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  • impact crater (landform)

    Meteorite crater, depression that results from the impact of a natural object from interplanetary space with Earth or with other comparatively large solid bodies such as the Moon, other planets and their satellites, or larger asteroids and comets. For this discussion, the term meteorite crater is

  • impact forging (technology)

    forging: Impact forging is essentially hammer forging in which both dies are moved horizontally, converging on the workpiece. Counterblow forging is similar, except that the dies converge vertically. A principal advantage of these last two methods is that the two dies mutually absorb energy, eliminating the…

  • impact fuse (ignition device)

    bomb: Guidance and arming: Impact fuzes, historically the most common type, are set in the bomb’s nose and detonate upon impact, setting off the main charge. A time fuze, by contrast, acts after a controlled delay. Another type, the proximity fuze, senses when a target is close enough to…

  • impact fuze (ignition device)

    bomb: Guidance and arming: Impact fuzes, historically the most common type, are set in the bomb’s nose and detonate upon impact, setting off the main charge. A time fuze, by contrast, acts after a controlled delay. Another type, the proximity fuze, senses when a target is close enough to…

  • impact injury (trauma)

    Impact injury, the damage caused by the collision of a body with a moving or stationary object. Impact injuries can occur in any accident involving moving vehicles, such as automobiles, motorcycles, and trains, parachute landings, seat ejections, aircraft crashes, rocket accelerations and

  • impact ionization (physics)

    mass spectrometry: Electron bombardment: Electron impact has remained the most widely used method of ionization in mass spectrometry. It is subject to problems common to the arc: an almost total lack of selectivity as to the chemical element ionized and, to a lesser extent, the production of ions with degrees…

  • Impact of Electronic Cigarettes on Public Health, The

    The popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes)—battery-powered devices originally intended as alternatives to conventional tobacco Smoking—continued to grow in countries worldwide in 2014. In the United Kingdom, for example, some 2.1 million adults used e-cigarettes in 2014—three times the

  • impact period (psychology)

    collective behaviour: Impact and stocktaking period: In disasters such as floods and some hurricanes there is a distinctly long period of impact, which can be separated from a subsequent period of stocktaking or immobility. In earthquakes and explosions, on the other hand, the impact is so brief…

  • impact printer (computer hardware)

    information processing: Printers: …they produce images on paper: impact and nonimpact. In the first type, images are formed by the print mechanism making contact with the paper through an ink-coated ribbon. The mechanism consists either of print hammers shaped like characters or of a print head containing a row of pins that produce…

  • impact test

    Impact test, Test of the ability of a material to withstand impact, used by engineers to predict its behaviour under actual conditions. Many materials fail suddenly under impact, at flaws, cracks, or notches. The most common impact tests use a swinging pendulum to strike a notched bar; heights

  • impact winter (astronomy)

    Earth impact hazard: …depression of surface temperatures—a so-called impact winter—leading to loss of photosynthesizing plant life and worldwide starvation and disease.

  • impact wrench (tool)

    wrench: Power or impact wrenches are used for tightening or loosening nuts quickly. They are essentially small handheld electric or pneumatic motors that can rotate socket wrenches at high speed. They are equipped with a torque-limiting device that will stop the rotation of the socket wrench when a…

  • impacted fracture (pathology)

    fracture: An impacted fracture occurs when the broken ends of the bone are jammed together by the force of the injury. A comminuted fracture is one in which the broken ends of the bone are shattered into many pieces. Fractures can also be classified by their configuration…

  • impaired hearing

    Deafness, partial or total inability to hear. The two principal types of deafness are conduction deafness and nerve deafness. In conduction deafness, there is interruption of the sound vibrations in their passage from the outer world to the nerve cells in the inner ear. The obstacle may be earwax

  • impairment (physiology)

    fatigue: …be lumped under the term impairment, mentioned originally as one of the major forms of human inadequacy. While transient impairment and personalistic fatigue generally have not been distinguished from each other by many psychologists, in numerous studies impairment, rather than the feeling of fatigue, has been the point of interest.

  • impala (mammal)

    Impala, (Aepyceros melampus), swift-running antelope, the most abundant ruminant in the savannas of eastern and southern Africa. It is often seen in large breeding herds closely shepherded by a territorial male. The impala can be described as perfection in an antelope; it is both beautiful and

  • impala lily (plant)

    Apocynaceae: Major genera and species: The impala lily (Adenium multiflorum) is an ornamental shrub with star-shaped flowers and large underground tubers.

  • impalement (heraldry)

    heraldry: Other charges: Impalement means the division of the shield into two equal parts by a straight line from the top to bottom. That method is used to show either the arms of husband and wife, the arms of the husband being in the dexter half, or certain…

  • Impassioned Clay (book by Powys)

    Llewelyn Powys: …he suffered until his death); Impassioned Clay (1931), an exploration of spirituality; and Love and Death (1939), a partly fictionalized account of and reflection on a love affair.

  • impasto (art)

    Impasto, paint that is applied to a canvas or panel in quantities that make it stand out from the surface. Impasto was used frequently to mimic the broken-textured quality of highlights—i.e., the surfaces of objects that are struck by an intense light. Impasto came into its own in the 17th

  • Impatiens (plant genus)

    Impatiens, large genus of herbaceous plants belonging to the family Balsaminaceae. Impatiens are widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and North America, and several are popular garden plants. Impatiens bear simple leaves that are usually alternately arranged along the stem. The upper leaves are

  • Impatiens balsamina (plant)

    Impatiens: The garden balsam (Impatiens balsamina) is native to the tropics of Asia but has long been cultivated in temperate regions of the world. The plant is an annual that grows about 75 cm (30 inches) in height and has many horticultural forms with flowers of almost…

  • Impatiens capensis (plant)

    Impatiens: Spotted jewelweed (I. capensis) and pale touch-me-not (or pale snapweed, I. pallida) are common weeds native to extensive regions of eastern North America. Spotted jewelweed grows up to 150 cm (59 inches) tall and bears orange flowers spotted with red or brown, while pale touch-me-not…

  • Impatiens noli-tangere (plant)

    Impatiens: The western touch-me-not (I. noli-tangere) is native to western North America, Europe, and Asia.

  • Impatiens pallida (plant)

    Impatiens: capensis) and pale touch-me-not (or pale snapweed, I. pallida) are common weeds native to extensive regions of eastern North America. Spotted jewelweed grows up to 150 cm (59 inches) tall and bears orange flowers spotted with red or brown, while pale touch-me-not has larger, yellower flowers. The…

  • Impatients, Les (work by Djebar)

    Assia Djebar: It was followed by Les Impatients (1958; “The Impatient Ones”), which similarly dealt with young women within the colonial Algerian bourgeois milieu.

  • impeachment (law)

    Impeachment, in common law, a proceeding instituted by a legislative body to address serious misconduct by a public official. In Great Britain the House of Commons serves as prosecutor and the House of Lords as judge in an impeachment proceeding. In the federal government of the United States, the

  • impedance audiometry (audiology)

    human ear: Audiometry: …and brainstem is supplied by impedance audiometry. Two small tubes are sealed into the external canal. Through one tube sound from a small loudspeaker is injected into the canal. The portion that is reflected from the tympanic membrane is picked up by the other tube and led to a microphone,…

  • impedance mismatch (physics)

    sound: Impedance mismatch: Mediums in which the speed of sound is different generally have differing acoustic impedances, so that, when a sound wave strikes an interface between the two, it encounters an impedance mismatch. As a result, some of the wave reflects while some is transmitted…

  • impedance-matching transformer (electronics)

    transformer: Impedance-matching transformers are used to match the impedance of a source and that of its load, for most efficient transfer of energy. Isolation transformers are usually employed for reasons of safety to isolate a piece of equipment from the source of power.

  • Impediments to Theological Study (work by Spener)

    Protestantism: Pietism in the 17th century: While in Dresden he wrote Impediments to Theological Study (1690), which was hardly calculated to win friends at the famous University of Leipzig, and made the acquaintance of a young instructor, August Hermann Francke (1663–1727), who became his successor and the second great leader of Pietism.

  • impeller (engineering)

    centrifugal pump: …of the device are the impeller (a wheel with vanes) and the circular pump casing around it. In the most common type, called the volute centrifugal pump, fluid enters the pump at high speed near the centre of the rotating impeller and is thrown against the casing by the vanes.…

  • Impending Crisis of the South, The: How to Meet It (work by Helper)

    Hinton Rowan Helper: …1857 with the publication of The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It, in which he attacked slavery not because it exploited the black bondsman but because it victimized nonslaveholding whites and inhibited Southern economic progress. As almost the only Southern protest against slavery since early in the…

  • Impending Disruption of the Union, The (speech by Buchanan)
  • Imperata cylindrica (plant)

    Cogon grass, (Imperata cylindrica), species of perennial grass in the family Poaceae, native to temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. Cogon grass is a serious weed in cultivated areas of South Africa and Australia and is considered an invasive species in many areas outside its native

  • imperative ending (linguistics)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: Verbs with imperative endings belonged to the imperative mood (used for commands)—e.g., *H1s-dhí ‘be (singular),’ *H1és-tu ‘let him be.’ Verbs with primary endings were marked as non-past (present or future) in tense and indicative in mood—e.g., *H1és-ti ‘he is.’ (Indicative mood signifies objective statements and questions.) Verbs…

  • imperative language (computing)

    computer science: Programming languages: …for example) are known as imperative languages, since they specify as a sequence of explicit commands how the machine is to go about solving the problem at hand. These languages were also known as procedural languages, since they allowed programmers to develop and reuse procedures, subroutines, and functions to avoid…

  • imperative mood (grammar)

    mood: …three moods: the indicative, the imperative, and the subjunctive. The indicative is generally used for factual or neutral situations, as in English “John did his work” and Spanish “Juan hizo su trabajo.” The imperative conveys commands or requests—for example, “Do your work.” It is distinguished by the absence of an…

  • imperator (title)

    Emperor, title designating the sovereign of an empire, conferred originally on rulers of the ancient Roman Empire and on various later European rulers, though the term is also applied descriptively to some non-European monarchs. In republican Rome (c. 509–27 bce), imperator denoted a victorious

  • Imperceptible Mutabilities in the Third Kingdom (play by Parks)

    Suzan-Lori Parks: …Awards for her third play, Imperceptible Mutabilities in the Third Kingdom (produced 1989), and for her eighth, Venus (produced 1996), about a South African Khoisan woman taken to England as a sideshow attraction. With Topdog/Underdog (produced 2001), Parks evoked the complexities of the African American experience through the fraught relationship…

  • imperfect community problem (philosophy)

    universal: Problems for resemblance nominalism: …“companionship problem” and the “imperfect community” problem. If two distinct properties always happen to be companions—e.g., if all and only red things happen to be round—the method of constructing natural classes would incorrectly determine only one class for what intuitively seems to be two properties, or two respects in…

  • imperfect competition (economics)

    market: Modifications of the theory: A theory of imperfect competition was invented to reconcile the traditional theory with under-capacity working but was attacked as unrealistic. The upshot was a general recognition that strict profit maximizing is impossible in conditions of uncertainty; that prices of manufactures are generally formed by adding a margin to…

  • imperfect flower (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: General features: …carpels, and a unisexual (or “imperfect”) flower either lacks stamens (and is called carpellate) or lacks carpels (and is called staminate). Species with both staminate flowers and carpellate flowers on the same plant (e.g., corn) are monoecious, from the Greek for “one house.” Species in which the staminate flowers are…

  • imperfect information (mathematics)

    game theory: Games of imperfect information: A “saddlepoint” in a two-person constant-sum game is the outcome that rational players would choose. (Its name derives from its being the minimum of a row that is also the maximum of a column in a payoff matrix—to be illustrated shortly—which corresponds to…

  • Imperfect Lady, The (film by Allen [1947])

    Lewis Allen: In 1947 Allen directed The Imperfect Lady, a period drama about a politician (Ray Milland) who falls for a music-hall dancer (Teresa Wright) in 1890s London, and the crime yarn Desert Fury, in which a police officer (Burt Lancaster) wrests his former girlfriend (Lizabeth Scott) away from a compulsive…

  • Imperfect Lens, An (novel by Roiphe)

    Anne Roiphe: Other notable fictional works include An Imperfect Lens (2006), which follows three scientists who travel to Alexandria, Egypt, during a cholera epidemic in 1883, and Ballad of the Black and Blue Mind (2015), about a psychoanalyst and her patients.

  • imperfective aspect (linguistics)

    Indo-European languages: Verbal inflection: The imperfective aspect, traditionally called “present,” was used for repeated actions and for ongoing processes or states—e.g., *stí-stH2-(e)- ‘stand up more than once, be in the process of standing up,’ *mn?-yé- ‘ponder, think,’ *H1es- ‘be.’ The perfective aspect, traditionally called “aorist,” expressed a single, completed occurrence…

  • Imperia (Italy)

    Imperia, town, Liguria regione, northwestern Italy. It lies on that part of the Riviera di Ponente known as the Riviera dei Fiori, northeast of San Remo. Formed in 1923 by the union of Porto Maurizio, Oneglia, and several villages, the town took its name from the Torrente Impero (“Impero Stream”)

  • Imperial (river, Chile)

    Araucanía: Two partially navigable rivers, the Imperial and the Toltén, traverse the southern Araucanía region from east to west. The cordilleran ridges and volcanoes at Tolguaca, Lonquimay, and Llaima and the forests, lakes, and hot springs at Tolguaca, Río Blanco, and Manzanares are prime scenic attractions. Tourism, however, ranks below farming…

  • Imperial Academy of Fine Arts (academy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Brazil: Visual arts: …of Emperor Pedro II, the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro drove the development of Brazilian painting, which was largely influenced by Neoclassical and Romantic styles. The academy organized art collections, held exhibitions and competitions, and trained a number of Brazilian artists who specialized in the painting…

  • Imperial Airways Ltd. (British airline)

    British Airways PLC: ) merged to form Imperial Airways Ltd., one of the pioneers of intercontinental air routes. Inheriting 1,760 miles (2,830 km) of British and cross-Channel routes, Imperial Airways spanned Europe and Asia as far as India, Malaya, Hong Kong, and Australia and linked imperial territories in Africa as far as…

  • Imperial Ancestors, Temple of the (building, Beijing, China)

    Beijing: Public and commercial buildings: …People’s Cultural Park is the Working People’s Cultural Palace (formerly the Temple of the Imperial Ancestors), where the tablets of the emperors were displayed. The temple, like the Imperial Palaces in style, was built in three stonework tiers, each with double eaves. On either side are two rows of verandas…

  • Imperial and Court Officials, Laws for the (Japanese history)

    Japan: The establishment of the system: …Imperial and Court Officials (Kinchū Narabi ni Kuge Shohatto) were promulgated as the legal basis for bakufu control of the daimyo and the imperial court. In 1616 Ieyasu died, the succession already having been established.

  • Imperial Ballet School (Russian ballet school)

    George Balanchine: The European years: …War I years at the Imperial School of Ballet at the Mariinsky Theatre. The theatre closed for some months in 1917, and, until the Imperial School reopened in 1918 as the Soviet State School of Ballet, he had to support himself with unskilled jobs or by playing piano in a…

  • Imperial Bank of India

    State Bank of India (SBI), state-owned commercial bank and financial services company, nationalized by the Indian government in 1955. SBI maintains thousands of branches throughout India and offices in dozens of countries throughout the world. The bank’s headquarters are in Mumbai. The oldest

  • Imperial Birthday Music, The (work by Wu Hou)

    Chinese music: Courtly music: …said to have written “The Imperial Birthday Music,” in which the dancers moved into a formation representing the characters meaning “Long Live the Emperor” in the best modern marching-band tradition. Music inside the palace includes a concert version of “The Battle Line Smashing Song” with only four dancers, “A…

  • Imperial Brands PLC (British corporation)

    Imperial Brands PLC, one of the world’s largest international tobacco companies and the leading British manufacturer of tobacco products, including Player, Kool, and Embassy cigarettes; snuff; several brands of cigars; rolling papers; and tubes. Imperial has also produced and distributed a number

  • Imperial British East Africa Company (British colonial organization)

    Frederick Lugard: …next enterprise was under the imperial British East Africa Company, one of the chartered companies that preceded imperial annexation in Africa. Leaving Mombasa in August 1890, he led a caravan for five months along an almost untrodden route of 800 miles (1,300 km) to the advanced kingdom of Buganda. Here…

  • Imperial Chemical Industries PLC (British corporation)

    Imperial Chemical Industries PLC (ICI), major British corporation that was founded in 1926 as Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. to amalgamate four major British chemical companies: Brunner, Mond & Co. Ltd., Nobel Industries Ltd., United Alkali Company Ltd., and British Dyestuffs Corporation Ltd.

  • imperial city (Holy Roman Empire)

    Imperial city, any of the cities and towns of the Holy Roman Empire that were subject only to the authority of the emperor, or German king, on whose demesne (personal estate) the earliest of them originated. The term freie Reichsstadt, or Free Imperial City, was sometimes used interchangeably with

  • Imperial City (Beijing, China)

    Beijing: City layout: …the inner city was the Imperial City, also in the form of a square, which had red plastered walls 6.5 miles (10.5 km) in length. The only remaining portions of that wall are on either side of the Tiananmen (Tian’anmen; “Gate of Heavenly Peace”), the southern, and main, entrance to…

  • Imperial College London (college, London, United Kingdom)

    Imperial College London, institution of higher learning in London. It is one of the leading research colleges or universities in England. Its main campus is located in South Kensington (in Westminster), and its medical school is linked with several London teaching hospitals. Its three- to five-year

  • Imperial Company (British corporation)

    Imperial Brands PLC, one of the world’s largest international tobacco companies and the leading British manufacturer of tobacco products, including Player, Kool, and Embassy cigarettes; snuff; several brands of cigars; rolling papers; and tubes. Imperial has also produced and distributed a number

  • Imperial Conference (1941, Japan)

    World War II: Japanese policy, 1939–41: On July 2, 1941, the Imperial Conference decided to press the Japanese advance southward even at the risk of war with Great Britain and the United States; and this policy was pursued even when Matsuoka was relieved of office a fortnight later. On July 26, in pursuance of a new…

  • Imperial Conferences (British Empire and Commonwealth)

    Imperial Conferences, Periodic meetings held between 1907 and 1937 by the dominions within the British Empire and later the Commonwealth. Convened to discuss mutual defense and economic issues, they passed nonbinding resolutions. However, the Statute of Westminster implemented decisions made at the

  • Imperial Court of San Francisco (American organization)

    José Sarria: …of San Francisco (now the International Court System), an association of charitable organizations that raises money primarily for gay causes. With nearly 70 chapters in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, it is one of the largest LGBTQ organizations in the world.

  • Imperial Cricket Conference (sports organization)

    Lord's Cricket Ground: …also the headquarters of the International Cricket Council (the world governing body) and of the Cricket Council and the Test and County Cricket Board, which control English cricket. Around the world, Lord’s is known as the “home” of cricket and of cricketers.

  • Imperial Crown (crown of Holy Roman emperor)

    Imperial Crown, crown created in the 10th century for coronations of the Holy Roman emperors. Although made for Otto the Great (912–973), it was named for Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman emperor. The crown is made of eight round-topped plaques of gold hinged together and kept rigid by an i

  • Imperial Defence College (military college, London, United Kingdom)

    military, naval, and air academies: …strategy and policy at the Imperial Defence College.

  • Imperial Diet (Japanese government)

    Diet, the national legislature of Japan. Under the Meiji Constitution of 1889, the Imperial Diet was established on the basis of two houses with coequal powers. The upper house, the House of Peers (Kizokuin), was almost wholly appointive. Initially, its membership was slightly less than 300, but it

  • Imperial Economic Conference (Canada [1932])

    imperial preference: …producers last”—was negotiated at the Imperial Economic Conference in Ottawa in 1932 and took the form of a series of bilateral agreements intended to extend for five years (lacking a formal renewal, they expired after 1937).

  • Imperial Edict (Ottoman Empire [1856])

    Abdülmecid I: …and the Hatt-? Hümayun (Imperial Edict) in 1856, heralding the new era of Tanzimat (“Reorganization”).

  • Imperial Flanders (historical region, Europe)

    Baldwin IV: … (Kroon-Vlaanderen), the German fiefs as Imperial Flanders (Rijks-Vlaanderen). Baldwin’s son—afterward Baldwin V—rebelled in 1028 against his father at the instigation of his wife, Adela, daughter of Robert II of France; two years later peace was sworn at Oudenaarde, and the old count continued to reign until his death.

  • Imperial Force (Japanese military group)

    Yamagata Aritomo: Early career: …power, he proposed forming an Imperial Force (Goshimpei). In early 1871, when a force of about 10,000 men drawn from the feudal armies was organized, Yamagata was promoted to vice minister of military affairs. This Imperial Force was later renamed the Imperial Guard (Konoe), and Yamagata became its commander.

  • Imperial Garden (garden, Beijing, China)

    Forbidden City: 2-hectare) Imperial Garden, the organic design of which seems to depart from the rigid symmetry of the rest of the compound. The garden was designed as a place of relaxation for the emperor, with a fanciful arrangement of trees, fish ponds, flower beds, and sculpture. In…

  • Imperial General Headquarters (World War II)

    Pacific War: Japan’s strategy in the Pacific and Southeast Asia: Even when Imperial General Headquarters was established under the nominal command of Emperor Hirohito (the constitutional supreme commander), the separate command system was rigidly followed.

  • Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Later works and career: In Imperial Germany and the Industrial Revolution (1915), he suggested that Germany had an advantage over democratic states such as the United Kingdom and France because its autocracy was better able to channel the gains of modern technology toward the service of the state. He conceded…

  • Imperial Group (British corporation)

    Imperial Brands PLC, one of the world’s largest international tobacco companies and the leading British manufacturer of tobacco products, including Player, Kool, and Embassy cigarettes; snuff; several brands of cigars; rolling papers; and tubes. Imperial has also produced and distributed a number

  • Imperial Guard (Japanese military group)

    Yamagata Aritomo: Early career: …Force was later renamed the Imperial Guard (Konoe), and Yamagata became its commander.

  • Imperial Highway (ancient road system, China)

    roads and highways: China’s Imperial Highway: China had a road system that paralleled the Persian Royal Road and the Roman road network in time and purpose. Its major development began under Emperor Shihuangdi about 220 bc. Many of the roads were wide, surfaced with stone, and lined with trees;…

  • Imperial Hotel (hotel, Tokyo, Japan)

    Frank Lloyd Wright: Europe and Japan: The Imperial Hotel (1915–22, dismantled 1967) in Tokyo was one of Wright’s most significant works in its lavish comfort, splendid spaces, and unprecedented construction. Because of its revolutionary, floating cantilever construction, it was one of the only large buildings that safely withstood the devastating earthquake that…

  • Imperial Household (Japanese sacred kingship)

    Shintō: Early clan religion and ceremonies: …an ancestor of the present Imperial Household as its head had probably been established. The constituent unit of society at that time was the uji (clan or family), and the head of each uji was in charge of worshiping the clan’s ujigami—its particular tutelary or guardian deity. The prayer for…

  • Imperial Household Department (Chinese history)

    China: Political institutions: They created an Imperial Household Department to forestall eunuchs from usurping power—a situation that had plagued the Ming ruling house—and they staffed this agency with bond servants. The Imperial Household Department became a power outside the control of the regular bureaucracy. It managed the large estates that had…

  • Imperial Household Law (Japan [1947])

    Akihito: …Japanese lawmakers to alter the Imperial Household Law of 1947, which specifies the line of imperial succession. The law did not include a process for abdication or outline who would succeed Akihito as emperor in the event of his retirement.

  • imperial jade (mineral)

    Jadeite, gem-quality silicate mineral in the pyroxene family that is one of the two forms of jade (q.v.). The more prized of the two types of jade, jadeite (imperial jade) is usually found as transparent-to-opaque, compact, cryptocrystalline lenses, veins, or nodules. It may be distinguished from

  • Imperial Japanese Navy (Japanese history [1868-1945])

    Battle of Wake Island: …defenders fought elements of the Imperial Japanese Navy, which ultimately seized the island but at great cost.

  • Imperial Land Survey (Japanese survey)

    map: The rise of national surveys: Japan established an Imperial Land Survey in 1888, and by 1925 topographic coverage of the home islands, at a scale of 1:50,000, was complete.

  • Imperial Library (library, Kolkata, India)

    library: Other national collections: The National Library of India (formerly the Imperial Library) in Calcutta was founded in 1903. It is the largest library in India and holds a fine collection of rare books and manuscripts. In some countries, such as Iceland and Israel, the national library is combined with…

  • imperial mammoth (extinct mammal)

    mammoth: The North American imperial mammoth (M. imperator) attained a shoulder height of 4 metres (14 feet). At the other extreme were certain dwarfed forms whose ancestors became isolated on various islands. Many mammoths had a woolly, yellowish brown undercoat about 2.5 cm (1 inch) thick beneath a coarser…

  • imperial millennialism (religion)

    millennialism: The nature of millennialism: …those based on a hierarchical imperial vision of a coming kingdom that will be overseen by a just, if authoritarian, ruler who will conquer the forces of chaos and (2) those linked by a popular vision of holy anarchy, in which man’s domination of his fellow man will cease. Many…

  • Imperial Mosque (mosque, Lahore, Pakistan)

    Lahore: Other historic landmarks include the Bādshāhī (Imperial) Mosque, built by Aurangzeb and still one of the largest mosques in the world; the 14-foot- (4.3-metre-) long Zamzama, or Zam-Zammah, a cannon that is immortalized (along with other details of the city) in Rudyard Kipling’s novel Kim (1901); Ranjit Singh’s buildings and…

  • imperial moth (insect)

    regal moth: The imperial moth (Eacles imperialis) has yellow wings and body with purple to brown markings. The green body of the larva has a sparse covering of long white hairs, yellow horns, and a brown head. Striped Anisota larvae (e.g., the green-striped mapleworm, A. rubicunda; the pink-striped…

  • Imperial Oath of Five Articles (Japanese history)

    Charter Oath, in Japanese history, statement of principle promulgated on April 6, 1868, by the emperor Meiji after the overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and the restoration of direct participation in government by the imperial family. The Charter Oath opened the way for the modernization of the

  • Imperial Palace (palace, Tokyo, Japan)

    Tokyo: …moats and broad gardens, the Imperial Palace, the home of the emperor of Japan, lies at the heart of the city. East of and adjacent to the Imperial Palace is the colourful Marunouchi district, the financial hub and a major centre of Japanese business activity. South of the palace is…

  • Imperial Palace Museum (museum, Beijing, China)

    Palace Museum, in Beijing, museum housed in the main buildings of the former Imperial Palaces (see also Forbidden City). It exhibits valuable objects from Chinese history. The palace consists of many separate halls and courtyards. The outer buildings of the palace became a museum in 1914, although

  • Imperial Peking (bird)

    Peking duck: …specific breed of duck, the Imperial Peking, that is force-fed and housed in a small cage so that inactivity will ensure tender meat. The neck and head are left intact as the bird is killed (at about six weeks old) and dressed, and, after the entrails are removed, the lower…

  • imperial pheasant (bird)

    Jean Theodore Delacour: …from northern Vietnam, named them imperial pheasants, and later succeeded in breeding them in captivity. Many other new species and subspecies of birds and mammals were discovered and named by him.

  • imperial preference (economics)

    Imperial preference, historically, a commercial arrangement in which preferential rates (i.e., rates below the general level of an established tariff) were granted to one another by constituent units of an empire. Imperial preference could also include other sorts of preference, such as favourable

  • Imperial Prince Higashikuni Naruhiko (prime minister of Japan)

    Higashikuni Naruhiko, Japanese imperial prince and army commander who was Japan’s first prime minister after the country’s surrender in World War II (August 17–October 6, 1945). He was the only member of the imperial family ever to head a cabinet. The son of an imperial prince, Higashikuni married

  • Imperial Rescript on Education (1890, Japan)

    education: Establishment of nationalistic education systems: Together with these reforms, the Imperial Rescript on Education (Kyōiku Chokugo) of 1890 played a major role in providing a structure for national morality. By reemphasizing the traditional Confucian and Shintō values and redefining the courses in shūshin, it was to place morality and education on a foundation of imperial…

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