- I Love You, Mrs. Patterson (play by Bowen)
John Bowen: I Love You, Mrs. Patterson (1964) concerned the romantic entanglement of a student and his teacher’s wife, and After the Rain (1966), adapted from Bowen’s 1958 novel of that name, was about survivors of a worldwide flood. Little Boxes (1968) consisted of two one-acts, the…
- I Married a Communist (film by Stevenson )
Robert Stevenson: Early films: …the decade with the frenetic I Married a Communist (1949; also known as The Woman on Pier 13). Robert Ryan played a businessman being blackmailed by members of the Communist Party, who threaten to expose his earlier involvement with the group if he fails to help them; Laraine Day was…
- I Married an Angel (film by Van Dyke )
W.S. Van Dyke: Later films: I Married an Angel (1942) was the last of the Eddy-MacDonald musicals, a slight bit of whimsy about a playboy who dreams that he has fallen in love with an angel; even the Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart tunes could not rescue the film. MacDonald…
- I Met Him in Paris (film by Ruggles )
Wesley Ruggles: Later films: With I Met Him in Paris (1937), Ruggles returned to the sort of romantic froth with which he was more familiar; Colbert was cast as an American fashion designer visiting Europe who is courted by three men (Robert Young, Melvyn Douglas, and Lee Bowman). The screwball…
- I Need to Wake Up (song by Etheridge)
Melissa Etheridge: …the Academy Award-winning song “I Need to Wake Up” for the 2006 Oscar-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth.
- I Never Sang for My Father (film by Cates )
Gene Hackman: …a feat he repeated with I Never Sang for My Father (1970).
- I novel (Japanese literature)
I novel, form or genre of 20th-century Japanese literature that is characterized by self-revealing narration, with the author usually as the central character. The I novel grew out of the naturalist movement that dominated Japanese literature during the early decades of the 20th century. The term
- I Olympiad, Games of the
Athens 1896 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in Athens that took place April 6–15, 1896. The Athens Games were the first occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. The inaugural Games of the modern Olympics were attended by as many as 280 athletes, all male, from 12 countries. The athletes
- I Olympic Winter Games
Chamonix 1924 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Chamonix, France, that took place Jan. 25–Feb. 5, 1924. The Chamonix Games were the first occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The Chamonix Games were originally staged as International Winter Sports Week, a meet sponsored by the
- I Only Want to Be with You (song by Hawker and Raymonde)
Dusty Springfield: With the single “I Only Want to Be with You” (1963), Springfield went solo and made her way into the heart of “Swinging London.” Part cartoon, part unresolvable desire, part bruised despair, she peered through heavy mascara and a stack of peroxided hair while singing with breathy sensuality.…
- I proposition (logic)
history of logic: Categorical forms: ” Particular affirmative: “Some β is an α.” Particular negative: “Some β is not an α.” Indefinite affirmative: “β is an α.” Indefinite negative: “β is not an α.” Singular affirmative: “x is an α,” where “x” refers to only one individual (e.g., “Socrates is an…
- i region (electronics)
semiconductor device: The p-i-n diode: A p-i-n diode is a p-n junction with an impurity profile tailored so that an intrinsic layer, the “i region,” is sandwiched between a p layer and an n layer. The p-i-n diode has found wide application in microwave circuits. It can be…
- I Remember Mama (film by Stevens)
George Stevens: Postwar films: Sun, Shane, and Giant: …made his first postwar feature, I Remember Mama (1948), for RKO. It was based on the nostalgic stories of Kathryn Forbes about her Norwegian immigrant family’s struggle to adjust to life in turn-of-the-century San Francisco; it had been successfully dramatized on Broadway in 1943 by John Van Druten. The longish…
- I Remember Nothing (memoir by Ephron)
Nora Ephron: …and it was followed by I Remember Nothing (2010). In 2009 she reunited with Streep for the box-office hit Julie & Julia. Ephron adapted the screenplay and directed the film, a dual biography of renowned chef Julia Child and writer Julie Powell, who blogged about cooking every recipe in Julia…
- I Root My Name (poetry by Alexander)
Meena Alexander: …The Bird’s Bright Ring (1976), I Root My Name (1977), Without Place (1978), Stone Roots (1980), House of a Thousand Doors (1988), and The Storm: A Poem in Five Parts (1989). She also wrote a one-act play, In the Middle Earth (1977); a volume of criticism, Women in Romanticism (1989);…
- I Saw in My Dream (novel by Sargeson)
Frank Sargeson: …expanded form as the novel I Saw in My Dream (1949). The novella That Summer was initially printed in The Penguin New Writing (1943–44) and then as a stand-alone work and again as part of a story collection (1946). It delves into the dynamics of male friendship in the singular,…
- I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold (painting by Demuth)
Charles Demuth: …the poet William Carlos Williams: I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold (1928).
- I Saw What You Did (film by Castle )
William Castle: King of the Gimmick: Crawford was back in I Saw What You Did (1965), which featured John Ireland as a murderous psychopath on the hunt for two teenage girls.
- I Say a Little Prayer (song by Bacharach and David)
Burt Bacharach: …including “Walk On By,” “I Say a Little Prayer,” and “Do You Know the Way to San Jose?” He and David created the successful musical Promises, Promises (1968), and their score for the film Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) won an Academy Award, as did the movie’s…
- I See a Wondrous Land (novel by Kamban)
Gudmundur Kamban: …et stort sk?nt land (1936; I See a Wondrous Land), a historical novel set in the 11th century that recounts the Viking expeditions to Greenland and America. Kamban’s first plays—Hadda Padda (1914; Eng. trans. Hadda Padda; filmed 1924) and Kongeglimen (1915; “Wrestling Before the King”)—are about the problems of love.…
- I See All (encyclopaedia by Mee)
encyclopaedia: Children’s encyclopaedias: …produced a completely pictorial encyclopaedia, I See All (1928–30), that comprised thousands of small illustrations, each accompanied by only a few words of text. Librarians treasured it for its reference value. In 1917–18 a completely new children’s encyclopaedia was published, The World Book Encyclopedia, which the title page described as…
- I Shot Andy Warhol (film by Harron )
Andy Warhol: …depicted in the 1996 film I Shot Andy Warhol.) Warhol had by this time become a well-known fixture on the fashion and avant-garde art scene and was an influential celebrity in his own right. Throughout the 1970s and until his death he continued to produce prints depicting political and Hollywood…
- I Shot Jesse James (film by Fuller )
Samuel Fuller: Early life and work: …directorial debut with the western I Shot Jesse James.
- I Sing the Body Electric (poem by Whitman)
I Sing the Body Electric, poem by Walt Whitman, published without a title in Leaves of Grass (1855 edition), later appearing as “Poem of the Body,” and acquiring its present title in 1867. The poem is a paean to the human form in all its manifestations of soundness. The respective vigours of male
- I Smile Back (film by Salky )
Sarah Silverman: …substance-abusing adulterous suburban mother in I Smile Back (2015). Her later film credits included the thriller The Book of Henry (2017) and the biopic Battle of the Sexes (2017), which recounts the 1973 tennis match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs.
- I Spy (American television program)
Bill Cosby: TV success: Fat Albert and The Cosby Show: …assignment, in the espionage series I Spy (1965–68), made him the first black actor to perform in a starring dramatic role on network television. His portrayal of a black secret agent won him three Emmy Awards and helped to advance the status of African Americans on television. Cosby’s subsequent projects…
- I Take This Woman (film by Van Dyke )
W.S. Van Dyke: Later films: I Take This Woman (1940) featured mismatched Tracy and Hedy Lamarr in a cloying story of unappreciated sacrifice; directors Frank Borzage and Josef von Sternberg also had worked on the production but left the project and were not credited. Van Dyke reunited with MacDonald and…
- I Think I Love My Wife (film by Rock )
Louis C.K.: …Down to Earth (2001) and I Think I Love My Wife (2007).
- I Think We’re Alone Now (film by Morano )
Peter Dinklage: …befriends a young woman in I Think We’re Alone Now (2018). He then starred as French actor Hervé Villechaize, known for the TV series Fantasy Island (1977–84), in the biopic My Dinner with Hervé (2018), which aired on the cable network HBO. In 2019 Dinklage appeared as the title character…
- I think, therefore I am (philosophy)
Cogito, ergo sum, (Latin: “I think, therefore I am) dictum coined by the French philosopher René Descartes in his Discourse on Method (1637) as a first step in demonstrating the attainability of certain knowledge. It is the only statement to survive the test of his methodic doubt. The statement is
- I Walk Alone (film by Haskin )
Byron Haskin: Haskin’s first sound feature was I Walk Alone (1947), a noir thriller starring Burt Lancaster and Lizabeth Scott, with Kirk Douglas playing the villain. Too Late for Tears (1949) was another hard-boiled noir; in it a woman (Scott) who accidentally receives a bag of stolen loot will do anything to…
- I Walk the Line (film by Frankenheimer )
John Frankenheimer: The 1970s and ’80s: The moody drama I Walk the Line (1970) featured Gregory Peck as a Tennessee sheriff who falls in love with the daughter (Tuesday Weld) of a moonshiner (Ralph Meeker), causing a conflict of interest. Although notable for fine performances and a sound track featuring Johnny Cash songs, the…
- I Walked with a Zombie (film by Tourneur )
Jacques Tourneur: Films of the 1940s at RKO: Cat People, I Walked with a Zombie, and Out of the Past: …its lurid title, the macabre I Walked with a Zombie (1943) was an atmospheric and haunting drama that loosely updated Charlotte Bront?’s novel Jane Eyre to a modern-day Caribbean island. With his final film for Lewton, The Leopard Man (1943), a thriller about a small New Mexico town terrorized by…
- I Wanna Hold Your Hand (film by Zemeckis )
Robert Zemeckis: …and Gale’s first full-length film, I Wanna Hold Your Hand (1978). Zemeckis directed the comedy about three young girls who are obsessed with the Beatles. Zemeckis and Gale subsequently scripted the Spielberg-directed 1941 (1979), and Spielberg served as executive producer for several other films that Zemeckis directed, including his next…
- I Wanna Love My Life Away (song by Pitney)
Gene Pitney: …recording his compositions, with “I Wanna Love My Life Away” demonstrating a passionate vocal style. However, he sold more records with songs by other writers, such as “Town Without Pity” and Burt Bacharach and Hal David’s “The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance”; the latter rendition rose to number four…
- I Want to Be an Artist (work by Perry)
Grayson Perry: I Want to Be an Artist (1996), the first of his vases to be sold at auction, fetched ￡36,000, more than twice the presale estimate.
- I Want to Hold Your Hand (song by Lennon and McCartney)
Al Green: …version of the Beatles’ “I Want to Hold Your Hand” in 1969, which exhibited his awe-inspiring vocal agility, Green recorded a fine remake of the Temptations’ “I Can’t Get Next to You,” and it reached number one on the soul charts in 1971. But it was “Tired of Being…
- I Want to Live! (film by Wise )
Robert Wise: Films of the 1950s: … before attracting more attention with I Want to Live! (1958), in which Susan Hayward earned the only Academy Award of her career (for best actress) for her portrayal of a haughty hard-boiled prostitute who is seemingly railroaded into a death sentence. The academy also honoured Wise with his first nomination…
- I Wanted a Year Without Fall (novel by Busch)
Frederick Busch: Busch’s first novel, I Wanted a Year Without Fall, was published in 1971. It centres on two men who are running from their problems. In his second novel, Manual Labor (1974), a married couple grapples with a miscarriage. The same characters reappear in Rounds (1979), in which their…
- I Was a Communist for the FBI (film by Douglas )
Gordon Douglas: Warner Brothers: …Gig Young—and the red-baiting drama I Was a Communist for the FBI, with Frank Lovejoy as an undercover agent who infiltrates the Communist Party. Strangely, the latter film was nominated for an Academy Award for best documentary.
- I Was a Male War Bride (film by Hawks )
Howard Hawks: Films of the 1940s: …followed by the riotously funny I Was a Male War Bride (1949), set in the aftermath of World War II. It starred Grant as a French army officer who marries an American serving in the Women’s Army Corps (Ann Sheridan). The only that way he can accompany her to the…
- I Was a Teenage Werewolf (film by Fowler )
Michael Landon: …debut in the cult classic I Was a Teenage Werewolf.
- I Was an Adventuress (film by Ratoff )
Gregory Ratoff: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: …1940, helming only two films: I Was an Adventuress, a crime drama about three con artists (played by Vera Zorina, Erich von Stroheim, and Lorre), and Public Deb No. 1, about a debutante (Brenda Joyce) who finds herself in trouble for attending a communist rally. Departing Fox, Ratoff signed with…
- I Was Cicero (work by Bazna)
Cicero: Ich war Cicero (1962; I Was Cicero) was written by Bazna himself (under his real name) in collaboration with Hans Nogly.
- I Will Always Love You (song by Parton)
Boyz II Men: …at number one with “I Will Always Love You,” Boyz II Men came back to tie her with “I’ll Make Love to You.” The release of their follow-up single, “On Bended Knee,” put them with an elite group of artists (Presley and the Beatles) who succeeded themselves at the…
- I Will Marry When I Want (work by Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Ngugi wa Mirii)
Ngugi wa Thiong'o: …in Kikuyu, Ngaahika Ndeenda (1977; I Will Marry When I Want), the performance of which led to his detention for a year without trial by the Kenyan government. (His book Detained: A Writer’s Prison Diary, which was published in 1981, describes his ordeal.) The play attacks capitalism, religious hypocrisy, and…
- I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now (film by Bacon )
Lloyd Bacon: Later years: That was followed by I Wonder Who’s Kissing Her Now (1947), a biography of vaudeville star Joseph E. Howard, starring Mark Stevens and June Haver. You Were Meant for Me featured Dan Dailey and Jeanne Crain as a bandleader and his wife, respectively, struggling through the Depression, and Dailey…
- I Would Have Saved Them If I Could (short story by Michaels)
Leonard Michaels: …short fiction—Going Places (1969) and I Would Have Saved Them if I Could (1975)—contain bizarre stories of hostile urban life, replete with fantasy, sexual incident, and violence. The tales often centre on Phillip Liebowitz, a young picaresque Jewish American man who finds himself in a series of absurd situations.
- I’ll Be Seeing You (film by Dieterle )
William Dieterle: Middle years: Selznick, for whom he directed I’ll Be Seeing You (1944), starring Ginger Rogers as a woman convicted of manslaughter who, while on furlough during the holidays, falls in love with a shell-shocked soldier (Joseph Cotten). Love Letters (1945) was another glossy Selznick melodrama, with Jennifer Jones as an
- I’ll Be There for You (recording by the Rembrandts)
Friends: The Friends theme song, “I’ll Be There for You,” performed by the Rembrandts, was a minor pop hit in its own right.
- I’ll Be Your Girl (album by The Decemberists)
The Decemberists: As The Decemberists, they released I’ll Be Your Girl (2018), an eclectic collection ranging from the Russian folk tale “Rusalka, Rusalka/The Wild Rushes” to the arena rock stomp “We All Die Young.”
- I’ll Buy You (film by Kobayashi Masaki)
Kobayashi Masaki: …life, and Anata kaimasu (1956; I’ll Buy You), a film that exposed the commercialism of Japanese baseball.
- I’ll Cry Tomorrow (film by Mann )
Daniel Mann: Mann’s success continued with I’ll Cry Tomorrow (1955), an effective drama based on the autobiography of troubled singer Lillian Roth, whose career was nearly destroyed by alcoholism and a series of bad marriages. Susan Hayward received an Oscar nomination for her performance as Roth. The Teahouse of the August…
- I’ll Have Another (American racehorse)
I’ll Have Another, (foaled 2009), American racehorse that in 2012 won the Kentucky Derby and the Preakness Stakes but was scratched from the Belmont Stakes, ending his bid for the Triple Crown of American horse racing. The chestnut colt was foaled in Kentucky, though not by blue-blooded
- I’ll Never Fall in Love Again (song by Bacharach and David)
Dionne Warwick: …two years later for “I’ll Never Fall in Love Again.”
- I’ll Never Get out of This World Alive (album by Earle)
Steve Earle: Earle followed with I’ll Never Get out of This World Alive (2011), which took its title from the last single released by Hank Williams before he died. The album explores notions of mortality, and T Bone Burnett’s stripped-down production evoked the bygone era that Williams inhabited. Earle’s later…
- I’ll Never Get out of This World Alive (novel by Earle)
Steve Earle: Earle’s debut novel, I’ll Never Get out of This World Alive (2011), was published shortly after the release of the album of the same name.
- I’ll Stand by You (recording by Underwood)
Carrie Underwood: …cover of the Pretenders’ “I’ll Stand by You.” Made available as a single on Apple’s iTunes service, the song was downloaded more than 300,000 times and became the first digital-only release to crack the top 10 of the Billboard singles chart. At the 2007 Country Music Association (CMA) Awards,…
- I’ll Take My Stand (symposium)
Allen Tate: Tate contributed to the symposium I’ll Take My Stand (1930), a manifesto defending the traditional agrarian society of the South.
- I’m a Believer (song by Diamond)
Neil Diamond: …he wrote the song “I’m a Believer” (1966), recorded and made famous by the Monkees. In 1967 Diamond signed a new recording contract with Uni Records, with whom he recorded such hits as “Brother Love’s Traveling Salvation Show” (1969), “Sweet Caroline” (1969), “Cracklin’ Rosie” (1970), “I Am…I Said” (1971),…
- I’m a Celebrity, Get Me Out of Here (American television show)
Television in the United States: Reality TV: …Race (CBS, begun 2001), and I’m a Celebrity, Get Me Out of Here (ABC, 2003; NBC, 2009). Makeovers, once the subject of daytime talk-show segments, got the full prime-time treatment on series such as Extreme Makeover (ABC, 2003–07), The Swan (Fox, 2004), and Queer Eye for the Straight Guy (Bravo,…
- I’m Dancing as Fast as I Can (film by Hofsiss )
David Rabe: …contributed screenplays for the movies I’m Dancing As Fast As I Can (1982), starring Jill Clayburgh, whom he had married in 1979 (she died in 2010); Casualties of War (1989), a Vietnam War drama; and The Firm (1993), a legal thriller based on the John Grisham novel. His other works…
- I’m Dying Up Here (American television series)
Melissa Leo: …she starred in the series I’m Dying up Here (2017–18), about the 1970s stand-up comedy scene in Los Angeles. She later appeared in the miniseries I Know This Much Is True (2020), an adaptation of Wally Lamb’s 1998 novel.
- I’m Easy (song by Carradine)
- I’m Gonna Be Strong (song)
Gene Pitney: …in Love” (1964), and “I’m Gonna Be Strong” (1964). As his career waned in the United States, Pitney enjoyed continued popularity in Europe. An Italian-language country album sold well in 1966, and he appeared regularly on the British pop charts through 1970. In 1989 a rerecording of “Something’s Gotten…
- I’m Gonna Git You Sucka (film by Wayans )
Chris Rock: …and director Keenen Ivory Wayans’s I’m Gonna Git You Sucka (1988), Rock got his big break by earning a spot in 1990 as a cast member of Saturday Night Live. He left the show in 1993 to join the Fox network’s In Living Color, which was taken off the air…
- I’m Just Wild About Harry (song by Blake and Sissle)
Eubie Blake: …and Blake’s best-known song, “I’m Just Wild About Harry,” as well as the romantic ballad “Love Will Find a Way,” the performance of which was revolutionary in that it allowed African Americans to express feelings of love on the American stage in a context other than that of caricature.…
- I’m No Angel (film by Ruggles )
Wesley Ruggles: The sound era: George Burns, and Gracie Allen—and I’m No Angel. The latter was one of Mae West’s best films, and it helped make Cary Grant a star. West, who wrote the screenplay, portrayed a circus performer who falls in love with a wealthy man (Grant). Also popular was Bolero (1934), an effective…
- I’m Not Gonna Miss You (song by Campbell)
Glen Campbell: …last song he recorded, “I’m Not Gonna Miss You,” won the Grammy Award for best country song and was nominated for an Academy Award as the theme song to the aforementioned documentary.
- I’m Not Rappaport (play by Gardner)
Ossie Davis: …in 1986 to star in I’m Not Rappaport. He later played a coach in School Daze (1988), the first of several Spike Lee movies, including Do the Right Thing (1989); Jungle Fever (1991), in which Dee also appeared; and Malcolm X (1992), in which he reenacted the real-life eulogy
- I’m Not Stiller (novel by Frisch)
Max Frisch: Frisch’s early novels Stiller (1954; I’m Not Stiller), Homo Faber (1957), and Mein Name sei Gantenbein (1964; A Wilderness of Mirrors) portray aspects of modern intellectual life and examine the theme of identity. His autobiographical works included two noteworthy diaries, Tagebuch 1946–1949 (1950; Sketchbook 1946–1949) and Tagebuch 1966–1971 (1972; Sketchbook…
- I’m Not There (film by Haynes )
Christian Bale: … (2007), and Bob Dylan in I’m Not There (2007). In 2008 he reprised his role as Wayne and Batman in The Dark Knight. The film—which was released shortly after the accidental death of costar Heath Ledger, who played the Joker—set box-office records amid critical acclaim.
- I’m So Excited! (film by Almodóvar )
Pedro Almodóvar: …comedy Los amantes pasajeros (I’m So Excited!), set aboard an airplane preparing for an emergency landing, followed in 2013. Three years later he helmed and wrote Julieta, a drama about an estranged mother and daughter; it was based on several short stories by Alice Munro. Almodóvar then worked with…
- I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue (British radio program)
Humphrey Lyttelton: …Corporation) weekly radio comedy titled I’m Sorry I Haven’t a Clue. The program, which was a send-up of panel shows, was noted for its word play, ribaldry, and plain silliness.
- I’m the Expert, You’re the Novice (film by Malkan )
Akshay Kumar: …Main khiladi tu anari (1994; I’m the Expert, You’re the Novice), in which Kumar played a police inspector protecting a star witness. He again portrayed a conflicted policeman in Mohra (“Pawn”), one of the most popular Indian films of 1994. Despite his success in those high-intensity roles, Kumar’s good looks…
- I’m With You (album by Red Hot Chili Peppers)
Red Hot Chili Peppers: …to the studio and released I’m with You in 2011. The band exchanged longtime producer Rick Rubin for Danger Mouse (Brian Burton) for its 11th studio album, The Getaway (2016). In 2012 the Red Hot Chili Peppers were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
- I’m Your Man (album by Cohen)
Leonard Cohen: …favour, but his 1988 album, I’m Your Man, included the club hits “First We Take Manhattan” and “Everybody Knows” and introduced his songwriting to a new generation. In addition, Various Positions (1984) included what became Cohen’s best-known song, “Hallelujah.” Although it did not initially receive much attention, the single gained…
- I’ve Always Loved You (film by Borzage )
Frank Borzage: I’ve Always Loved You (1946) brought him to lowly Republic Studios, but, surprisingly, its love triangle between a young pianist (Catherine McLeod), her demanding teacher (Philip Dorn), and the farmer (Bill Carter) who has always loved her was an effective vehicle that highlighted Borzage’s technical…
- I’ve Been to the Mountaintop (speech by King)
assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Mountaintop Speech: On April 3 King was back in Memphis, where the city government had sought an injunction to prevent him from leading another march. The departure of his flight from Atlanta that morning had been delayed to allow a search of the luggage and…
- I’ve Got a Secret (American television show)
Garry Moore: …such quiz forums as "I’ve Got a Secret" (1952-64) and "To Tell the Truth" (1969-76). Moore, who was distinguished by a trademark bow tie and crew cut, quit high school to work in radio, where he met Durward Kirby, who became his sidekick and announcer on his variety show.…
- I’ve Got My Eyes on You (novel by Clark)
Mary Higgins Clark: …Gone a Hunting (2013), and I’ve Got My Eyes on You (2018). Several of Clark’s novels and stories were adapted into films.
- (I’ve Had) the Time of My Life (song by De Nicola, Markowitz, and Previte)
- I, Claudius (novel by Graves)
I, Claudius, historical novel by Robert Graves set in 1st-century-ce Rome, published in 1934. The book is written as an autobiographical memoir by the Roman emperor Claudius, who is a son of a Roman general, a nephew of the emperor Tiberius, and a great-nephew of the emperor Augustus. Physically
- I, Culture Orchestra (musical ensemble)
Neville Marriner: …appointed honorary conductor of the I, Culture Orchestra, an ensemble that brought together young musicians from across the eastern European region both to promote cross-cultural understanding and to celebrate the first time Poland would preside over the Council of the European Union.
- I, Daniel Blake (film by Loach )
Ken Loach: Loach’s film I, Daniel Blake (2016), about a man who survives a heart attack only to deal with government and medical bureaucracies, also won the Palme d’Or. In Sorry We Missed You (2019), a family’s attempt to use the gig economy to get ahead leaves them increasingly…
- I, Rigoberta Menchú (work by Menchú)
Rigoberta Menchú: …with her widely translated book I, Rigoberta Menchú, in which she tells the story of her impoverished youth and recounts in horrifying detail the torture-murders of her brother and mother. She received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1992 for her continuing efforts to achieve social justice and mutual reconciliation in…
- I, Robot (work by Asimov)
I, Robot, a collection of nine short stories by science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov that imagines the development of “positronic” (humanlike, with a form of artificial intelligence) robots and wrestles with the moral implications of the technology. The stories originally appeared in science-fiction
- I, Robot (film by Proyas )
Will Smith: …from the near future in I, Robot (2004); and a “date doctor” helping a romantically inept man find love in Hitch (2005). The next year he starred in The Pursuit of Happyness, and his performance as a single father who overcomes adversity earned him a second Oscar nomination for best…
- I, The Jury (novel by Spillane)
Mike Hammer: hard-boiled mystery books (beginning with I, the Jury, 1947) by Mickey Spillane and of subsequent films and television series.
- I, The Supreme (book by Roa Bastos)
Augusto Roa Bastos: …novel Yo, el supremo (1974; I, the Supreme, in bilingual edition), is based on the life of Francia and covers more than a hundred years of Paraguayan history.
- I, Tina (work by Turner and Loder)
Tina Turner: She wrote the autobiographies I, Tina (1986; written with Kurt Loder and adapted in 1993 as the film What’s Love Got to Do with It) and My Love Story (2018). Ike and Tina were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1991. In addition to receiving…
- I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem (novel by Condé)
Maryse Condé: …sorcière—: noire de Salem (1986; I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem) is based on the story of an American slave who was tried for witchcraft in Salem, Massachusetts. In 1986 Condé returned to live in Guadeloupe, where La Vie scélérate (1987; Tree of Life) is set.
- I-16 (Soviet aircraft)
military aircraft: Fighters: …operational service was the Soviet I-16, designed by Nikolay Polikarpov. The I-16 first flew in 1933 and enjoyed considerable success against German and Italian biplanes in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. It was powered by a radial engine derived from the Wright Cyclone and had manually retracted landing gear…
- I-201 (submarine class)
submarine: World War II: The Japanese I-201 class was a high-speed submarine, of 259 feet and 1,291 tons displacement, that had diesel propulsion for 15 knots on the surface; while underwater, large batteries and electric motors could drive the vessel at a speed of 19 knots for almost one hour. Each…
- I-ch’ang (China)
Yichang, city, western Hubei sheng (province), China. It extends along the left bank of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), at a point marking the division between the river’s middle and lower courses. A number of hills rise directly behind the city, and the small island of Xiba forms a harbour in the
- I-ch’un (China)
Yichun, city, north-central Heilongjiang sheng (province), far northeastern China. It is situated in the densely forested area of the Xiao Hinggan (Lesser Khingan) Range, at the confluence of the Yichun River (from which the city takes its name) and the Tangwang River, a tributary of the Sungari
- I-Ching (ancient Chinese text)
Yijing, (Chinese: “Classic of Changes” or “Book of Changes”) an ancient Chinese text, one of the Five Classics (Wujing) of Confucianism. The main body of the work, traditionally attributed to Wenwang (flourished 12th century bc), contains a discussion of the divinatory system used by the Zhou
- I-ching (Chinese pilgrim)
Indonesia: The Malay kingdom of Srivijaya-Palembang: …of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I-ching, who visited it in 671 after a voyage of less than 20 days from Canton. He was on the first stage of his journey to the great teaching centre of Nalanda in northeastern India. The ruler of Srivijaya assisted I-ching on his journey.
- i-go (game)
Go, board game for two players. Of East Asian origin, it is popular in China, Korea, and especially Japan, the country with which it is most closely identified. Go, probably the world’s oldest board game, is thought to have originated in China some 4,000 years ago. According to some sources, this
- I-ho ch’üan (Chinese secret society)
Boxer Rebellion: “Boxers” was a name that foreigners gave to a Chinese secret society known as the Yihequan (“Righteous and Harmonious Fists”). The group practiced certain boxing and calisthenic rituals in the belief that this made them invulnerable. It was thought to be an offshoot of the…