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  • Illicium (plant genus)

    Schisandraceae: The genus Illicium, with 42 species, was formerly placed in the now-defunct family Illiciaceae. It consists of shrubs and trees having evergreen, aromatic leaves and bisexual flowers, the inner petals of which grade gradually into stamens (male pollen-producing structures). The female portion of the flower consists of…

  • Illicium verum (plant and spice)

    Star anise, dry fruits of the star anise tree (Illicium verum), used as a spice and source of pharmaceutical chemicals. The plant is indigenous to the southeastern part of China and to Vietnam. The flavour and uses of the fruit are similar to those of anise (Pimpinella anisum), to which is it is

  • Illig, Moritz Friedrich (German inventor)

    papermaking: Improvements in materials and processes: In 1800 Moritz Friedrich Illig in Germany discovered that paper could be sized in vats with rosin and alum. Although Illig published his discovery in 1807, the method did not come into wide use for about 25 years.

  • Illimani, Nevado (mountain, South America)

    Nevado Illimani, snowcapped mountain peak, 21,004 feet (6,402 metres) in elevation, just south of La Paz, Bolivia’s administrative capital. It overlooks the city and forms part of the Cordillera

  • Illingworth, Holden (British inventor)

    fishing: Early history: …1905, when English textile magnate Holden Illingworth filed the first patent on the fixed-spool, or spinning, reel. In this kind of reel, the spool permanently faces toward the tip of the rod, and the line peels off during the cast. The increased casting distance afforded by the spinning reel—and facilitated…

  • Illinoian Glacial Stage (geology)

    Illinoian Glacial Stage, major division of geologic time and deposits in North American during the Pleistocene Epoch (about 2,600,000 to 11,700 years ago). The Illinoian, a time of widespread continental glaciation, follows the Yarmouth Interglacial Stage and precedes the Sangamon Interglacial

  • Illinois (state, United States)

    Illinois, constituent state of the United States of America. It stretches southward 385 miles (620 km) from the Wisconsin border in the north to Cairo in the south. In addition to Wisconsin, the state borders Lake Michigan to the northeast, Indiana to the east, Kentucky to the southeast, Missouri

  • Illinois (American Indian confederation)

    Illinois, a confederation of small Algonquian-speaking North American Indian tribes originally spread over what are now southern Wisconsin and northern Illinois and parts of Missouri and Iowa. The best-known of the Illinois tribes were the Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Michigamea, Peoria, and Tamaroa. Like

  • Illinois and Michigan Canal (canal, United States)

    canals and inland waterways: United States: Developments included the Illinois-Michigan Canal, connecting the two great water systems of the continent, the Great Lakes and the Mississippi. Entering Lake Michigan at Chicago, then a mere village, the canal triggered the city’s explosive growth. Several canals were constructed subsequently to link up with the Erie and…

  • Illinois Architects Act (United States [1897])

    construction: Emergence of design professionals: …much later, beginning with the Illinois Architects Act of 1897. Concurrent with the rise of professionalism was the development of government regulation, which took the form of detailed municipal and national building codes specifying both prescriptive and performance requirements for buildings.

  • Illinois at Chicago Circle, University of (university system, Illinois, United States)

    University of Illinois, state system of higher education in Illinois, U.S. It consists of three campuses, the main campus in the twin cities Champaign and Urbana and additional campuses in Chicago and Springfield. The universities are teaching and research institutions with land-grant standing and

  • Illinois Beach State Park (park, Zion, Illinois, United States)

    Zion: Illinois Beach State Park is adjacent to the north and south. North Point Marina in nearby Winthrop Harbor is the largest marina on the Great Lakes. Inc. 1902. Pop. (2000) 22,866; (2010) 24,413.

  • Illinois Central Railroad (American company)

    Illinois Central Railroad (IC), former U.S. railroad founded in 1851 that expanded service from Illinois to much of the Midwest before merging with the Canadian National Railway Company (CN) in 1999. With its charter in 1851, the Illinois Central Railroad was the first of many railroads to receive

  • Illinois Central Railroad Co. v. Illinois (law case, United States)

    natural resources law: Public trust doctrine: In Illinois Central Railroad Co. v. Illinois (1892), for example, the Supreme Court of the United States voided a legislative grant privatizing Chicago’s commercial waterfront area on Lake Michigan, holding that the legislation was in derogation of trust responsibilities to govern so as to ensure public…

  • Illinois College (school, Jacksonville, Illinois, United States)

    Jacksonville: Illinois College (founded there in 1829 and affiliated with the Presbyterian church and the United Church of Christ) was the first in the state to graduate a college class (1835) and to open a medical school (1843). Other educational institutions included the Jacksonville Female Academy…

  • Illinois ex rel. McCollum v. Board of Education of School District (No. 71, Champaign County, Illinois) (law case)

    McCollum v. Board of Education, case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on March 8, 1948, ruled (8–1) that an Illinois public school board had violated the First Amendment’s establishment clause when it allowed religious instruction during school hours and on school property. In 1940 members of

  • Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center (museum, Skokie, Illinois)

    Skokie: …stories, and in 2009 the Illinois Holocaust Museum and Education Center opened in the village. More than one-fifth of Skokie’s current residents are of Asian descent. The North Shore Center for the Performing Arts in Skokie (1996) showcases theatre and music performances. Inc. 1888. Pop. (2000) 63,348; (2010) 64,784.

  • Illinois Industrial College (university system, Illinois, United States)

    University of Illinois, state system of higher education in Illinois, U.S. It consists of three campuses, the main campus in the twin cities Champaign and Urbana and additional campuses in Chicago and Springfield. The universities are teaching and research institutions with land-grant standing and

  • Illinois Industrial University (university system, Illinois, United States)

    University of Illinois, state system of higher education in Illinois, U.S. It consists of three campuses, the main campus in the twin cities Champaign and Urbana and additional campuses in Chicago and Springfield. The universities are teaching and research institutions with land-grant standing and

  • Illinois Institute (college, Wheaton, Illinois, United States)

    Wheaton College, private, coeducational liberal arts college in Wheaton, Illinois, U.S. Wheaton College began as a preparatory school, the Illinois Institute, built by Wesleyan Methodists in 1854. It became a college in 1860 and was renamed for an early donor, Warren L. Wheaton, who also cofounded

  • Illinois Institute of Technology (school, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Illinois Institute of Technology, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Chicago, Illinois, U.S. It dates to 1890, when the Armour Institute of Technology was founded (its first classes were held in 1893). The institute owes its heritage to a sermon by Chicago minister Frank

  • Illinois River (river, Illinois, United States)

    Illinois River, navigable stream of northern and central Illinois, U.S. It is formed by the junction of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers in Grundy county, about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Joliet. It flows generally west across the state until just north of Hennepin, where it turns abruptly

  • Illinois State Board of Charities (government agency)

    Julia Clifford Lathrop: …took a place on the Illinois Board of Charities. It was her first opportunity to undertake the sort of arduous, detailed, and passionately devoted work that would come to characterize her career. Lathrop immediately began a personal inspection of all 102 county almshouses and farms in the state. She interrupted…

  • Illinois State University (university, Normal, Illinois, United States)

    Illinois State University, public, coeducational university in Normal, Illinois, U.S. Established in 1857, the university is the oldest public institution of higher learning in the state. Abraham Lincoln drafted the documents that established the school, which was among the first normal

  • Illinois Waterway (waterway, United States)

    Illinois River: …to be used when the Illinois Waterway (linking the Chicago River, the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, and the Des Plaines and Illinois rivers) opened in 1933. (The canal and its banks, designated by the U.S. Congress in 1984 the country’s first national heritage corridor, are now used for recreational…

  • Illinois, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a white field (background) with the state seal in the centre showing a bald eagle, a shield, a ribbon, and other symbols.In 1913, five years prior to the centennial of statehood, Wallace Rice submitted a proposal for an Illinois state flag. It had horizontal

  • Illinois, University of (university system, Illinois, United States)

    University of Illinois, state system of higher education in Illinois, U.S. It consists of three campuses, the main campus in the twin cities Champaign and Urbana and additional campuses in Chicago and Springfield. The universities are teaching and research institutions with land-grant standing and

  • Illinois-Chicago, University of (university system, Illinois, United States)

    University of Illinois, state system of higher education in Illinois, U.S. It consists of three campuses, the main campus in the twin cities Champaign and Urbana and additional campuses in Chicago and Springfield. The universities are teaching and research institutions with land-grant standing and

  • Illinoistown (Illinois, United States)

    East Saint Louis, city, St. Clair county, southwestern Illinois, U.S. It lies along the Mississippi River opposite St. Louis, Missouri. About 1797 a ferry station was established on the site by Captain James Piggott, a pioneer and Illinois territorial judge, and in 1818 a village was laid out.

  • illite (mineral)

    Illite, any of a group of mica-type clay minerals widely distributed in marine shales and related sediments. Illite contains more water and less potassium than true micas, but it has a micalike sheet structure and is poorly crystallized. It may form a chemical series with both muscovite and

  • illiteracy

    Literacy, capacity to communicate using inscribed, printed, or electronic signs or symbols for representing language. Literacy is customarily contrasted with orality (oral tradition), which encompasses a broad set of strategies for communicating through oral and aural media. In real world

  • illness

    Disease, any harmful deviation from the normal structural or functional state of an organism, generally associated with certain signs and symptoms and differing in nature from physical injury. A diseased organism commonly exhibits signs or symptoms indicative of its abnormal state. Thus, the normal

  • illness anxiety disorder (psychology)

    Illness anxiety disorder, mental disorder characterized by an excessive preoccupation with illness and a tendency to fear or believe that one has a serious disease on the basis of the presence of insignificant physical signs or symptoms. Illness anxiety disorder is thought to be derived from the

  • Illness as Metaphor (work by Sontag)

    The Magic Mountain: …in American writer Susan Sontag’s Illness as Metaphor (1977).

  • Illoqqortoormiut (town, Greenland)

    Scoresby Sund: Ittoqqortoormiit (also called Illoqqortoormiut; Danish: Scoresbysund) is a hunting and fishing town founded in 1924 by Ejnar Mikkelsen. The town lies north of the sound’s mouth at a place where fishing is possible throughout the year.

  • illuminated manuscript (art)

    Illuminated manuscript, handwritten book that has been decorated with gold or silver, brilliant colours, or elaborate designs or miniature pictures. Though various Islamic societies also practiced this art, Europe had one of the longest and most cultivated traditions of illuminating manuscripts. A

  • illuminated printing

    printmaking: Relief etching: When large areas of a metal plate are etched out (see below Etching), leaving the design in relief to be surface printed, the process is generally called relief etching. Usually the method is used for areas, but it can be also used for…

  • illuminati (designation for various groups)

    Illuminati, designation in use from the 15th century, assumed by or applied to various groups of persons who claimed to be unusually enlightened. The word is the plural of the Latin illuminatus (“revealed” or “enlightened”). According to adherents, the source of the “light” was viewed as being

  • Illuminati (European social group)

    Italy: The early years: …societies emerged, modeled after the Illuminati (“Enlightened Ones”) founded in Bavaria by Adam Weishaupt, a professor of canon law, which promoted free thought and democratic political theories.

  • Illuminating Panama Papers, The

    The “Panama Papers,” which were made public in April 2016, represented one of the biggest leaks of confidential documents in history. The papers consisted of 11.5 million documents (2.6 terabytes of data) from the database of the Panama-based law firm Mossack Fonseca. The massive trove covered the

  • illuminating shell (military technology)

    artillery: Projectile, powder, and fuze: …screening the activities of troops; illuminating shells, containing magnesium flares suspended by parachutes, illuminated the battlefield at night; gas shells, filled with various chemicals such as chlorine or mustard gas, were used against troops; incendiary shells were developed for setting fire to hydrogen-filled zeppelins. High explosives were improved, with TNT…

  • illumination (philosophy)

    epistemology: St. Augustine: Illumination, the other element of the theory, was for Augustine and his many followers, at least through the 14th century, a technical notion, built upon a visual metaphor inherited from Plotinus (205–270) and other Neoplatonic thinkers. According to that view, the human mind is like…

  • illumination (religion)

    ecstasy: …purification (of the will); (3) illumination (of the mind); and (4) unification (of one’s being or will with the divine). Other methods are: dancing (as used by the Mawlawiyyah, or whirling dervishes, a Muslim Sufi sect); the use of sedatives and stimulants (as utilized in some Hellenistic mystery religions); and…

  • illumination (technology)

    Lighting, use of an artificial source of light for illumination. It is a key element of architecture and interior design. Residential lighting uses mainly either incandescent lamps or fluorescent lamps and often depends heavily on movable fixtures plugged into outlets; built-in lighting is

  • Illumination (work by Frederic)

    Harold Frederic: …his New York State novels, The Damnation of Theron Ware (1896; English title Illumination), the story of the decline and fall of a Methodist minister, brought him his greatest fame. Three other novels, March Hares (1896), Gloria Mundi (1898), and The Market Place (1899), are about English life.

  • Illuminations (poetry by Rimbaud)

    Illuminations, collection of 40 prose poems and two free-verse poems by Arthur Rimbaud. Although the poems are undated, they are believed to have been written in 1872–74 when he was between 17 and 19 years of age. The poet Paul Verlaine published the poems without the author’s knowledge as the work

  • Illuminations (album by Sainte-Marie)

    Buffy Sainte-Marie: Early life and breakthrough: …Spin and Spin (1966); and Illuminations (1969), notable for its use of electronically synthesized and manipulated instrumental and vocal sounds and for its quadraphonic recording technology. In the 1970s she contributed the title song to the film Soldier Blue (1970) and released three more albums—Buffy (1974), Changing Woman (1975), and…

  • Illuminato (Spanish mystic group)

    Alumbrado, (Spanish: “Enlightened”, ) a follower of a mystical movement in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its adherents claimed that the human soul, having attained a certain degree of perfection, was permitted a vision of the divine and entered into direct communication with the Holy

  • Illuminist (Spanish mystic group)

    Alumbrado, (Spanish: “Enlightened”, ) a follower of a mystical movement in Spain during the 16th and 17th centuries. Its adherents claimed that the human soul, having attained a certain degree of perfection, was permitted a vision of the divine and entered into direct communication with the Holy

  • illusion (perception)

    Illusion, a misrepresentation of a “real” sensory stimulus—that is, an interpretation that contradicts objective “reality” as defined by general agreement. For example, a child who perceives tree branches at night as if they are goblins may be said to be having an illusion. An illusion is

  • Illusion comique, L’? (work by Corneille)

    French literature: The development of drama: …his L’Illusion comique (performed 1636; The Comedy of Illusion), a brilliant exploitation of the interplay between reality and illusion that characterizes Baroque art. The two trends come together in Corneille’s theatre in Le Cid (performed 1637; The Cid), which, though often called the first Classical tragedy, was created as a…

  • illusion, theatrical (art)

    Mimesis, basic theoretical principle in the creation of art. The word is Greek and means “imitation” (though in the sense of “re-presentation” rather than of “copying”). Plato and Aristotle spoke of mimesis as the re-presentation of nature. According to Plato, all artistic creation is a form of

  • Illusionist, The (novel by Mallet-Joris)

    Fran?oise Mallet-Joris: …Le Rempart des béguines (1951; The Illusionist, also published as Into the Labyrinth and The Loving and the Daring), the story of an affair between a girl and her father’s mistress, described with clinical detachment in a sober, classical prose. A sequel, La Chambre rouge (1953; The Red Room), and…

  • Illusionist, The (film by Burger [2006])

    Edward Norton: In The Illusionist (2006; adapted from the short story “Eisenheim the Illusionist” by Steven Millhauser), Norton portrayed Eisenheim, a magician who uses his skills to beguile the crown prince of Vienna. After starring as Bruce Banner in the superhero film The Hulk (2008), Norton turned in…

  • Illusions perdues (work by Balzac)

    French literature: Balzac: …journalist, in Illusions perdues [1837–43; Lost Illusions]) and the subjection of women, particularly in marriage, are used as eloquent markers of the moral impasse into which bourgeois liberalism led the French Revolution. Most presciently, he emphasized the paradox of money—its dissolving power and its dynamic force—and of the every-man-for-himself individualism…

  • Illustrated Daily News (American newspaper)

    New York Daily News, morning daily tabloid newspaper published in New York City, once the newspaper with the largest circulation in the United States. The New York Daily News was the first successful tabloid newspaper in the United States. It was founded in 1919 as the Illustrated Daily News by

  • Illustrated Journals of Celia Fiennes, 1685-c. 1712, The (work by Fiennes)

    Celia Fiennes: The Illustrated Journals of Celia Fiennes, 1685–c. 1712, edited by Christopher Morris, was published in 1947 (reissued in 1982).

  • Illustrated London News (British magazine)

    Illustrated London News, historic magazine of news and the arts, published in London, a forerunner in the use of various graphic arts. It was founded as a weekly in 1842 by Herbert Ingram, and it became a monthly in 1971. It was London’s first illustrated periodical, with 32 woodcuts in the 16

  • Illustrated Man, The (short-story collection by Bradbury)

    Ray Bradbury: First short stories: The short-story collection The Illustrated Man (1951) included one of his most famous stories, “The Veldt,” in which a mother and father are concerned about the effect their house’s simulation of lions on the African veldt is having on their children.

  • Illustrated Tale of Genji (work by Murasaki)

    The Tale of Genji, masterpiece of Japanese literature by Murasaki Shikibu. Written at the start of the 11th century, it is generally considered the world’s first novel. Murasaki Shikibu composed The Tale of Genji while a lady in attendance at the Japanese court, likely completing it about 1010.

  • Illustrated Weekly of India (Indian magazine)

    history of publishing: India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan: …magazines in India include the Illustrated Weekly of India (founded 1880), a topical review for educated readers; the Statesman Weekly (founded 1924), an illustrated digest of Indian news and views; the monthly general review Current Events (founded 1955); Thought (New Delhi, 1949–78/79), a political and economic weekly; the monthly Akhand…

  • illustration (art)

    drawing: Applied drawings: …similarly ambivalent nature is the illustrative drawing that perhaps does not go beyond a simple pictorial rendition of a literary description but because of its specific formal execution may still satisfy the highest artistic demands. Great artists have again and again illustrated Bibles, prayer books, novels, and literature of all…

  • Illustration, L’? (French magazine)

    history of photography: Photojournalism: …started in May 1842, and L’Illustration, based in Paris from its first issue in March 1843—owe their origin to the same cultural forces that made possible the invention of photography. Early reproductions generally carried little of the conviction of the original photograph, however.

  • Illustrations de Gaule et singularités de Troie (work by Lemaire de Belges)

    Jean Lemaire de Belges: His most extensive work is Les Illustrations de Gaule et singularitéz de Troye (1511, 1512, 1513; “Illustrations of Gaul and Peculiarities of Troy”), a legendary prose romance published in three books; it demonstrates an exuberant imagination and a modern appreciation of classical antiquity.

  • Illustrations de Gaule et singularitéz de Troye, Les (work by Lemaire de Belges)

    Jean Lemaire de Belges: His most extensive work is Les Illustrations de Gaule et singularitéz de Troye (1511, 1512, 1513; “Illustrations of Gaul and Peculiarities of Troy”), a legendary prose romance published in three books; it demonstrates an exuberant imagination and a modern appreciation of classical antiquity.

  • Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases (work by Maxwell)

    atom: Kinetic theory of gases: In his 1860 paper “Illustrations of the Dynamical Theory of Gases,” Maxwell used probability theory to produce his famous distribution function for the velocities of gas molecules. Employing Newtonian laws of mechanics, he also provided a mathematical basis for Avogadro’s theory. Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann assumed that gas particles…

  • Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth (work by Playfair)

    James Hutton: …in 1802 under the title Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth. It went far toward establishing the correctness of uniformitarianism, the cornerstone on which the science of geology is erected.

  • Illustrator (software)

    Adobe Illustrator, graphics computer application software produced by Adobe Systems Incorporated that allows users to create refined drawings, designs, and layouts. Illustrator, released in 1987, is one of many Adobe innovations that revolutionized graphic design. Adobe Systems was founded in 1982

  • Illustre Théatre (French theatre company)

    Geneviève Béjart: …and early member of Molière’s Illustre Théatre company. Geneviève played as Mlle Hervé, adopting her mother’s name. She acted with the Béjart family company managed by her sister Madeleine before they joined forces with Molière. She attained note as a tragedienne.

  • Illustrious (British aircraft carrier)

    naval ship: Light carriers: …three such ships, HMS Invincible, Illustrious, and Ark Royal. These 20,000-ton ships carried eight Sea Harriers and about a dozen antisubmarine helicopters. They also incorporated a further British contribution to aircraft carrier design: an upward-sloping “ski jump” at the end of the short (170-metre, or 558-foot) flight deck to assist…

  • Illustrissimi (work by John Paul I)

    John Paul I: …he published a creative work, Illustrissimi (“To the Illustrious Ones”), a compilation of letters addressed both to historical figures such as Jesus and Mark Twain and to fictional characters such as those in Charles Dickens’s The Pickwick Papers.

  • Illustrium majoris Britanniae scriptorum (work by Bale)

    John Bale: …catalogs of English writers: the Illustrium majoris Britanniae scriptorum (1548; “Of Great Britain’s Illustrious Writers”); the revised and much-expanded Scriptorum illustrium majoris Britanniae catalogus (1557–59, reprinted 1977; “Catalogue of Great Britain’s Illustrious Writers”); and an autograph notebook, first published in 1902 by R.L. Poole and M. Bateson as Index Britanniae…

  • illuviation (geology)

    Illuviation, Accumulation of dissolved or suspended soil materials in one area or layer as a result of leaching (percolation) from another. Usually clay, iron, or humus wash out and form a line with a different consistency and color. These lines are important for studying the composition and ages

  • Illyés, Gyula (Hungarian writer)

    Gyula Illyés, Hungarian poet, novelist, dramatist, and dissident, a leading literary figure in Hungary during the 20th century. Illyés supported the short-lived soviet republic led by Béla Kun (1919). Sought by the police, Illyés went to Vienna, then to Berlin and to Paris, where he completed his

  • Illyria (historical region, Europe)

    Illyria, northwestern part of the Balkan Peninsula, inhabited from about the 10th century bce onward by the Illyrians, an Indo-European people. At the height of their power, the Illyrian frontiers extended from the Danube River southward to the Adriatic Sea and from there eastward to the ?ar

  • Illyrian (ancient people)

    Alexander the Great: Life: …and shattered a coalition of Illyrians who had invaded Macedonia. Meanwhile, a rumour of his death had precipitated a revolt of Theban democrats; other Greek states favoured Thebes, and the Athenians, urged on by Demosthenes, voted help. In 14 days Alexander marched 240 miles from Pelion (near modern Kor??,

  • Illyrian language

    Illyrian language, Indo-European language spoken in pre-Roman times along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea and in southeastern Italy. The language of the Illyrian fragments found in Italy is usually called Messapic, or Messapian. Some scholars believe the modern Albanian language (q.v.) to be

  • Illyrian movement (Balkan history)

    Illyrian movement, South Slav nationalist movement (c. 1835–48). Begun in the 1830s, largely through the efforts of the poet and journalist Ljudevit Gaj, the movement involved the revival of Serbo-Croatian literary activity and sought the unification of all the South Slavs in the Habsburg

  • Illyrian Provinces (historical region, Europe)

    Illyrian Provinces, stretch of territory along the Dalmatian coast that constituted a part of Napoleon’s French Empire from 1809 to 1814. When the French victory of 1809 compelled Austria to cede a portion of its South Slav lands to France, Napoleon combined Carniola, western Carinthia, G?rz

  • Illyricum (ancient province, Europe)

    Balkans: In the Roman Empire: …rivers, became the province of Illyricum. What is now eastern Serbia was incorporated into Moesia, which reached farther eastward between the Balkan Mountains and the Danube all the way to the Black Sea. The southeastern part of the peninsula was ruled as Thrace, and the southern part was brought into…

  • Illywhacker (novel by Carey)

    Peter Carey: …novels Bliss (1981; filmed 1985), Illywhacker (1985), and Oscar and Lucinda (1988; filmed 1997) are more realistic, though Carey used black humour throughout all three. The later novels are based on the history of Australia, especially its founding and early days.

  • ILM (American film company)

    history of the motion picture: United States: At the special-effects firm Industrial Light and Magic, models of the dinosaurs were scanned into computers and animated realistically to produce the first computer-generated images of lifelike action, rather than fantasy scenes. In Independence Day, a film combining the science-fiction and disaster genres in which giant alien spaceships attack…

  • ?ilm (Islam)

    kashf: …kashf as the alternative to ?ilm (“knowledge”), which applies systematic theology, logic, and speculative philosophy to the study of the nature of God. When the Muslim jurist and theologian al-Ghazālī (d. 1111) felt that philosophy and speculative theology had failed him, he turned wholeheartedly to Sufism, abandoning his teaching profession…

  • ?ilm al-?adīth (Islam)

    ?ilm al-?adīth, form of investigation established by Muslim traditionists in the 3rd century ah (9th century ad) to determine the validity of accounts (hadiths) of Muhammad’s statements, actions, and approbations as reported by various authorities. In the first two centuries of Islam, during the

  • ?ilm al-tafsīr (Islam)

    Tafsīr, (Arabic: “explanation,” “exegesis”) the science of explanation of the Qur?ān, the sacred scripture of Islam, or of Qur?ānic commentary. So long as Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, was alive, no other authority for interpretations of the Qur?ānic revelations was recognized by Muslims. Upon

  • Ilmarinen (Finno-Ugric deity)

    Ilmarinen, one of the chief deities in Finno-Ugric religion, functioning both as creator deity and as weather god. He forged the sampo, a world pillar that supports the sky, and hammered the firmament itself. He is often mentioned in mythic songs as working in a smithy with no door or windows and

  • Ilmen, Lake (lake, Russia)

    Lake Ilmen, lake in Novgorod oblast (province), northwestern Russia. Lake Ilmen occupies the centre of the Ilmen Plain, an undulating glacial lowland much of which is drained by rivers flowing into the lake; the lake in turn provides the headwaters of the Volkhov River. The lake occupies a shallow

  • ilmenite (mineral)

    Ilmenite, iron-black, heavy, metallic oxide mineral, composed of iron and titanium oxide (FeTiO3), that is used as the major source of titanium. It forms solid-solution series with geikielite and pyrophanite in which magnesium and manganese, respectively, replace iron in the crystal structure.

  • Ilminsky, Nicholas (Russian missionary)

    Christianity: Orthodox and nondenominational missions: …included the linguist and translator Nicholas Ilminsky (died 1891) and St. Innocent Veniaminov (1797–1879), who in 1823 went as its first missionary to the Aleutian Islands. Veniaminov eventually became Metropolitan Innocent of Moscow, and in 1870 he founded the Russian Orthodox Missionary Society. The Russian Orthodox Church opened a mission…

  • ilmiye (Ottoman institution)

    Ottoman Empire: Classical Ottoman society and administration: …the religious, or cultural (ilmiye), institution, comprising the ulama (Muslims expert in the religious sciences), which was in charge of organizing and propagating the faith and maintaining and enforcing the religious law (Sharī?ah or ?eriat)—its interpretation in the courts, its expounding in the mosques and schools, and its study…

  • Ilmuqah (Arabian deity)

    Arabian religion: South Arabia: …Saba? the national god was Almaqah (or Ilmuqah), a protector of artificial irrigation, lord of the temple of the Sabaean federation of tribes, near the capital Ma?rib. Until recently Almaqah was considered to be a moon god, under the influence of a now generally rejected conception of a South Arabian…

  • ILO (United Nations)

    International Labour Organization (ILO), specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) dedicated to improving labour conditions and living standards throughout the world. Established in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles as an affiliated agency of the League of Nations, the ILO became the first

  • Ilobasco (El Salvador)

    Ilobasco, town, north-central El Salvador. It is in a rich agricultural area (cattle, coffee, sugarcane, and indigo) but is known primarily for its clay dolls, a major item for sale to tourists, as well as for other types of pottery made from local clays. Since the completion in 1954 of a dam and

  • Ilobu (Nigeria)

    Ilobu, town, Osun state, southwestern Nigeria. It lies along a tributary of the Oshun River and on the road from Ogbomosho to Oshogbo. Ilobu is a trade centre for the yams, corn (maize), cassava (manioc), oil palms, pumpkins, beans, and okra grown in a savanna area mainly inhabited by the Yoruba

  • Ilocano (people)

    Ilocano, third largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. When discovered by the Spanish in the 16th century, they occupied the narrow coastal plain of northwestern Luzon, known as the Ilocos region. The growth of their population later led to much migration to neighbouring provinces, to the

  • Ilocano language

    Austronesian languages: Major languages: languages include Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicol, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan of the Philippines; Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, the Batak languages, Acehnese,

  • Iloco (people)

    Ilocano, third largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines. When discovered by the Spanish in the 16th century, they occupied the narrow coastal plain of northwestern Luzon, known as the Ilocos region. The growth of their population later led to much migration to neighbouring provinces, to the

  • Iloco language

    Austronesian languages: Major languages: languages include Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, Hiligaynon, Bicol, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan of the Philippines; Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, the Batak languages, Acehnese,

  • Ilocos range (mountains, Philippines)

    Philippines: Relief: The narrow Ilocos, or Malayan, range, lying close along the west coast of northern Luzon, rises in places to elevations above 5,000 feet (1,500 metres) and is seldom below 3,500 feet (1,000 metres); it is largely volcanic. In the southwestern part of northern Luzon are the rugged…

  • Iloilo City (Philippines)

    Iloilo City, chartered city, on the southeastern coast of Panay, Philippines. At the mouth of the Jaro River on the Iloilo Strait and sheltered by the offshore Guimaras Island, it is the commercial centre of Panay and a regional centre for sugar exports. Pre-Spanish settlement was extensive, but

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