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  • imaging tube (technology)

    spectroscopy: Optical detectors: Other photodetectors include imaging tubes (e.g., television cameras), which can measure a spatial variation of the light across the surface of the photocathode, and microchannel plates, which combine the spatial resolution of an imaging tube with the light sensitivity of a photomultiplier. A night vision device consists of…

  • Imaginism (Russian literary movement)

    Imaginism, Russian poetic movement that followed the Russian Revolution of 1917 and advocated poetry based on a series of arresting and unusual images. It is sometimes called Imagism but is unrelated to the 20th-century Anglo-American movement of that name. The main poets of Imaginism were Vadim

  • imagism (English literature)

    Imagist, any of a group of American and English poets whose poetic program was formulated about 1912 by Ezra Pound—in conjunction with fellow poets Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), Richard Aldington, and F.S. Flint—and was inspired by the critical views of T.E. Hulme, in revolt against the careless

  • Imagistes, Des (poetry collection)

    English literature: Anglo-American Modernism: Pound, Lewis, Lawrence, and Eliot: …his own poetry, and in Des Imagistes (1914), an anthology. Prominent among the Imagists were the English poets T.E. Hulme, F.S. Flint, and Richard Aldington and the Americans Hilda Doolittle (H.D.) and Amy Lowell.

  • Imagists (English literature)

    Imagist, any of a group of American and English poets whose poetic program was formulated about 1912 by Ezra Pound—in conjunction with fellow poets Hilda Doolittle (H.D.), Richard Aldington, and F.S. Flint—and was inspired by the critical views of T.E. Hulme, in revolt against the careless

  • Imago (work by Spitteler)

    Carl Spitteler: His novel Imago (1906) so sharply reflected his inner conflict between a visionary creative gift and middle-class values that it influenced the development of psychoanalysis. He published a volume of stimulating essays, Lachende Wahrheiten (1898; Laughing Truths), and biographical works of charm, including Meine frühesten Erlebnisse (1914;…

  • imago (biology)

    reproduction: Life cycles of animals: …and an adult stage (imago). One remarkable aspect of this development is that, during the transition from caterpillar to adult, most of the caterpillar tissue disintegrates and is used as food, thereby providing energy for the next stage of development, which begins when certain small structures (imaginal disks) in…

  • Imago mundi (work by Honorius Inclusus)

    encyclopaedia: Early development: …the 12th century was the Imago mundi of Honorius Inclusus. Honorius produced his “mirror of the world” for Christian, later abbot of St. Jacob, and drew on a far wider range of authorities than any of his predecessors. The arrangement of the first section on geography, astrology, and astronomy was…

  • Imalayan, Fatima-Zohra (Algerian writer and filmmaker)

    Assia Djebar, Algerian writer and filmmaker whose novels, written in French, most often focus on women and their place in Algerian society. Djebar was educated in Algeria and then in France at the Sorbonne (B.A.,1956) and at Paul Valéry University of Montpellier III (Ph.D., 1999). Her career as a

  • Imalhayène, Fatma-Zohra (Algerian writer and filmmaker)

    Assia Djebar, Algerian writer and filmmaker whose novels, written in French, most often focus on women and their place in Algerian society. Djebar was educated in Algeria and then in France at the Sorbonne (B.A.,1956) and at Paul Valéry University of Montpellier III (Ph.D., 1999). Her career as a

  • imam (Islam)

    Imam, in a general sense, one who leads Muslim worshippers in prayer. In a global sense, imam is used to refer to the head of the Muslim community (ummah). The title is found in the Qur?ān several times to refer to leaders and to Abraham. The origin and basis of the office of imam was conceived

  • imām (Islam)

    Imam, in a general sense, one who leads Muslim worshippers in prayer. In a global sense, imam is used to refer to the head of the Muslim community (ummah). The title is found in the Qur?ān several times to refer to leaders and to Abraham. The origin and basis of the office of imam was conceived

  • Imām Abū ?anīfah (Muslim jurist and theologian)

    Abū ?anīfah, Muslim jurist and theologian whose systematization of Islamic legal doctrine was acknowledged as one of the four canonical schools of Islamic law (madhhabs). The ?anafī school of Abū ?anīfah acquired such prestige that its doctrines were applied by a majority of Muslim dynasties. Even

  • Imam Bondjol (Minangkabau leader)

    Imam Bondjol, Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century. When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a

  • Imam Bondjol, Tuanku (Minangkabau leader)

    Imam Bondjol, Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century. When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a

  • Imam, al- (Islamic journal)

    Sayyid Shaykh bin Ahmad al-Hadi: …noted Islāmic reform journal Al-Imam (1906–08), which, modeled on Al-Manar of Cairo, propounded the modernist ideas of Mu?ammad ?Abduh and his followers and played a prominent role in introducing reformist thought to the Muslim portions of Southeast Asia. From that time forward, Sayyid Shaykh, though not a profound religious…

  • Imam, Tuanku (Minangkabau leader)

    Imam Bondjol, Minangkabau religious leader, key member of the Padri faction in the religious Padri War, which divided the Minangkabau people of Sumatra in the 19th century. When in about 1803 three pilgrims inspired by the ideas of the puritan Wahhābī sect returned from Mecca and launched a

  • ?imamah (headdress)

    Turban, a headdress consisting of a long scarf wound round the head or a smaller, underlying hat. Turbans vary in shape, colour, and size; some are made with up to 50 yards (45 metres) of fabric. In the Old World, the turban is of Eastern origin and is often worn by Muslim men, though after the

  • imamate (Islam)

    caliph: …the supreme office the “imamate,” or leadership, no caliph is legitimate unless he is a lineal descendant of the Prophet Muhammad. Later, Sunni scholars insisted that the office belonged to the tribe of Quraysh, to which Muhammad himself belonged, but this condition would have vitiated the claim of the…

  • Imāmī Shī?ism (Islam)

    Shi?i: The growth of Imāmī Shi?ism: As the Zaydis and the ?Abbāsids sought leadership from members of the Prophet’s family who would assert it, many of the Shi?ah were embracing an idea that leadership of the community could not be earned but must be inherited by divine designation. Some…

  • Imāmīs (Islamic sect)

    Twelver Shi?ah, the largest of the three Shi?i groups extant today. The Twelvers believe that, at the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 ce, the spiritual-political leadership (the imamate) of the Muslim community was ordained to pass down to ?Alī, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, and then to

  • Imāmiyyah (Islamic sect)

    Twelver Shi?ah, the largest of the three Shi?i groups extant today. The Twelvers believe that, at the death of the Prophet Muhammad in 632 ce, the spiritual-political leadership (the imamate) of the Muslim community was ordained to pass down to ?Alī, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law, and then to

  • Imamura, Shohei (Japanese film director)

    Shohei Imamura, Japanese film director (born Sept. 15, 1926, Tokyo, Japan—died May 30, 2006, Tokyo), was a master storyteller whose themes followed the lives of people on the lower rungs of society, whether they were gangsters, a traveling group of actors, or children of poverty-stricken parents. H

  • Imanishi-Kari, Thereza (scientist)

    David Baltimore: The coauthor of the article, Thereza Imanishi-Kari, was accused of falsifying data published in the paper. Baltimore, who was not included in charges of misconduct, stood behind Imanishi-Kari, although he did retract the article. Because of his involvement in the case, however, he was asked to resign as president of…

  • Imantodes (reptile genus)

    tree snake: Another tropical American genus is Imantodes, made up of exceptionally slender rear-fanged tree snakes that stiffen the body in the shape of an I-beam to cross from branch to branch. A well-known genus found from Southeast Asia to Australia is Dendrophis. The most common of Australia’s few colubrid snakes is…

  • Imārāt al-?Arabīyah al-Mutta?idah, Dawlat al-

    United Arab Emirates, federation of seven emirates along the eastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula. The largest of these emirates, Abu Dhabi (Abū ?aby), which comprises more than three-fourths of the federation’s total land area, is the centre of its oil industry and borders Saudi Arabia on the

  • ?Imārat Ya?qūbiyyān (novel by al-Aswany)

    Alaa al-Aswany: …major novel, ?Imārat Ya?qūbiyyān (The Yacoubian Building), attracted an unprecedented number of readers in Egypt and throughout the Arab world when it was published in 2002. The first edition sold out in 40 days, and nine more printings were subsequently ordered. The English version appeared in 2006 and was…

  • Imaret (mosque, Ohrid, North Macedonia)

    Ohrid: …is a quadrangular building, the Imaret, a Turkish mosque and inn, built on the foundations of the monastery of St. Panteleimon (9th century), associated with St. Clement, the first Slav bishop of Ohrid. Clement opened the first Slavic school of higher learning, wrote the earliest works of Slavic literature, and,…

  • Imari (Japan)

    Imari, city, western Saga ken (prefecture), northwestern Kyushu, Japan. It is situated on deeply indented Imari Bay. The two islands of Taka and Fuku in the bay form a natural mole, protecting the city’s harbour. Imari was once a base for Japanese pirates. By the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867)

  • Imari ware (Japanese porcelain)

    Imari ware, Japanese porcelain made at the Arita kilns in Hizen province. Among the Arita porcelains are white glazed wares, pale gray-blue or gray-green glazed wares known as celadons, black wares, and blue-and-white wares with underglaze painting, as well as overglaze enamels. Following the late

  • imatinib (drug)

    Imatinib, anticancer drug used primarily in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Imatinib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2001 under the trade name Gleevec for the treatment of CML. The following year it was approved for the treatment of advanced

  • Imatong Mountains (mountains, South Sudan)

    Uganda: Relief: …South Sudanese border by the Imatong Mountains, with an elevation of about 6,000 feet (1,800 metres).

  • imayō (music)

    Japanese music: Vocal music: …or imitations of them, and imayō, contemporary songs in Japanese. Many gagaku melodies were given texts to become imayō songs, while others were derived from the style of hymns used by Buddhist missionaries. Little of those vocal traditions remains, but memories of their importance are preserved in nearly every novel…

  • Imazighen (people)

    Berber, any of the descendants of the pre-Arab inhabitants of North Africa. The Berbers live in scattered communities across Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mali, Niger, and Mauritania. They speak various Amazigh languages belonging to the Afro-Asiatic family related to ancient Egyptian.

  • Imbangala (people)

    Imbangala, a warrior group of central Angola that emerged in the late 16th century. In older sources, the Imbangala are sometimes referred to as Jaga, a generic name for several bands of freebooting mercenary soldiers in the 17th through 19th centuries. The Imbangala probably originated in the

  • imbe (tree and fruit)

    Garcinia: Imbe, or African mangosteen (G. livingstonei), has stiff leaves and small, thick-skinned, orange fruits with a juicy, acid, fragrant pulp. Rata, or yellow mangosteen (G. tinctorea), produces a peach-sized yellow fruit with a pointed end and acid-flavoured buttery yellow flesh. Bacupari (G. gardneriana) is native…

  • Imbe ware (pottery)

    Bizen ware, pottery manufactured at and near Imbe, Okayama ken (prefecture), on the Inland Sea of Japan, from at least the 6th century ad, in what was once Bizen province. Bizen ware has a dark gray stoneware body that generally fires to a brick-red, brown, or deep bronze colour. The surface of B

  • Imber, Naphtali Herz (Hebrew poet)

    Naphtali Herz Imber, itinerant Hebrew poet whose poem “Ha-Tiqva” (“The Hope”), set to music, was the official anthem of the Zionist movement from 1933 and eventually became Israel’s national anthem. Imber received a traditional Talmudic education, and in 1882 he went to Palestine with Laurence

  • Imbert Barrera, Antonio (Dominican general)

    Antonio Imbert Barrera, (Antonio Cosme Imbert Barrera), Dominican general (born Dec. 3, 1920, Puerto Plata, Dom.Rep.—died May 31, 2016, Santo Domingo, Dom.Rep.), was declared a national hero of the Dominican Republic after he participated (and fired the fatal shots) in the May 30, 1961,

  • imbibition (botany)

    Julius von Sachs: …the first part of his imbibition theory stating that imbibed (absorbed) water moves in tubes in the walls of the plants without the cooperation of living cells and not within the cell cavities. In 1865 Sachs proved that chlorophyll was not generally diffused in all the tissues of a plant…

  • imbibition (photography)

    Dye-transfer process, in photography, technique for preparing coloured photographic prints in which the colours of the subject are resolved by optical filters into three components, each of which is recorded on a separate gelatin negative. The three negatives are converted into relief positives in

  • Imbize, Jan van (Flemish Calvinist)

    Jan van Hembyze, Calvinist leader who overthrew Ghent’s Roman Catholic-dominated government (1577) during the Netherlands’ struggle for freedom from Spanish control. Supported by Francis van de Kuthulle, lord of Ryhove, and the leading Calvinist preacher, Petrus Dathenus, Hembyze led some 2,000

  • Imbolc (ancient Celtic religious festival)

    Imbolc, (Middle Irish, probably literally, “milking”), ancient Celtic religious festival, celebrated on February 1 to mark the beginning of spring. The festival apparently was a feast of purification for farmers and has been compared to the Roman lustrations. Imbolc was associated with the goddess

  • imbrauderer’s chair (furniture)

    Farthingale chair, armless chair with a wide seat covered in high-quality fabric and fitted with a cushion; the backrest is an upholstered panel, and the legs are straight and rectangular in section. It was introduced as a chair for ladies in the late 16th century and was named in England, probably

  • imbrex (architecture)

    Imbrex, in ancient Greek and Roman architecture, a raised roofing tile used to cover the joint between the flat tiles. Used in a series, they formed continuous ridges over the aligned flat tiles. Imbrices were generally of two types. In the more commonly used form the tile was approximately

  • Imbriani, Matteo Renato (Italian political figure)

    Italy: Forces of opposition: Some of them, including Matteo Renato Imbriani, also advocated an active irredentist foreign policy—that is, a policy that aimed to liberate Italians living in foreign territory; in particular they wanted to wrest Trento and Trieste from Austrian control. They considered the Triple Alliance and colonial expansionism inimical to Italian…

  • imbricate bedding (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Clast-supported conglomerates: …there is often a distinct imbrication; i.e., flat pebbles overlap in the same direction like roof shingles. Imbrication is upstream on riverbeds and seaward on beaches.

  • imbricate scale (physiology)

    integument: Hair: …having a layer of downwardly imbricate scales (overlapping like roof tiles) that fit over the upwardly imbricate scales of the hair proper. The outer root sheath is surrounded by connective tissue. This consists internally of a vascular layer separated from the root sheath by a basement membrane—the hyaline layer of…

  • imbrication (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Clast-supported conglomerates: …there is often a distinct imbrication; i.e., flat pebbles overlap in the same direction like roof shingles. Imbrication is upstream on riverbeds and seaward on beaches.

  • imbrices (architecture)

    Imbrex, in ancient Greek and Roman architecture, a raised roofing tile used to cover the joint between the flat tiles. Used in a series, they formed continuous ridges over the aligned flat tiles. Imbrices were generally of two types. In the more commonly used form the tile was approximately

  • Imbros (island, Turkey)

    G?k?eada, island in the Aegean Sea, northwestern Turkey. Commanding the entrance to the Dardanelles, the island is strategically situated 10 miles (16 km) off the southern end of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Herodotus and Homer mentioned Imbros as an abode of the Pelasgians in antiquity. It fell to the

  • IMC

    Christianity: Missionary associations: …that in 1921 became the International Missionary Council (IMC). The IMC consisted of a worldwide network of Christian councils and the Western cooperative agencies. In 1961 the IMC became the Division of World Mission and Evangelism of the World Council of Churches (WCC). In 1971 the Division underwent further restructuring…

  • IMC

    airport: Navigational aids, lighting, and marking: …hours of darkness and under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), when horizontal visibility is 600 metres (2,000 feet) or less and the cloud base (or “decision height”) is 60 metres (200 feet) or lower. In order to assist aircraft in approaches and takeoffs and in maneuvering on the ground, such airports…

  • ImClone Systems (American company)

    Martha Stewart: …sale of 4,000 shares of ImClone Systems, a biomedical firm owned by family friend Samuel Waksal. The sale of her shares, occurring one day before public information about ImClone caused the stock price to drop, sparked accusations of insider trading. Stewart stepped down as chairman and CEO of her firm…

  • IMCO

    International Maritime Organization (IMO), United Nations (UN) specialized agency created to develop international treaties and other mechanisms on maritime safety; to discourage discriminatory and restrictive practices in international trade and unfair practices by shipping concerns; and to reduce

  • IMCOM (United States Army)

    the United States Army: Administrative structure: The United States Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) maintains services and facilities for army personnel and their families.

  • IMDb (Web site)

    IMDb, Web site that provides information about millions of films and television programs as well as their cast and crew. The name is an acronym for Internet Movie Database. As a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon.com, IMDb is based in Seattle, but the office of Col Needham, the founder and CEO,

  • IMEMO (Russian think tank)

    Yevgeny Primakov: …named deputy director of the Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO), the country’s top foreign policy think tank, and in 1977 he was appointed director of the Institute of Oriental Studies. He became director of IMEMO in 1985. A leading architect of the policy of perestroika (“restructuring”), he…

  • Imeni Ismail Samani Peak (mountain, Tajikistan)

    Imeni Ismail Samani Peak, peak, western Pamirs, northeastern Tajikistan. Located in the Akademii Nauk Range, it rises to 24,590 feet (7,495 metres) and is the highest point in Tajikistan and in the range. It was first climbed by a Russian team in

  • Imerina (people)

    Merina, a Malagasy people primarily inhabiting the central plateau of Madagascar. They are the most populous ethnolinguistic group on the island. The early Merina, whose origins are uncertain, entered the central plateau of Madagascar in the 15th century and soon established a small kingdom there.

  • Imes, Monique (American actress and comedian)

    Mo’Nique, American actress, stand-up comedian, and talk-show host known for her bawdy humour and dramatic gravitas. Mo’Nique, the youngest of four children, was raised in Baltimore county. At her brother’s suggestion, she took to the stage during an open-microphone night at a comedy club in 1988.

  • Imes, Nella (American author)

    Nella Larsen, novelist and short-story writer of the Harlem Renaissance. Larsen was born to a Danish mother and a West Indian father who died when she was two years old. She studied for a year at Fisk University, where she first experienced life within an all-black community, and later audited

  • Imes-Hicks, Mo’Nique (American actress and comedian)

    Mo’Nique, American actress, stand-up comedian, and talk-show host known for her bawdy humour and dramatic gravitas. Mo’Nique, the youngest of four children, was raised in Baltimore county. At her brother’s suggestion, she took to the stage during an open-microphone night at a comedy club in 1988.

  • IMF (astronomy)

    coronal mass ejection: Observations and appearance: …the surrounding solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Those CMEs observed in situ by spacecraft in the solar wind, called interplanetary CMEs (or ICMEs), are often characterized by twisted magnetic fields (or magnetic flux ropes); such ICMEs are commonly referred to as magnetic clouds.

  • IMF

    International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations (UN) specialized agency, founded at the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 to secure international monetary cooperation, to stabilize currency exchange rates, and to expand international liquidity (access to hard currencies). The first half of the

  • Imgawa family (Japanese history)

    Tokugawa Ieyasu: Early life: …away as hostage to the Imagawa family, powerful neighbours headquartered at Sumpu (now the city of Shizuoka) to the east. However, members of the rival Oda clan to the west waylaid his entourage, and he was held for two years before being released to the Imagawa.

  • Imgur-Enil (archaeological site, Iraq)

    history of Mesopotamia: Shalmaneser III and Shamshi-Adad V of Assyria: …doors from the town of Imgur-Enlil (Balawat) in Assyria portray the course of his campaigns and other undertakings in rows of pictures, often very lifelike. Hundreds of delicately carved ivories were carried away from Phoenicia, and many of the artists along with them; these later made Kalakh a centre for…

  • Imhoff, Gustaaf Willem, baron van (Dutch statesman)

    Gustaaf Willem, baron van Imhoff, governor-general of the Dutch East Indies (1743–50), a reformer who tried in vain to restore the decaying Dutch East India Company to prosperity. Son of a Dutch nobleman, van Imhoff went to the Indies in 1725 as a servant of the company. By 1732 he was a member of

  • Imhotep (Egyptian architect, physician, and statesman)

    Imhotep, vizier, sage, architect, astrologer, and chief minister to Djoser (reigned 2630–2611 bce), the second king of Egypt’s third dynasty, who was later worshipped as the god of medicine in Egypt and in Greece, where he was identified with the Greek god of medicine, Asclepius. He is considered

  • IMI (Italian holding company)

    Italy: Economic policy: …new state-run holding companies, the Italian Industrial Finance Institute (Istituto Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision.…

  • imidazole (organic compound class)

    Imidazole, any of a class of organic compounds of the heterocyclic series characterized by a ring structure composed of three carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms at nonadjacent positions. The simplest member of the imidazole family is imidazole itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2.

  • imidazole (chemical compound)

    imidazole: The simplest member of the imidazole family is imidazole itself, a compound with molecular formula C3H4N2.

  • imide (chemical compound)

    carboxylic acid: Related compounds: Imides are more acidic than amides (it is the ―NH group that loses the hydrogen) but less acidic than carboxylic acids. Sulfonamides are amides of sulfonic acids; for example,

  • Imihobe nemibongo (work by Mqhayi)

    S.E.K. Mqhayi: …Mqhayi wrote several biographies and Imihobe nemibongo (1927; “Songs of Joy and Lullabies”), the first published collection of Xhosa poems, many of which celebrate current events or important figures. A work of fiction, U-Don Jadu (1929), describes a utopian multiracial state that combines elements of Western society and Xhosa culture.…

  • imine (chemical compound)

    amine: Addition: …amines react readily to form imines (also called azomethines or Schiff bases), R2C=NR′.

  • imino acid (chemical compound)
  • iminoglycinuria (pathology)

    Iminoglycinuria, inborn impairment of the transport system of the kidney tubules, which normally reabsorb the amino acids glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. In young children in whom this transport system fails to develop, high urinary levels of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline have

  • imipenem (drug)

    antibiotic: Imipenem: Imipenem is a β-lactam antibiotic that works by interfering with cell wall synthesis. It is highly resistant to hydrolysis by most β-lactamases. This drug must be given by intramuscular injection or intravenous infusion because it is not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Imipenem is…

  • imipramine (drug)

    Imipramine, synthetic drug used in the treatment of depression and enuresis (bed-wetting). Introduced into medicine in the late 1950s, imipramine was the first tricyclic antidepressant, a class named for its three-ring molecular structure. Imipramine works by inhibiting the reuptake of certain

  • imitated light (theatre)

    theatre: The influence of Appia and Craig: …light, which cast shadows; and imitated lighting effects painted on the scenery. He saw the illusionist theatre as employing only the first and last of these types. Appia proposed replacing illusory scene painting with three-dimensional structures that could be altered in appearance by varying the colour, intensity, and direction of…

  • Imitatio Christi (devotional book)

    Imitation of Christ, a Christian devotional book written between 1390 and 1440. Although its authorship is a matter of controversy, the book is linked to the name of Thomas à Kempis. Whatever the identity of the author, he was a representative of the devotio moderna (q.v.) and its two offshoots, t

  • imitation (music)

    counterpoint: , melodic imitation) between the voice parts.

  • imitation (behaviour)

    Imitation, in psychology, the reproduction or performance of an act that is stimulated by the perception of a similar act by another animal or person. Essentially, it involves a model to which the attention and response of the imitator are directed. As a descriptive term, imitation covers a wide

  • imitation (art)

    Mimesis, basic theoretical principle in the creation of art. The word is Greek and means “imitation” (though in the sense of “re-presentation” rather than of “copying”). Plato and Aristotle spoke of mimesis as the re-presentation of nature. According to Plato, all artistic creation is a form of

  • imitation (literary genre)

    Samuel Johnson: The Gentleman’s Magazine and early publications: London is an “imitation” of the Roman satirist Juvenal’s third satire. (A loose translation, an imitation applies the manner and topics of an earlier poet to contemporary conditions.) Thales, the poem’s main speaker, bears some resemblance to the poet Richard Savage, of whom Johnson knew and with whom…

  • Imitation de Notre-Dame la lune, L’? (work by Laforgue)

    French literature: The Decadents: …Les Complaintes (1885; “Lamentations”) and L’Imitation de Notre-Dame la Lune (1886; “Imitation of Our Lady of the Moon”), are a series of variations on the Decadent themes of the flight from life, woman, and ennui, each explored through a host of recurring images (the wind, Sundays, moonlight, and the tragicomic…

  • Imitation Game, The (film by Tyldum [2014])

    Benedict Cumberbatch: From Star Trek to Alan Turing: …and logician Alan Turing in The Imitation Game, voiced an animated wolf in the comedy Penguins of Madagascar, and reprised his role as Smaug in The Hobbit: The Battle of the Five Armies. His turn as Turing earned him an Academy Award nomination for best actor. Cumberbatch returned to the…

  • imitation leather (material)
  • Imitation of Christ (devotional book)

    Imitation of Christ, a Christian devotional book written between 1390 and 1440. Although its authorship is a matter of controversy, the book is linked to the name of Thomas à Kempis. Whatever the identity of the author, he was a representative of the devotio moderna (q.v.) and its two offshoots, t

  • imitation of Christ (religion)

    Christianity: The problem of suffering: …specifically Christian idea of the imitation of Christ. Individual Christians are called to follow the example of Christ; incorporation into the body of Christ is granted to those who are ready to carry out within themselves Christ’s destiny of suffering, death, and resurrection. The early church’s characterization of the Christian…

  • Imitation of Life (film by Sirk [1959])

    Douglas Sirk: From All That Heaven Allows to Imitation of Life: …the stir brought about by Imitation of Life (1959), the last of Sirk’s expressionist tours de force, which was based on a novel by Fannie Hurst that had been filmed earlier (1934) by Stahl. Sirk’s version starred Lana Turner as an actress and uninterested mother whose daughter (Sandra Dee) is…

  • Imitation of Life (film by Stahl [1934])

    John M. Stahl: Imitation of Life (1934) was a well-mounted adaptation of Hurst’s drama about racism and single parenthood, as told through the friendship of two women—one white (Claudette Colbert), the other African American (Louise Beavers); the film received an Academy Award nomination for best picture. In 1935…

  • Imittós, óros (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Hymettus, limestone mountain southeast of Athens (Modern Greek: Athína), Greece. With a peak elevation of 3,366 ft (1,026 m), the 11-mi- (18-km-) long ridge is divided into two small series of peaks by the gorge of Pirnari in the southwest. The ancient quarries of Kara marble are located near

  • Imja River (river, Nepal)

    Mount Everest: Drainage and climate: …which flows southward as the Imja River to its confluence with the Dudh Kosi River. In Tibet the Rong River originates from the Pumori and Rongbuk glaciers and the Kama River from the Kangshung Glacier: both flow into the Arun River, which cuts through the Himalayas into Nepal. The Rong,…

  • IML-1 (space mission)

    Roberta Bondar: …payload specialist for the first International Microgravity Laboratory Mission (IML-1), a crewed Spacelab module aimed at investigating the effects of weightlessness on living organisms and materials processing. She flew into space as a payload specialist on the Discovery space shuttle during the STS-42 mission, launching into space on January

  • Imlach, Punch (Canadian ice-hockey coach)

    Toronto Maple Leafs: …team led by head coach Punch Imlach and packed with future Hall of Famers (right wing and centre George Armstrong, goaltender Johnny Bower, centre Red Kelly, centre Dave Keon, defenseman Tim Horton, left wing Frank Mahovlich, left wing Bob Pulford, and defenseman

  • immacolata (religious art)

    Madonna: The immacolata, which in the 17th century emphasized her Immaculate Conception, or perpetual freedom from original sin, shows her as a young girl descending from the heavens, supported by a crescent moon and crowned by stars. The Madonna of the rosary, which until the 16th century…

  • Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholicism)

    Immaculate Conception, Roman Catholic dogma asserting that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved free from the effects of the sin of Adam (usually referred to as “original sin”) from the first instant of her conception. Although various texts in both the Old and the New Testaments have been

  • Immaculate Conception (work by El Greco)

    El Greco: Later life and works: …of the Madonna in the Immaculate Conception (1607–14), originally in the Church of San Vicente, floats heavenward in a paroxysm of ecstasy supported by long, distorted angels. The fantastic view of Toledo below, abstractly rendered, is dazzling in its ghostly moonlit brilliance, and the clusters of roses and lilies, symbols…

  • Immaculate Conception (painting by Murillo)

    Bartolomé Esteban Murillo: …broad brushwork of the 1652 Immaculate Conception reflect direct visual contact with the art of the 16th-century Venetians and the Flemish Baroque painters. The St. Leandro and St. Isidoro (1655) are even further removed from the simple naturalism of his earlier Franciscan saints. These seated figures, more than life size,…

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