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  • Impressment Bill (England [1642])

    United Kingdom: The Long Parliament: …from the Lords and the Impressment Bill (1642), which allowed Parliament to raise the army for Ireland. In June a series of proposals for a treaty, the Nineteen Propositions (1642), was presented to the king. The proposals called for parliamentary control over the militia, the choice of royal counselors, and…

  • Impresso complex (Neolithic culture, Europe)

    Impresso complex, early Neolithic culture that flourished along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. The culture, which had an agricultural economy, is characterized by grit-tempered wares, impressed with shells or with stabbing tools, and represents part of a widely dispersed Mediterranean

  • imprimatur (Roman Catholicism)

    Imprimatur, (Latin: “let it be printed”), in the Roman Catholic church, a permission, required by contemporary canon law and granted by a bishop, for the publication of any work on Scripture or, in general, any writing containing something of peculiar significance to religion, theology, or

  • Imprimerie Royale (French printing establishment)

    typography: The middle years: …Cardinal de Richelieu, established the Imprimerie Royale at the Louvre. In 1692 Louis XIV ordered the creation of a commission charged with developing the design of a new type to be composed of letters arrived at on “scientific” principles. The commission, whose deliberations were fully recorded, worked mathematically, drawing and…

  • Imprint, The (periodical)

    typography: Mechanical composition: …of Caslon was produced for The Imprint, a short-lived periodical for the printing trade published by Gerard Meynell of the Westminster Press in London. Its contributors included Edward Johnston, who not only wrote for the magazine but designed its calligraphic masthead; and Stanley Morison, who began his career as printing…

  • imprinted gene (genetics)

    Genomic imprinting, process wherein a gene is differentially expressed depending on whether it has been inherited from the mother or from the father. Such “parent-of-origin” effects are known to occur only in sexually reproducing placental mammals. Imprinting is one of a number of patterns of

  • imprinting (technology)

    Imprinting, process of transferring writing from a master copy to another form. There are three basic methods of imprinting: (1) spirit hectograph master cards, (2) stencil cards, and (3) metal or plastic plates. Hectograph master cards are made with the aid of hectograph carbon, with the imprint

  • imprinting (learning behaviour)

    Imprinting, in psychobiology, a form of learning in which a very young animal fixes its attention on the first object with which it has visual, auditory, or tactile experience and thereafter follows that object. In nature the object is almost invariably a parent; in experiments, other animals and

  • imprinting defect (pathology)

    congenital disorder: Other congenital disorders: …class of genetic disorders called imprinting defects is due to abnormal parental expression of usually normal genes. Imprinting defects result in improper embryonic and fetal growth and metabolism and placental function. Less commonly, these genes are deleted or mutated.

  • imprisonment (law)

    crime: China: Punishments for serious offenses include imprisonment and the death penalty. About 70 different offenses are punishable by death, though the vast majority of death sentences are imposed for common crimes such as murder, rape, robbery, assault (see assault and battery), and theft. Since the 1990s there have been an increasing…

  • impromptu (music)

    Impromptu, a 19th-century piano composition intended to produce the illusion of spontaneous improvisation. In keeping with this fundamental premise, there is no particular form associated with the impromptu, although ternary and rondo schemes are common. The style of the music is similar to that

  • Impromptu de Versailles, L’ (play by Molière)

    Molière: Scandals and successes: …femmes in June 1663 and L’Impromptu de Versailles in October were both single-act discussion plays. In La Critique Molière allowed himself to express some principles of his new style of comedy, and in the other play he made theatre history by reproducing with astonishing realism the actual greenroom, or actors’…

  • improper fraction (mathematics)

    fraction: …greater, it is called an improper fraction and can also be written as a mixed number—a whole-number quotient with a proper-fraction remainder. Any fraction can be written in decimal form by carrying out the division of the numerator by the denominator. The result may end at some point, or one…

  • improper rotation (crystallography)

    symmetry: So-called improper rotations are rotations followed by reflections (known as rotoreflections) or rotations followed by inversions (called rotoinversions).

  • improved mobile telephone service (telecommunications)

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: In 1964 AT&T introduced the improved mobile telephone service (IMTS). This provided full duplex operation, automatic dialing, and automatic channel searching. Initially 11 channels were provided, but in 1969 an additional 12 channels were made available. Since only 11 (or 12) channels were available for all users of the system…

  • Improvement of Towns and Cities, The (work by Robinson)

    City Beautiful movement: …major book on the subject, The Improvement of Towns and Cities, in 1901. It subsequently became the bible of the movement.

  • Improving America’s Schools Act (United States [1994])

    land-grant universities: …American tribal colleges under the Improving America’s Schools Act of 1994.

  • improvisation (theatre)

    Improvisation, in theatre, the playing of dramatic scenes without written dialogue and with minimal or no predetermined dramatic activity. The method has been used for different purposes in theatrical history. The theatrical form known as the commedia dell’arte was highly improvisational, although

  • improvisation (music)

    Improvisation, in music, the extemporaneous composition or free performance of a musical passage, usually in a manner conforming to certain stylistic norms but unfettered by the prescriptive features of a specific musical text. Music originated as improvisation and is still extensively improvised i

  • Improvisations (painting series by Kandinsky)

    Wassily Kandinsky: Munich period: By 1910 Improvisation XIV is already, as its somewhat musical title suggests, practically abstract; with the 1911 Encircled, there has definitely developed a kind of painting that, though not just decoration, has no discernible point of departure in the depiction of recognizable objects. After that come such…

  • improvised explosive device (weapon)

    Improvised explosive device (IED), a homemade bomb, constructed from military or nonmilitary components, that is frequently employed by guerrillas, insurgents, and other nonstate actors as a crude but effective weapon against a conventional military force. When used as roadside bombs, IEDs can

  • impulse (psychology)

    criminology: Psychological theories: Research also isolated impulsivity—the tendency to engage in high levels of activity, to be easily distracted, to act without thinking, and to seek immediate gratification—as a personality characteristic associated with criminality.

  • impulse (physics)

    mechanics: Collisions: …integral is known as the impulse imparted to the particle. In order to perform the integral, it is necessary to know r at all times so that F may be known at all times. More realistically, Δp is the sum of a series of small steps, such that

  • Impulse (comic-book character)

    the Flash: …Bart debuted as the speedster Impulse in The Flash, vol. 2, no. 92 (July 1994). Bart was a hyperactive preteen from the 30th century who was sent back in time to counteract the accelerated aging effects that were a byproduct of his speed powers. Impulse struck a chord with fans…

  • impulse accelerator (device)

    particle accelerator: Impulse accelerators: Primarily for use in research on thermonuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes, several high-intensity electron accelerators have been constructed. One type resembles a string of beads in which each bead is a torus of laminated iron and the string is the vacuum tube. The…

  • impulse blading (technology)

    turbine: Blading design: …a high degree of perfection: impulse blading and reaction blading. The principle of impulse blading is illustrated in the schematic diagram of Figure 1 for a first stage. A series of stationary nozzles allows the steam to expand to a lower pressure while its velocity and kinetic energy increase. The…

  • impulse staging (engineering)

    turbine: Turbine staging: …in combination: (1) pressure (or impulse) staging, (2) reaction staging, and (3) velocity-compound staging.

  • impulse turbine (technology)

    turbine: Impulse turbines: In an impulse turbine the potential energy, or the head of water, is first converted into kinetic energy by discharging water through a carefully shaped nozzle. The jet, discharged into air, is directed onto curved buckets fixed on the periphery of the runner…

  • impulse-control disorder (psychology)

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Causes: …resisting focus on the extraneous impulses; people with ADHD may have reduced ability to resist focus on these extraneous stimuli. The cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit, a chain of neurons in the brain that connects the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, and the thalamus in one continuous loop, is thought to be one…

  • impulse-response analysis (economics)

    Christopher A. Sims: …interpreted using a technique called impulse-response analysis to identify their effects over time on various macroeconomic indicators. Part of the significance of Sims’s approach was that it provided a means of identifying rationally expected and rationally unexpected changes in economic policy. The two kinds of changes had previously been difficult…

  • impulsivity (psychology)

    criminology: Psychological theories: Research also isolated impulsivity—the tendency to engage in high levels of activity, to be easily distracted, to act without thinking, and to seek immediate gratification—as a personality characteristic associated with criminality.

  • impurities, critical concentration of (physics)

    crystal: Conducting properties of semiconductors: There is a critical concentration of impurities Nc, which depends on the type of impurity. For impurity concentrations less than the critical amount Nc, the conduction electrons become bound in traps at extremely low temperatures, and the semiconductor becomes an insulator. For a concentration of impurities higher than…

  • impurity defect (crystallography)

    crystal defect: Impurity defects are foreign atoms that replace some of the atoms making up the solid or that squeeze into the interstices; they are important in the electrical behaviour of semiconductors, which are materials used in computer chips and other electronic devices.

  • Impuzamugambi (Rwandan militia group)

    Rwanda genocide of 1994: Genocide: … (“Those Who Attack Together”) and Impuzamugambi (“Those Who Have the Same Goal”) played a central role. Radio broadcasts further fueled the genocide by encouraging Hutu civilians to kill their Tutsi neighbours, who were referred to as “cockroaches” who needed to be exterminated. It is estimated that some 200,000 Hutu participated…

  • Imrahor, Mosque of (church, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Western architecture: The early Byzantine period (330–726): …church in Constantinople, that of St. John of Studium (Mosque of ?mrahor), shows that this process had already gone quite far by the year it was built, 463. It is a basilica in that it has an eastern apse and three aisles, but in plan it approaches a centralized building,…

  • imram (Irish literary genre)

    Imram, (Old Irish: “rowing about” or “voyaging”, ) in early Irish literature, a story about an adventurous voyage. This type of story includes tales of Irish saints traveling to Iceland or Greenland, as well as fabulous tales of pagan heroes journeying to the otherworld (echtrae). An outstanding

  • Imram Brain (work by Meyer and Nutt)

    imram: …imram is Imram Brain, or The Voyage of Bran, which describes a trip to the enchanted Land of Women. After what seems to be a year, Bran and his colleagues return home to discover that their voyage had lasted longer than any memories and was recorded only in ancient sources.

  • imramha (Irish literary genre)

    Imram, (Old Irish: “rowing about” or “voyaging”, ) in early Irish literature, a story about an adventurous voyage. This type of story includes tales of Irish saints traveling to Iceland or Greenland, as well as fabulous tales of pagan heroes journeying to the otherworld (echtrae). An outstanding

  • Imre (king of Hungary)

    árpád dynasty: Emeric (Imre; reigned 1196–1204) and his brother Andrew II (Endre; reigned 1205–35), by making lavish land grants to their supporters, reduced the source of the monarchy’s wealth and power. Andrew further weakened the monarchy by guaranteeing the liberties of the nobles (see Golden Bull of…

  • Imrédy, Béla (premier of Hungary)

    Béla Imrédy, right-wing politician and premier of Hungary (1938–39), whose close collaboration with the Nazis during World War II led to his execution as a war criminal. After being trained in law, Imrédy began working for the Ministry of Finances. In 1928 he became director of the National Bank of

  • IMRO (Balkan revolutionary organization)

    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), secret revolutionary society that was active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its many incarnations struggled with two contradictory goals: establishing Macedonia as an autonomous state on the one hand and promoting Bulgarian

  • Imron, Ali (militant)

    2002 Bali Bombings: …two of his brothers (Ali Imron and Amrozi bin Nurhasyim) to help assemble and transport the bombs used in the attacks. Both he and bin Nurhasyim were sentenced to death; Imron expressed remorse and was sentenced to life in prison. Two other men, Azahari Husin and Dulmatin, were suspected…

  • imroz Adasi (island, Turkey)

    G?k?eada, island in the Aegean Sea, northwestern Turkey. Commanding the entrance to the Dardanelles, the island is strategically situated 10 miles (16 km) off the southern end of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Herodotus and Homer mentioned Imbros as an abode of the Pelasgians in antiquity. It fell to the

  • Imru? al-Qays (Arab poet)

    Imru? al-Qays, Arab poet, acknowledged as the most distinguished poet of pre-Islamic times by the Prophet Muhammad, by ?Alī, the fourth caliph, and by Arab critics of the ancient Basra school. He is the author of one of the seven odes in the famed collection of pre-Islamic poetry Al-Mu?allaqāt.

  • Imru? al-Qays (Lakhmid king)

    history of Arabia: Al-?īrah: …dynasty was ?Amr, whose son Imru? al-Qays ibn ?Amr died in 328 ce and was entombed at Al-Nimārah in the Syrian desert. His funerary inscription is written in an extremely difficult type of script. Recently there has been a revival of interest in the inscription, and a lively controversy has…

  • Imru? al-Qays ibn ?ujr (Arab poet)

    Imru? al-Qays, Arab poet, acknowledged as the most distinguished poet of pre-Islamic times by the Prophet Muhammad, by ?Alī, the fourth caliph, and by Arab critics of the ancient Basra school. He is the author of one of the seven odes in the famed collection of pre-Islamic poetry Al-Mu?allaqāt.

  • Imru? al-Qays ibn ?Amr (Lakhmid king)

    history of Arabia: Al-?īrah: …dynasty was ?Amr, whose son Imru? al-Qays ibn ?Amr died in 328 ce and was entombed at Al-Nimārah in the Syrian desert. His funerary inscription is written in an extremely difficult type of script. Recently there has been a revival of interest in the inscription, and a lively controversy has…

  • IMT-Advanced

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …led to the development of 4G technology. In 2008 the ITU set forward a list of requirements for what it called IMT-Advanced, or 4G; these requirements included data rates of 1 gigabit per second for a stationary user and 100 megabits per second for a moving user. The ITU in…

  • IMT2000 (telecommunications)

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: …for a set of “third-generation” (3G) cellular standards, known collectively as IMT-2000. The 3G standards are based loosely on several attributes: the use of CDMA technology; the ability eventually to support three classes of users (vehicle-based, pedestrian, and fixed); and the ability to support voice, data, and multimedia services.…

  • IMTFE (United States-Japanese history)

    war crime: The Nürnberg and Tokyo trials: …crimes were tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, which was established by a charter issued by U.S. Army General Douglas MacArthur. The so-called Tokyo Charter closely followed the Nürnberg Charter. The trials were conducted in English and Japanese and lasted nearly two years. Of the 25…

  • IMTS (telecommunications)

    mobile telephone: Development of cellular systems: In 1964 AT&T introduced the improved mobile telephone service (IMTS). This provided full duplex operation, automatic dialing, and automatic channel searching. Initially 11 channels were provided, but in 1969 an additional 12 channels were made available. Since only 11 (or 12) channels were available for all users of the system…

  • IMU (technology)

    lidar: …Positioning System (GPS) equipment and inertial measurement units (IMUs) in the late 1980s that accurate lidar data were possible.

  • imu (cooking method)

    Hawaiian: …holes in the ground, called imus, by means of hot stones; but many foods, including fish, were often eaten raw. Many of the best foods were taboo to women. Men usually wore only a malo, or girdle, and women a skirt of tapa, or paper cloth, or leaves or fibre,…

  • Imus in the Morning (American radio program)

    Don Imus: …launched his popular talk show, Imus in the Morning, which galvanized his career and national reputation. Over the next six years, he released three successful record albums based on his show. As his popularity grew, however, so did his dependence on alcohol and drugs, which ultimately led to his termination…

  • Imus, Don (American radio talk-show host)

    Don Imus, American radio talk-show host best known for his long-running nationally syndicated show Imus in the Morning. It debuted in 1971 and continued, with a few breaks, until 2018. Imus was often referred to as a “shock jock” for his outspoken, inflammatory style and coarse, controversial

  • Imus, John Donald (American radio talk-show host)

    Don Imus, American radio talk-show host best known for his long-running nationally syndicated show Imus in the Morning. It debuted in 1971 and continued, with a few breaks, until 2018. Imus was often referred to as a “shock jock” for his outspoken, inflammatory style and coarse, controversial

  • IMW

    map: International Map of the World (IMW): The International Geographical Congress in 1891 proposed that the participating countries collaborate in the production of a 1:1,000,000-scale map of the world. Specifications and format were soon established, but production was slow in the earlier years since it was…

  • imzhad (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: Lutes: …only one string (the Tuareg imzhad) or nearly 40 (the sarangi); on the latter, most of the strings are not directly touched or sounded by the player but vibrate sympathetically when other strings are set into motion, thus giving a fuller resonance. Examples, in addition to the sarangi, include the…

  • In (chemical element)

    Indium (In), chemical element, rare metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table. Indium has a brilliant silvery-white lustre. It was discovered (1863) by German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter while they were examining zinc ore samples. The presence

  • in (unit of measurement)

    Inch, unit of British Imperial and United States Customary measure equal to 136 of a yard. The unit derives from the Old English ince, or ynce, which in turn came from the Latin unit uncia, which was “one-twelfth” of a Roman foot, or pes. (The Latin word uncia was the source of the name of another

  • in (Japanese musical scale)

    Japanese music: Tunings and notation: …two scales called yo and in. The hira-joshi tuning appears in such famous early works as Rokudan (Six Dans) ascribed to Yatsuhashi Kengyō, the “founder” of the modern koto styles. In all, there are some 13 standard tunings for the koto and many variants. Like all the other popular Japanese…

  • In a Better World (film by Bier [2010])
  • In a Country of Mothers (novel by Homes)

    A.M. Homes: The novel In a Country of Mothers (1993) documents the professional transgressions of a therapist who becomes increasingly convinced that one of her patients is the daughter whom she had given up for adoption. She investigated the machinations of the pedophiliac mind in The End of Alice…

  • In a Different Voice (work by Gilligan)

    ethics: Feminist ethics: …impetus from the publication of In a Different Voice (1982), by the American psychologist Carol Gilligan. Gilligan’s work was written in response to research by Lawrence Kohlberg, who claimed to have discovered a universal set of stages of moral development through which normal human beings pass as they mature into…

  • In a Free State (novel by Naipaul)

    V.S. Naipaul: The three stories in In a Free State (1971), which won Britain’s Booker Prize, are set in various countries; Guerrillas (1975) is a despairing look at an abortive uprising on a Caribbean island; and A Bend in the River (1979) pessimistically examines the uncertain future of a newly independent…

  • In a Green Eye (poem by Feinstein)

    Elaine Feinstein: …was a collection of poetry, In a Green Eye (1966). After translating some of the poetry of Marina Tsvetayeva, she began to find her own distinct voice. Her second volume of verse, The Magic Apple Tree (1971), was preceded by a novel, The Circle (1970).

  • In a Green Night: Poems 1948–1960 (work by Walcott)

    Derek Walcott: …for his poetry, beginning with In a Green Night: Poems 1948–1960 (1962). This book is typical of his early poetry in its celebration of the Caribbean landscape’s natural beauty. The verse in Selected Poems (1964), The Castaway (1965), and The Gulf (1969) is similarly lush in style and incantatory in…

  • In a House of Lies (novel by Rankin)

    Ian Rankin: …in the Wild (2016), and In a House of Lies (2018); the latter was the 22nd installment in the series. The Rebus books gave Rankin an opportunity to depict Scotland, in particular Edinburgh, in high, often bloody colour. Through the authority-flouting inspector’s investigations, which played out in classic police-procedure style,…

  • In a Lonely Place (film by Ray [1950])

    Nicholas Ray: Films of the early 1950s: …film of the next decade, In a Lonely Place (1950), would prove to be one of his most highly regarded. A penetrating study of a screenwriter’s compulsively self-destructive behaviour that turns on one of Bogart’s finest performances, it also featured Grahame, whose marriage to Ray was falling apart. The undercurrent…

  • In a Metal Mood: No More Mr. Nice Guy (album by Boone [1997])

    Pat Boone: …an uncharacteristic heavy metal album, In a Metal Mood: No More Mr. Nice Guy, released in 1997 and promoted with an appearance on the American Music Awards in which he appeared dressed in a leather vest with no shirt and fake tattoos, alongside rocker Alice Cooper.

  • In a Mist (work by Beiderbecke)

    Bix Beiderbecke: …short piano pieces, most notably “In a Mist,” written in an advanced, chromatic harmonic language that showed the influence of such French Impressionist composers as Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy.

  • In a Silent Way (album by Davis)

    Miles Davis: Free jazz and fusion: …guitarist John McLaughlin, Davis cut In a Silent Way (1969), regarded as the seminal album of the jazz fusion movement. It was considered by purists to be Davis’s last true jazz album.

  • In Abraham’s Bosom (play by Green)

    Paul Green: His best known play, In Abraham’s Bosom, concerned a man’s attempt to establish a school for his fellow blacks; it was produced at the Provincetown Playhouse, New York City, and was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1927. During the Great Depression Green’s work took on a stronger note of…

  • In Africa Even the Flies Are Happy (work by Breytenbach)

    South Africa: Literature: Daughter (1979), and Breyten Breytenbach’s In Africa Even the Flies Are Happy (1977). Also during this time, the government enacted the Publications Act of 1974, which expanded and strengthened existing censorship policies. Many authors went into exile; some did not return until the 1990s, while others remained abroad even after…

  • In altre parole (work by Lahiri)

    Jhumpa Lahiri: …Italian, In altre parole (In Other Words), a meditation on her immersion in another culture and language. Lahiri continued writing in Italian, and in 2018 she released the novel Dove mi trovo (“Where I Find Myself”).

  • In an Antique Land (book by Ghosh)

    Amitav Ghosh: Ghosh also wrote In an Antique Land (1992), a book that straddles several genres—travel writing, autobiography, memoir—and blurs fiction and nonfiction. In it Ghosh described his experiences in a rural Egyptian village in the early 1980s, when he went there as an academic researcher, and in the late…

  • In Another Country (film by Hong Sang-soo [2012])

    Isabelle Huppert: Versatility in the 1990s and 2000s: In Tar?n naraes? (2012; In Another Country), a series of related vignettes set in South Korea, Huppert starred as three different women dealing with romantic entanglements, and in Haneke’s Amour (2012) she had a supporting role as the daughter of an elderly couple facing mortality.

  • In Any Case (novel by Stern)

    Richard G. Stern: …American men in postwar Germany; In Any Case (1963), a combination mystery and novel of ideas, in which a father attempts to clear his dead son of charges of treason; Stitch (1965), about an expatriate American sculptor, modeled after poet Ezra Pound; Other Men’s Daughters (1973), an autobiographical account of…

  • In Apocalypsin (work by Tyconius)

    Tyconius: …handbook for interpreting Scripture, and In Apocalypsin (c. 385?) is a commentary on Revelation that applies the rules set out in the earlier handbook.

  • In artem analyticam isagoge (work by Viète)

    mathematics: Analytic geometry: In his In artem analyticem isagoge (1591; “Introduction to the Analytic Arts”), Viète, as part of his program of rediscovering the method of analysis used by the ancient Greek mathematicians, proposed new algebraic methods that employed variables, constants, and equations, but he saw this as an advancement…

  • In artem analyticem isagoge (work by Viète)

    mathematics: Analytic geometry: In his In artem analyticem isagoge (1591; “Introduction to the Analytic Arts”), Viète, as part of his program of rediscovering the method of analysis used by the ancient Greek mathematicians, proposed new algebraic methods that employed variables, constants, and equations, but he saw this as an advancement…

  • In Between the Sheets (short stories by McEwan)

    Ian McEwan: …for writers under age 35—and In Between the Sheets (1978), both of which feature a bizarre cast of grotesques in disturbing tales of sexual aberrance, black comedy, and macabre obsession. His first novel, The Cement Garden (1978; film 1993), traces the incestuous decline of a family of orphaned children. The…

  • in bonis (Roman law)

    Roman law: The law of property and possession: …said to own the thing in bonis. This was a remarkable triumph for informality in the granting of title. From the phrase in bonis, later writers coined the expression “bonitary ownership.” Justinian abolished the theoretical distinction between civil and bonitary ownership.

  • In calumniatorem Platonis (work by Bessarion)

    Bessarion: …work is considered to be In calumniatorem Platonis, a treatise defending Plato against the fervid Aristotelianism of George of Trebizond. His attempts to reconcile the two philosophies influenced Italian philosophy, which assimilated the Byzantine philosophical tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.

  • In Camera (play by Sartre)

    No Exit, one-act philosophical drama by Jean-Paul Sartre, performed in 1944 and published in 1945. Its original, French title, Huis clos, is sometimes also translated as In Camera or Dead End. The play proposes that “hell is other people” rather than a state created by God. The play begins with a

  • In Celebration (play by Storey)

    David Storey: In Celebration (performed 1969; filmed 1974), directed by Anderson, returned to a recurring Storey theme: the impossibility of making a clean break with one’s lower-class roots and background. Later plays include The Contractor (performed 1969); Home (1970), set in an insane asylum; The Changing Room…

  • In Celebration of The Tale of Genji, the World’s First Novel

    One thousand years ago in Heian Japan, a woman of whom little is known was widowed. But for her personal loss, that woman, known as Murasaki Shikibu, might never have written Genji monogatari (c. 1010; The Tale of Genji), which is considered the greatest work of Japanese literature and the world’s

  • In cerca del mistero (work by Bertolucci)

    Bernardo Bertolucci: His first book, In cerca del mistero (1962; “In Search of Mystery”), won the Premio Viareggio, one of Italy’s top literary awards. A short time later he embarked on his film career as assistant director to Pier Paolo Pasolini. After his work on Pasolini’s Accattone (1961), Bertolucci left…

  • In Chancery (novel by Galsworthy)

    The Forsyte Saga: …a Forsyte” (1918), the novel In Chancery (1920), the interlude “Awakening” (1920), and the novel To Let (1921).

  • In Cold Blood (film by Brooks [1967])

    In Cold Blood, American dramatic film, released in 1967, that recounts the 1959 real-life murder of an entire family at the hands of two petty criminals. The film was based on the best seller of the same name by Truman Capote. Perry Edward Smith (played by Robert Blake) and Dick Hickock (Scott

  • In Cold Blood (novel by Capote)

    In Cold Blood, nonfiction novel by American writer Truman Capote, published originally as a four-part series in The New Yorker magazine in 1965 and in book form in 1966. Capote used the techniques of fiction to tell the true story of the 1959 murders of the Clutter family in Kansas by a pair of

  • In Country (novel by Mason)

    Bobbie Ann Mason: In Country (1985; film 1989), her first novel, is also steeped in mass culture, which led one critic to speak of Mason’s “Shopping Mall Realism.” Many critics praised her realistic regional dialogue, although some compared the novel unfavourably with her shorter works. In 1988 Mason…

  • In Dahomey (musical play)

    Bert Williams: The all-black show In Dahomey was a Broadway success and in London the following year played a command performance at Buckingham Palace. Other successes followed, notably Abyssinia (1906), Bandanna Land (1908), and Mr. Lode of Koal (1909). After Walker’s death in 1909, Williams became a regular comic in…

  • In Darkest Africa (work by Stanley)

    Henry Morton Stanley: Relief of Emin Pa?a: In Darkest Africa (1890) is Stanley’s own account of his last adventure on the African continent. He received a Special Gold Medal from the RGS.

  • In Darkest England, and the Way Out (work by Booth)

    William Booth: In 1890 General Booth published In Darkest England, and the Way Out, in which he had the assistance of William Thomas Stead. He proposed to remedy pauperism and vice by means of: homes for the homeless; training centres to prepare emigrants for oversea colonies; rescue homes for fallen women; homes…

  • In der Sache J. Robert Oppenheimer (work by Kipphardt)

    Theatre of Fact: Robert Oppenheimer (1964; In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer) re-created the American inquiry into Oppenheimer’s loyalty because of his opposition to the development of the hydrogen bomb.

  • In der Strafkolonie (novella by Kafka)

    In the Penal Colony, novella by Franz Kafka, written in 1914 and published in German as In der Strafkolonie in 1919. An allegorical fantasy about law and punishment, it was also viewed as an existential comment on human torment and on strict devotion to an ambiguous task. The tale is

  • In Dreams Begin Responsibilities (work by Schwartz)

    Delmore Schwartz: His first book, In Dreams Begin Responsibilities (1939), which brought him immediate fame, included the short story of the title and a group of poems remarkable for their lyric beauty and imaginative power. His subsequent publications included Shenandoah (1941), a verse play; Genesis, Book I (1943), a long…

  • In Dubious Battle (novel by Steinbeck)

    American literature: Hemingway, Faulkner, and Steinbeck: …written but ambiguous strike novel In Dubious Battle (1936) and his flawed masterpiece, The Grapes of Wrath (1939). The latter, a protest novel punctuated by prose-poem interludes, tells the story of the migration of the Joads, an Oklahoma Dust Bowl family, to California. During their almost biblical journey, they learn…

  • In Dubious Battle (film by Franco [2016])

    James Franco: Other work: …2016 he directed the drama In Dubious Battle, which was based on a John Steinbeck novel (1936) about striking farmworkers. The following year he directed and starred in The Disaster Artist, which recounted the filming of The Room (2003), a notoriously bad movie that became a cult favourite. For his…

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