. Born into a leading Protestant family of northern Hungary, Bethlen as a young man was sent to the court of Prince Sigismund Báthory

  • Iktári Bethlen, Gabor (king of Hungary)

    Gábor Bethlen, Calvinist prince of Transylvania and briefly titular king of Hungary (August 1620 to December 1621), in opposition to the Catholic emperor Ferdinand II. Born into a leading Protestant family of northern Hungary, Bethlen as a young man was sent to the court of Prince Sigismund Báthory

  • Iktinos (Greek architect)

    Ictinus, Greek architect, one of the most celebrated of Athens, known for his work on the Parthenon on the Acropolis, the Temple of the Mysteries at Eleusis, and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae. According to Vitruvius (Ten Books on Architecture, preface to Book VII), Ictinus designed the

  • Ikuchi Bridge (bridge, Japan)

    bridge: Island bridges: …the major structures is the Ikuchi cable-stayed bridge, with a main span of 490 metres (1,610 feet). The two towers of the Ikuchi Bridge are delta-shaped, with two inclined planes of fan-arranged stays. Also on the Onomichi-Imabari route is the 1979 ōmishima steel arch bridge, whose 297-metre (975-foot) span made…

  • Ikuta Kengyō (Japanese musician)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: …of Kenjun’s koto tradition was Ikuta Kengyō, who began his Ikuta school. The term kengyō had been one of the basic ranks of musicians under the guild system and so is frequently found in professional names, but the name Ikuta remained as one of the primary sources of koto music…

  • Ikuta school (Japanese music)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: …Ikuta Kengyō, who began his Ikuta school. The term kengyō had been one of the basic ranks of musicians under the guild system and so is frequently found in professional names, but the name Ikuta remained as one of the primary sources of koto music until the creation of still…

  • iKwelo (Zimbabwe)

    Gweru, town, central Zimbabwe, on the Gweru River. The original Matabele settlement was named iKwelo (“The Steep Place”), after the river’s high banks. The modern town, founded in 1894 as a military outpost, developed as an agricultural centre and became a municipality in 1914. Situated along the

  • Il (Semitic deity)

    El, the general term for “deity” in Semitic languages as well as the name of the chief deity of the West Semites. In the ancient texts from Ras Shamra (ancient Ugarit) in Syria, El was described as the titular head of the pantheon, husband of Asherah, and father of all the other gods (except for

  • Il Borgo (Malta)

    Vittoriosa, town, eastern Malta, one of the Three Cities (the others being Cospicua and Senglea). It is situated on a small peninsula, just south of Valletta across Grand Harbour. Originally known as Il Borgo, and then Birgu, it was one of the most important towns in medieval Malta. In 1530, when

  • Il Volga nasce in Europa (work by Malaparte)

    Curzio Malaparte: …Volga nasce in Europa (1943; The Volga Rises in Europe). He then acquired an international reputation with two passionately written, brilliantly realistic war novels: Kaputt (1944); and La pelle (1949; The Skin), a terrifying, surrealistically presented series of episodes showing the suffering and degradation that the war had brought to…

  • IL-1 (protein)

    interleukin: IL-1 and IL-2 are primarily responsible for activating T and B lymphocytes (white blood cells integral to bringing about the acquired immune response), with IL-2 being a stimulant of T- and B-cell growth and maturation. IL-1, along with IL-6, is also a mediator of inflammation.…

  • Il-12 (Soviet aircraft)

    history of flight: Postwar airlines: …were eventually succeeded by the Ilyushin Il-12, a trim unpressurized twin-engine transport that also featured retractable tricycle landing gear. A larger model, the Il-14, went into operation during the 1950s. Considered slow and technologically unsophisticated by modern standards, these planes played an ideological role in the Cold War by parrying…

  • Il-14 (Soviet aircraft)

    history of flight: Postwar airlines: A larger model, the Il-14, went into operation during the 1950s. Considered slow and technologically unsophisticated by modern standards, these planes played an ideological role in the Cold War by parrying Western imports. Production took place in communist-bloc countries; the Il-12 and Il-14 series numbered into the thousands, serving…

  • Il-2 (Soviet aircraft)

    Ilyushin Il-2, single-seat assault bomber that was a mainstay of the Soviet air force during World War II. The Il-2 is generally considered the finest ground-attack aircraft produced by any nation during World War II. It was designed by Sergey Ilyushin beginning in 1938 and went into production in

  • IL-2 (protein)

    interleukin: IL-1 and IL-2 are primarily responsible for activating T and B lymphocytes (white blood cells integral to bringing about the acquired immune response), with IL-2 being a stimulant of T- and B-cell growth and maturation. IL-1, along with IL-6, is also a mediator of inflammation. IL-4 often…

  • Il-76 (Soviet aircraft)

    Ilyushin Il-76, -76, Soviet military transport aircraft, first flown in 1971 and first produced in 1975. It was designed by the Ilyushin design bureau under G.V. Novozhilov. The Il-76 was a heavy transport plane, capable of handling a payload of more than 88,000 pounds (40,000 kilograms). It was

  • Il-Khan dynasty (Mongol dynasty)

    Il-Khanid dynasty, Mongol dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1256 to 1335. Il-khan is Persian for “subordinate khan.” Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was given the task of capturing Iran by the paramount Mongol chieftain M?ngke. Hülegü set out in about 1253 with a Mongol army of about 130,000. He

  • Il-Khanate (Mongol dynasty)

    Il-Khanid dynasty, Mongol dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1256 to 1335. Il-khan is Persian for “subordinate khan.” Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was given the task of capturing Iran by the paramount Mongol chieftain M?ngke. Hülegü set out in about 1253 with a Mongol army of about 130,000. He

  • Il-Khanid dynasty (Mongol dynasty)

    Il-Khanid dynasty, Mongol dynasty that ruled in Iran from 1256 to 1335. Il-khan is Persian for “subordinate khan.” Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, was given the task of capturing Iran by the paramount Mongol chieftain M?ngke. Hülegü set out in about 1253 with a Mongol army of about 130,000. He

  • IL23R (gene variation)

    inflammatory bowel disease: …variation of a gene called IL23R (interleukin 23 receptor), particularly in persons of northern European descent, has been associated with increased risk of developing Crohn disease. Variation of a gene called NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2) also has been linked to Crohn disease, and variation of a gene called…

  • Ila (Nigeria)

    Ila, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. The town lies in the Yoruba Hills and on the road from Oshogbo to Omu-Aran. One of the oldest settlements of the Yoruba people, it was founded according to tradition by the orangun (ruler) of Ila, a son of Oduduwa, the deity who is said to have spread

  • Ila (people)

    Ila, a Bantu-speaking people inhabiting an area west of Lusaka, the national capital of Zambia. The Ila-Tonga cluster consists of about 12 dialect groups, including the Lozi, Koba, Lenje, Tonga, Totela, Ila, and others. The Ila combine agriculture with animal husbandry. Men hunt, fish, and clear

  • Ila Orangun (Nigeria)

    Ila, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. The town lies in the Yoruba Hills and on the road from Oshogbo to Omu-Aran. One of the oldest settlements of the Yoruba people, it was founded according to tradition by the orangun (ruler) of Ila, a son of Oduduwa, the deity who is said to have spread

  • Ilacomilus (German cartographer)

    Martin Waldseemüller, German cartographer who in 1507 published the first map with the name America for the New World. Educated at Freiburg im Breisgau, Waldseemüller moved to Saint-Dié, where in 1507 he published 1,000 copies of a woodcut world map, made with 12 blocks and compiled from the

  • Ilāhābād (India)

    Prayagraj, city, southern Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It is situated at the confluence of the Ganges (Ganga) and Yamuna (Jumna) rivers, about 65 miles (100 km) west-northwest of Varanasi (Benares). Prayagraj stands on the site of ancient Prayag, a holy city that was comparable in fame to

  • ilāhī (song)

    Turkish literature: Sufi poetry: …of poetry, generally known as ilah? (“divine”), was practiced by such sheikh-poets as ?brahim Gül?eni and his son Gül?en?zade Hayali as well as Muslihiddin Merkez, Muhiddin Uftade, Seyyid Seyfullah Nizamo?lu, and Aziz Mahmud Hüday?. The growth during the 16th and 17th centuries of this type of poetry, which was intended…

  • ilah? (song)

    Turkish literature: Sufi poetry: …of poetry, generally known as ilah? (“divine”), was practiced by such sheikh-poets as ?brahim Gül?eni and his son Gül?en?zade Hayali as well as Muslihiddin Merkez, Muhiddin Uftade, Seyyid Seyfullah Nizamo?lu, and Aziz Mahmud Hüday?. The growth during the 16th and 17th centuries of this type of poetry, which was intended…

  • Ilāhī era (Mughal calendar)

    chronology: Muslim: …Akbar when he established the Ilāhī era, which began on Rabī? II 963 (February 13, 1556), the date of his accession; the years were solar.

  • Ilaiya Perumal (Hindu theologian and philosopher)

    Ramanuja, South Indian Brahman theologian and philosopher, the single most influential thinker of devotional Hinduism. After a long pilgrimage, Ramanuja settled in Shrirangam, where he organized temple worship and founded centres to disseminate his doctrine of devotion to the god Vishnu and his

  • īlām (Iran)

    īlām, city, capital of īlām province, western Iran. The city is rural in appearance and is located near the Iraq-Iran border. A number of roads emanate from īlām, linking it with the border towns of Mehrān and Dehlorān. The city’s population consists mostly of Kurds. Local industries produce

  • Ilamatepec Volcano (mountain, El Salvador)

    Santa Ana Volcano, mountain peak in southwestern El Salvador. The highest peak in the country, it rises to 7,749 feet (2,362 metres). The volcano has been active since the 16th century and last erupted in 2005, its first eruption in more than 100 years. It has a small sulfurous lake in its c

  • ilang-ilang (plant)

    Ylang-ylang, (Cananga odorata), South Asian tree of the custard apple family (Annonaceae), in the order Magnoliales. A penetrating but evanescent perfume is distilled from its flowers. Ylang-ylang in Tagalog (a Philippine language) means “flower of flowers.” The slim smooth-barked evergreen reaches

  • Ilanga lase Natal (South African newspaper)

    John Langalibalele Dube: …with the institute and on Ilanga lase Natal (“The Natal Sun”), the first Zulu newspaper (which he helped to found in 1903), made him widely known. In 1912 he was elected the first president general of the South African Native National Congress (later the African National Congress).

  • Ilangai Jananayaka Socialisa Kudiarasu

    Sri Lanka, island country lying in the Indian Ocean and separated from peninsular India by the Palk Strait. It is located between latitudes 5°55′ and 9°51′ N and longitudes 79°41′ and 81°53′ E and has a maximum length of 268 miles (432 km) and a maximum width of 139 miles (224 km). Proximity to the

  • Ilanko Atikal (Tamil writer)

    South Asian arts: Epics: The Cilappatikāram, by I?a?kō A?ika?, is in three books, set in the capitals of the three Tamil kingdoms: Pukār (the Cō?a capital), Maturai (i.e., Madurai, the Pā??iya [Pā??ya] capital), and Va?ci (the Cēra capital). The story is not about kings but about Kōvala?, a young Pukār merchant, telling…

  • Ilaro (Nigeria)

    Ilaro, town, western Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. Located on the former trade route from the towns of the empire of Oyo to the port of Porto-Novo (now the capital of Benin), 40 miles (64 km) southwest, it was established by the late 18th century as the capital and chief trade centre of the

  • Ilāt, al- (Arabian deity)

    Al-Lāt, North Arabian goddess of pre-Islāmic times to whom a stone cube at a?-?ā?if (near Mecca) was held sacred as part of her cult. Two other North Arabian goddesses, Manāt (Fate) and al-?Uzzā (Strong), were associated with al-Lāt in the Qur?ān (Islāmic sacred scriptures). The Prophet Mu?ammad

  • īlbeg (title)

    Bakhtyārī: …the Chahār Lang as his īlbeg, or deputy. For the next two years the two chiefs exchange their posts with each other.

  • Ilbert Bill (1884, India)

    Ilbert Bill, in the history of India, a controversial measure proposed in 1883 that sought to allow senior Indian magistrates to preside over cases involving British subjects in India. The bill, severely weakened by compromise, was enacted by the Indian Legislative Council on Jan. 25, 1884. The

  • ILC (UN)

    arbitration: Arbitration provisions of international treaties: The UN’s International Law Commission submitted to the General Assembly in 1955 a Convention on Arbitral Procedure. Its model rules would not become binding on any UN member-state unless they were accepted by a state in an arbitration treaty or in a special arbitral agreement. However, the…

  • Ilchester (England, United Kingdom)

    Ilchester, town (parish), South Somerset district, administrative and historic county of Somerset, southwestern England. It lies along the River Yeo. Ilchester was known as Lindinis under Roman rule and was the northern tribal capital of the Durotriges, an early British people. A royal mint was

  • Ildebrando (pope)

    St. Gregory VII, ; canonized 1606; feast day, May 25), one of the greatest popes of the medieval church, who lent his name to the 11th-century movement now known as the Gregorian Reform or Investiture Controversy. Gregory VII was the first pope to depose a crowned ruler, Emperor Henry IV

  • Ildegizid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Eldegüzid dynasty, (1137–1225), Iranian atabeg dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled in Azerbaijan and Arrān (areas now in Iran and Azerbaijan). The founder of the dynasty was Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (reigned c. 1137–75), originally a Turkish slave of the Seljuq minister Kamāl al-Mulk Simīrumī. In 1137

  • Ildegüzid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Eldegüzid dynasty, (1137–1225), Iranian atabeg dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled in Azerbaijan and Arrān (areas now in Iran and Azerbaijan). The founder of the dynasty was Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (reigned c. 1137–75), originally a Turkish slave of the Seljuq minister Kamāl al-Mulk Simīrumī. In 1137

  • Ildenizid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Eldegüzid dynasty, (1137–1225), Iranian atabeg dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled in Azerbaijan and Arrān (areas now in Iran and Azerbaijan). The founder of the dynasty was Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (reigned c. 1137–75), originally a Turkish slave of the Seljuq minister Kamāl al-Mulk Simīrumī. In 1137

  • Ildigüzid dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Eldegüzid dynasty, (1137–1225), Iranian atabeg dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled in Azerbaijan and Arrān (areas now in Iran and Azerbaijan). The founder of the dynasty was Shams ad-Dīn Eldegüz (reigned c. 1137–75), originally a Turkish slave of the Seljuq minister Kamāl al-Mulk Simīrumī. In 1137

  • Ildir (Turkey)

    Erythrae: …city was located at modern Ildir, where traces of the wall circuit, theatre, and citadel are visible.

  • Ile Alataū Range (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: To the south the Ile Alataū (Trans-Ili) Range rises abruptly above the Ili depression to a height of 16,315 feet (4,973 metres). The successive transition of climatic zones, determined by elevation, from arid and dry steppe at lower levels to glacial at the summit, is evident on the northern…

  • ?le d’Oléron (island, France)

    Oléron Island, island in the Bay of Biscay, forming part of the Charente-Maritime département, Poitou-Charentes région of France. It is located off the coast of France, south of La Rochelle and north of the Gironde Estuary. Oléron is the second largest French island (after Corsica), with an area of

  • ?le d’Ouessant (island, France)

    Ouessant Island, a rocky island, Finistère département, off the western tip of Bretagne, western France. The island, about 5 miles (8 km) long and 2 miles (3 km) wide, has an area of 6 square miles (15 square km). Its lighthouse, the Phare de Créac’h, marks the southern entrance to the English

  • ?le de France (French ship)

    ship: Passenger liners in the 20th century: …beginning with the French Line’s ?le de France in 1927 and gaining fiercer competition when the Germans returned to the race with the launching on successive days in 1928 of the Europa and the Bremen. But by the end of 1929 the Great Depression had begun; it made transatlantic passage…

  • ?le de Gorée (island, Senegal)

    Gorée Island, small island just south of Cape Verde Peninsula, Senegal, that was the site of one of the earliest European settlements in Western Africa and long served as an outpost for slave and other trading. It is a rather barren volcanic rock of only 88 acres (36 hectares) that commands the

  • ?le de la Tortue (island, Haiti)

    Tortue Island, Caribbean island off the northern coast of Haiti opposite Port-de-Paix. European adventurers settled Tortue in 1629, in conjunction with trying to establish a foothold on the neighbouring island of Hispaniola (now comprising Haiti and the Dominican Republic). Known as filibusters and

  • ?le de Paques, L’? (work by Metraux)

    Alfred Métraux: …and L’?le de Paques (1935; Easter Island), he argued that Easter Island’s indigenous population is Polynesian, both culturally and physically, and that the island’s well-known monolithic sculptures are native creations rather than Asian or American Indian ones.

  • ?le de Ré (island, France)

    Ré Island, island in the Bay of Biscay, Charente-Maritime département, Poitou-Charentes région of France. It is located off the west coast of France, opposite La Pallice and La Rochelle. It was for long separated from the mainland by the shallow water of Pertuis Breton, 2 miles (3.2 km) wide at the

  • ?le des Pingouins, L’? (work by France)

    French literature: The novel later in the century: …in L’?le des Pingouins (1908; Penguin Island) and his condemnation of fanaticism in his novel on the French Revolution, Les Dieux ont soif (1912; The Gods Are Athirst). For Anglophone readers right up to the end of World War II, he spoke for that Voltairean liberal humanism, reason, and justice…

  • ?le mystérieuse, L’ (novel by Verne)

    The Mysterious Island, adventure novel by Jules Verne, published in French in three volumes as L’?le mystérieuse in 1874 and included in his popular science-fiction series Voyages extraordinaires (1863–1910). The Mysterious Island follows the adventures of a group of castaways who use their

  • Ile River (river, Central Asia)

    Ili River, river in western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China, and southeastern Kazakhstan. It is 870 miles (1,400 km) long and drains the basin between the Tien Shan range to the south and the Borohoro (Poluokenu) Mountains to the north. Both ranges are extremely high. The drainage basin

  • ?le-de-France (region, France)

    ?le-de-France, région of France encompassing the north-central départements of Val-d’Oise, Seine-et-Marne, Seine-Saint-Denis, Ville-de-Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Val-de-Marne, Essonne, and Yvelines. ?le-de-France is bounded by the régions of Hauts-de-France to the north, Grand Est to the east,

  • Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    Ile-Ife, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. The town lies at the intersection of roads from Ibadan (40 miles [64 km] west), Ilesha, and Ondo. It is one of the larger centres and probably the oldest town of the Yoruba people. Considered by the Yoruba to be a holy city and the legendary

  • Ilebo (Democratic Republic of the Congo)

    Ilebo, town, south-central Democratic Republic of the Congo. The town lies along the Kasai River near its junction with the Sankuru River. Ilebo is a river port and has rail connections with Kananga and Lubumbashi. It is an important transshipment point in the transport of copper and other minerals

  • ileitis (pathology)

    Ileitis, chronic inflammation of one or more sections of the intestine. In its strict sense, the term refers to an inflammation of the lower, or terminal, portion of the small intestine, known as the ileum. A specific and more serious type of inflammation involving both the small and large

  • Ilek Khanid dynasty (Asian history)

    Qarakhanid Dynasty, Turkic dynasty (999–1211) that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia. The Qarakhanids, who belonged to the Qarluq tribal confederation, became prominent during the 9th century. With the disintegration of the Iranian Sāmānid dynasty, the Qarakhanids took over the Sāmānid t

  • Ilembe: Honoring Shaka Zulu (album by Ladysmith Black Mambazo)

    Ladysmith Black Mambazo: …Long Walk to Freedom (2006), Ilembe: Honoring Shaka Zulu (2008; Grammy Award for best traditional world music album), and Live: Singing for Peace Around the World (2013; Grammy Award for best world music album).

  • ileocecal valve (anatomy)

    valve: …digestive system of mammals the ileocecal valve, controlled by a sphincter muscle, prevents the return of the contents of the small intestine after they have passed into the colon.

  • Ileosca (Spain)

    Huesca, city, capital of Huesca provincia (province), in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Aragon, northeastern Spain. It lies northeast of Zaragoza, in the region known as Hoya de Huesca, which is dominated by the Guara Mountains to the north and is watered by the Flumen River. The

  • ileostomy (surgery)

    ostomy: …opened to the outside wall; ileostomy, in which the ileum, the final segment of the small intestine, is connected to the outside wall; and urostomy (or ureterostomy), in which a new channel for urine and liquid wastes is created (usually using a segment of small intestine) following removal of the…

  • Ilerda (Spain)

    Lleida, city, capital of Lleida provincia (province) in the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Catalonia, northeastern Spain. It lies on the Segre River near its confluence with the Cinca and Ebro rivers. Of Iberian origin, the town then called Ilerda was taken in 49 bc from Pompey

  • Ilerda, Campaign of (Spanish history)

    Campaign of Ilerda, (49 bc), the campaign leading to the victory of Julius Caesar over Pompey’s forces in Spain. In the spring of 49 bc, Caesar sent six legions from Gaul into Spain under Gaius Fabius and joined them at Ilerda (present-day Lérida) on the Sicoris (Segre) River. Five Pompeian

  • ?les Australes (archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Tubuai Islands, southernmost archipelago of French Polynesia in the central South Pacific Ocean. Volcanic in origin, the islands are part of a vast submerged mountain chain, probably a southeasterly extension of the Cook Islands (New Zealand). Scattered over an area some 800 miles (1,300 km) long,

  • ?les Futuna (islands, Wallis and Futuna)

    Horne Islands, pair of volcanic islands (Futuna and Alofi) forming the southwestern part of the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna, in the west-central Pacific Ocean. Futuna (not to be confused with its namesake in Vanuatu, which is said to have been settled from Futuna) is the site

  • ?les Loyauté (islands, New Caledonia)

    Loyalty Islands, limestone coral group in the French overseas country of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The group comprises the low-lying islands of Ouvéa, Lifou, and Maré; the highest point is at 453 feet (138 metres), on Maré Island. The islands were inhabited by Melanesians more than

  • ?les Tuamotu (islands, French Polynesia)

    Tuamotu Archipelago, island group of French Polynesia, central South Pacific Ocean. The archipelago comprises 75 atolls, one raised coral atoll (Makatea), and innumerable coral reefs, roughly dispersed northwest-southeast as a double chain for more than 900 miles (1,450 km). It is the largest group

  • ?les Tubua? (archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Tubuai Islands, southernmost archipelago of French Polynesia in the central South Pacific Ocean. Volcanic in origin, the islands are part of a vast submerged mountain chain, probably a southeasterly extension of the Cook Islands (New Zealand). Scattered over an area some 800 miles (1,300 km) long,

  • Ilesa (Nigeria)

    Ilesha, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies in the Yoruba Hills and at the intersection of roads from Ile-Ife, Oshogbo, and Akure. The town is one of the oldest settlements in Yorubaland—according to tradition, it was founded by an owa (“king”) who was one of the 16 sons of the deity

  • ileum (anatomy)

    Ileum, the final and longest segment of the small intestine. It is specifically responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12 and the reabsorption of conjugated bile salts. The ileum is about 3.5 metres (11.5 feet) long (or about three-fifths the length of the small intestine) and extends from the

  • Ilex (plant genus)

    Holly, (genus Ilex), genus of some 600 species of shrubs and trees in the family Aquifoliaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. Several species are cultivated as ornamentals for their distinctive foliage and red or black fruits, which persist into winter and are popular Christmas decorations. Maté, a

  • Ilex aquifolium (plant)

    holly: Major species: English holly (I. aquifolium), a tree growing to 15 metres (nearly 50 feet) tall, bears shining spiny dark evergreen leaves and usually red fruits. The somewhat taller American holly (I. opaca) has oblong prickly leaves and usually red fruits. There are spineless and yellow-fruited forms…

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