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  • In the Lonely Hour (album by Smith)

    Sam Smith: The breakout single from In the Lonely Hour, “Stay with Me,” a keening falsetto ballad that wistfully implores a one-night stand for affection, became a radio staple following its release in 2014. Smith cited the influences of singers such as Houston and Aretha Franklin, who both propelled their powerful,…

  • In the Loop (film by Iannucci [2009])

    James Gandolfini: …train hijacking; the political satire In the Loop (2009); and Where the Wild Things Are (2009), an adaptation of Maurice Sendak’s children’s book.

  • In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer (work by Kipphardt)

    Theatre of Fact: Robert Oppenheimer (1964; In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer) re-created the American inquiry into Oppenheimer’s loyalty because of his opposition to the development of the hydrogen bomb.

  • In the Mecca (work by Brooks)

    Gwendolyn Brooks: …was followed in 1968 by In the Mecca, half of which is a long narrative poem about people in the Mecca, a vast, fortresslike apartment building erected on the South Side of Chicago in 1891, which had long since deteriorated into a slum. The second half of the book contains…

  • In the Memorial Room (roman à clef by Frame)

    Janet Frame: In the Memorial Room (2013)—written in 1974 and also, because of its autobiographical elements, purposely withheld from publication until after Frame’s death—was a roman à clef about her time in France.

  • In the Middle Earth (play by Alexander)

    Meena Alexander: …also wrote a one-act play, In the Middle Earth (1977); a volume of criticism, Women in Romanticism (1989); a semiautobiographical novel set in Hyderabad, India, Nampally Road (1991); and a memoir, Fault Lines (1993).

  • In the Midnight Hour (song by Pickett)

    Wilson Pickett: …was a smash single, “In the Midnight Hour” (1965). From that moment on, Pickett was a star. With his dazzling good looks and confident demeanour, he stood as a leading exponent of the Southern-fried school of soul singing. His unadorned straight-from-the-gut approach was accepted, even revered, by a civil-rights-minded…

  • In the Midst of Life (work by Bierce)

    Ambrose Bierce: His principal books are In the Midst of Life (1892), which includes some of his finest stories, such as An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge, A Horseman in the Sky, The Eyes of the Panther, and The Boarded Window; and Can Such Things Be? (1893), which includes The Damned…

  • In the Midst of Winter (novel by Allende)

    Isabel Allende: …Más allá del invierno (2017; In the Midst of Winter), about the friendships that form after a car accident in Brooklyn, New York, during a blizzard. In A Long Petal of the Sea, a man and a woman become exiles following the Spanish Civil War and flee to Chile aboard…

  • In the Mood for Love (film by Wong Kar-Wai [2000])

    Wong Kar-Wai: …Kong for Fayeung ninwa (2000; In the Mood for Love), which concerns the growing attachment between Chow Mo-Wan (Leung) and Su Lizhen (Maggie Cheung), a man and a woman whose spouses are having an affair. The film’s lush score and detailed recreations of 1960s fashions and interiors, as well as…

  • In the Name of the Father (film by Sheridan)

    Daniel Day-Lewis: …adaptation of Edith Wharton’s novel; In the Name of the Father (1993), which earned him an Academy Award nomination; and The Crucible (1996), based on Arthur Miller’s play. After appearing in The Boxer (1997), Day-Lewis took a break from acting and worked for a time as a cobbler’s apprentice in…

  • In the Navy (film by Lubin [1941])

    the Andrews Sisters: and Costello in Buck Privates, In the Navy, and Hold That Ghost (all 1941), and appearing in their own series of musical comedies, which included Private Buckaroo (1942), What’s Cookin’? (1942), and Swingtime Johnny (1943). The trio’s many hits from these years included “Hold Tight,” “Don’t Sit Under the Apple…

  • In the Net of the Stars (work by Flint)

    F.S. Flint: Flint’s first volume of poetry, In the Net of the Stars (1909), was a collection of love lyrics, clearly showing the influence of Keats and his contemporary Percy Bysshe Shelley. The same year, he and a group of young poets, all dissatisfied with the state of English poetry, began working…

  • In the Palace of the Movie King (novel by Calisher)

    Hortense Calisher: The novel In the Palace of the Movie King (1993) follows a dissident Russian movie director who finds himself in New York City, while In the Slammer with Carol Smith (1997) describes a world of mental illness and homelessness in Spanish Harlem. Sunday Jews (2003) explores issues…

  • In the Penal Colony (novella by Kafka)

    In the Penal Colony, novella by Franz Kafka, written in 1914 and published in German as In der Strafkolonie in 1919. An allegorical fantasy about law and punishment, it was also viewed as an existential comment on human torment and on strict devotion to an ambiguous task. The tale is

  • In the Penal Settlement (novella by Kafka)

    In the Penal Colony, novella by Franz Kafka, written in 1914 and published in German as In der Strafkolonie in 1919. An allegorical fantasy about law and punishment, it was also viewed as an existential comment on human torment and on strict devotion to an ambiguous task. The tale is

  • In the Realms of the Unreal (work by Darger)

    outsider art: Definition of terms: …Chicago whose more-than-15,000-page illustrated novel In the Realms of the Unreal came to public notice only after his death. Outsider art further benefited from the addition at the end of the 20th century of figures such as the impressive fibre artist Judith Scott, who had Down syndrome and was deaf;…

  • In the Rukh (story by Kipling)

    Mowgli: …appeared in Kipling’s story “In the Rukh” (1892; collected in Many Inventions, 1893). In this story he is an adult who, from time to time, refers to his unusual childhood.

  • In the Shadow of No Towers (work by Spiegelman)

    Art Spiegelman: …is my muse,” Spiegelman published In the Shadow of No Towers (2004), a collection of broadsheet-sized meditations on mortality and the far-reaching consequences of that day. In 2008 he released Breakdowns: Portrait of the Artist as a Young %@&*!, which repackaged his long out-of-print Breakdowns collection as part of a…

  • In the Shadow of the Wind (novel by Hébert)

    Anne Hébert: …Les Fous de Bassan (1982; In the Shadow of the Wind; filmed 1987), which won France’s Prix Fémina, one of the narrators is a murdered teenage girl. The novel L’Enfant chargé de songes (1992; Burden of Dreams) won her a third Governor General’s Award. Also in 1992, Hébert saw the…

  • In the Skin of a Lion (novel by Ondaatje)

    Canadian literature: Fiction: Ranging from 1920s Toronto (In the Skin of a Lion, 1987) to Italy during World War II (The English Patient, 1992; Booker Prize) and Sri Lanka wracked by civil war (Anil’s Ghost, 2000), Ondaatje’s lyrical, elliptical narratives spotlight a small coterie of people drawn together by a mystery that…

  • In the Slammer with Carol Smith (novel by Calisher)

    Hortense Calisher: …in New York City, while In the Slammer with Carol Smith (1997) describes a world of mental illness and homelessness in Spanish Harlem. Sunday Jews (2003) explores issues of identity in an eclectic family, which includes an art expert, an atheistic rabbi, an anthropologist, and an agnostic Irish Catholic. In…

  • In the South Seas (work by Stevenson)

    Robert Louis Stevenson: Life in the South Seas: …on the South Seas (In the South Seas, 1896; A Footnote to History, 1892) are admirably pungent and perceptive. He was writing first-rate journalism, deepened by the awareness of landscape and atmosphere, such as that so notably rendered in his description of the first landfall at Nuku Hiva in…

  • In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (work by Matthiessen)

    Peter Matthiessen: His book In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (1983), about the conflict between federal agents and the American Indian Movement at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, in 1973, was the subject of a prolonged libel suit that blocked all but an initial printing and was not settled until…

  • In the Studio (work by Chase)

    William Merritt Chase: …then at his own school in New York City. He is best known for his portraits and figure studies, his still lifes of dead fish, and his studio interiors—e.g., “In the Studio” (1880–83). His mature style is notable for its bold and spontaneous brushwork and other marks of virtuoso execution.

  • In the Valley of Elah (film by Haggis [2007])

    Tommy Lee Jones: …an Iraq War veteran, in In the Valley of Elah (2007).

  • In the Wee Small Hours (album by Sinatra)

    Frank Sinatra: The Capitol years: …team made for Capitol—such as In the Wee Small Hours (1955), Songs for Swingin’ Lovers! (1956), and Only the Lonely (1958)—are masterpieces.

  • In the World (work by Gorky)

    Maxim Gorky: Last period: …My Childhood), V lyudyakh (1915–16; In the World), and Moi universitety (1923; My Universities). The title of the last volume is sardonic because Gorky’s only university had been that of life, and his wish to study at Kazan University had been frustrated. This trilogy is one of the finest autobiographies…

  • In the Zone (album by Spears)

    Britney Spears: Its follow-up, In the Zone (2003), sold nearly three million, partly on the strength of the hit single “Toxic.”

  • In This Our Life (work by Glasgow)

    Ellen Glasgow: Her last novel, In This Our Life (1941), had a similar theme and, although not her best work, was awarded a Pulitzer Prize. She had been awarded (1940) the Howells Medal of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. In 1943 Glasgow published a collection of critical essays…

  • In Treatment (American television series)

    Dianne Wiest: …as a retired psychotherapist in In Treatment (2008–10). In addition, she was a cast member of the series Life in Pieces (2015–19).

  • In Utero (album by Nirvana)

    Kurt Cobain: …released its final studio album, In Utero, in which Cobain railed against his fame. Cobain had long suffered from depression and chronic stomach pain. He treated his issues with drugs: Cobain was a frequent user of heroin in the years after Nirvana’s breakthrough, and he took a variety of painkillers…

  • in vitro fertilization (medical technology)

    In vitro fertilization (IVF), medical procedure in which mature egg cells are removed from a woman, fertilized with male sperm outside the body, and inserted into the uterus of the same or another woman for normal gestation. Although IVF with reimplantation of fertilized eggs (ova) has long been

  • in vitro mutagenesis (biology)

    recombinant DNA: In vitro mutagenesis: Another use of cloned DNA is in vitro mutagenesis in which a mutation is produced in a segment of cloned DNA. The DNA is then inserted into a cell or organism, and the effects of the mutation are studied. Mutations are useful…

  • In Watermelon Sugar (novel by Brautigan)

    Richard Brautigan: In Watermelon Sugar (1968) is about life in iDEATH, a self-sufficient, complacent commune that is surrounded by “the Forgotten Works,” the obsolete remnants of a destroyed civilization. So the Wind Won’t Blow It All Away (1982), the final novel published during Brautigan’s life, is the…

  • In Which We Serve (film by Coward and Lean [1942])

    In Which We Serve, British war film, released in 1942, that marked the directorial debuts of No?l Coward and David Lean; Coward also produced, wrote, scored, and starred in the film. “This is a story of ship” begins the narration that opens this World War II film. The ship is a British destroyer,

  • In’t wonderjaar (novel by Conscience)

    Hendrik Conscience: In’t wonderjaar (1837; “In the Year of Miracles”), a series of historical scenes centred on the eventful year 1566, when the Calvinists of the Spanish Netherlands revolted against the Spanish Catholic rule. With De leeuw van Vlaanderen (1838; The Lion of Flanders), the passionate epic…

  • in-band signaling

    telephone: In-band signaling: In the earliest days of the telephone network, signaling was provided by means of direct current (DC) between the telephone instrument and the operator. As long-distance circuits and automatic switching systems were placed into service, the use of DC became obsolete, since long-distance…

  • in-breeding (genetics)

    Inbreeding, the mating of individuals or organisms that are closely related through common ancestry, as opposed to outbreeding, which is the mating of unrelated organisms. Inbreeding is useful in the retention of desirable characteristics or the elimination of undesirable ones, but it often results

  • in-depth filtration (chemistry)

    water supply system: Filtration: This process is called in-depth filtration, as the impurities are not simply screened out or removed at the surface of the filter bed, as is the case in slow sand filters. In order to enhance in-depth filtration, so-called mixed-media filters are used in some treatment plants. These have a…

  • in-home care (health and social services)

    Home care, health and social services provided to an ill or disabled person in the home that are intended to improve health and quality of life. Home care encompasses different levels of care, from private-duty care (custodial care, or nonmedical in-home care), which involves the provision of

  • In-Laws, The (film by Fleming [2003])

    Ryan Reynolds: Hollywood career: …Albert Brooks in the comedy The In-Laws (2003) and costarred with Wesley Snipes in the action movie Blade: Trinity (2004), for which he trained for three months and gained 25 pounds.

  • In-Laws, The (film by Hiller [1979])

    Arthur Hiller: Films of the 1970s: …continued to earn laughs with The In-Laws (1979), an espionage spoof with over-the-top performances by Arkin and Peter Falk.

  • in-line engine (engineering)

    gasoline engine: Cylinder block: The in-line engine has a single row of cylinders extending vertically upward from the crankcase and aligned with the crankshaft main bearings. The V type has two rows of cylinders, usually forming an angle of 60° or 90° between the two banks. V-8 engines (eight cylinders)…

  • in-line hockey (sport)

    roller-skating: Roller sports: The first recorded game of roller hockey took place in London in 1878. Speed roller-skating events began in the 1890s and were popular through the first quarter of the 20th century. Major speed roller-skating events for men, women, and relay teams involve racing counterclockwise around an oval track or on…

  • in-line skating (recreation)

    roller-skating: Development of the roller skate: …of a new generation of in-line roller skates by hockey-playing brothers Scott and Brennan Olson, the founders of Rollerblade, Inc. They developed in-line skates with four wheels that extended the full length of the boot, giving the skater greater maneuverability (compared with previous in-line skates) and much more speed. The…

  • in-marriage (sociology)

    Endogamy, custom enjoining one to marry within one’s own group. The penalties for transgressing endogamous restrictions have varied greatly among cultures and have ranged from death to mild disapproval. When marriage to an outside group is mandated, it is referred to as exogamy. Endogamy has been

  • In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat (Nez Percé chief)

    Chief Joseph, Nez Percé chief who, faced with settlement by whites of tribal lands in Oregon, led his followers in a dramatic effort to escape to Canada. The Nez Percé tribe was one of the most powerful in the Pacific Northwest and in the first half of the 19th century one of the most friendly to

  • In-Nae-Ch’?n (Korean religion)

    Ch'?ndogyo: …and God are one” (In-Nae-Ch’?n); this oneness is realized by individuals through sincere faith in the unity of their own body and spirit and through faith in the universality of God.

  • in-place crystallization

    mineral deposit: Magmatic cumulates: …produced by such phenomena as in-place crystallization of monomineralic layers on the floor of a magma chamber or density currents carrying mineral grains from the walls and roof of a magma chamber to the floor. Opinion still remains open, but most geologists now agree that in-place crystallization and density currents…

  • in-plane switching (electronics)

    liquid crystal display: Other transmissive nematic displays: For example, in-plane switching (IPS) displays operate by applying a switching voltage to electrodes on a single substrate to untwist the liquid crystal. IPS displays have a viewing angle intrinsically superior to that of TFT TNs; however, the requirement for more electrode circuitry on their substrate can…

  • in-yō (Eastern philosophy)

    Yinyang, in Eastern thought, the two complementary forces that make up all aspects and phenomena of life. Yin is a symbol of earth, femaleness, darkness, passivity, and absorption. It is present in even numbers, in valleys and streams, and is represented by the tiger, the colour orange, and a

  • In2TV (American company)

    Television in the United States: The new technologies: …same year that AOL introduced In2TV. Both services offered shows over the Internet that had originally played on network television (as well as a few direct-to-Internet original programs). NBC Universal began testing Hulu in 2007 and officially launched it in 2008. By 2009 Hulu was offering a wide menu of…

  • INA (Indian history)

    Subhas Chandra Bose: Activity in exile: …Indian government, and his so-called Indian National Army (Azad Hind Fauj), alongside Japanese troops, advanced to Rangoon (Yangon) and thence overland into India, reaching Indian soil on March 18, 1944, and moving into Kohima and the plains of Imphal. In a stubborn battle, the mixed Indian and Japanese forces, lacking…

  • INA (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Public and private sectors: …l’Energia Elettrica; ENEL), and the State Insurance Fund (Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni; INA). Other principal agencies include the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade Statali (ANAS), responsible for some 190,000 miles (350,000 km) of the road network, and the Ente Ferrovie dello Stato (FS; “State Railways”), which controls the majority of…

  • Inaccessible (island, Atlantic Ocean)

    Tristan da Cunha: Five of them—Tristan da Cunha, Inaccessible, Nightingale, Middle, and Stoltenhoff—are located within 25 miles (40 km) of one another, and the sixth, Gough, lies about 200 miles (320 km) south-southeast of the group. The territory is located approximately 1,300 miles (2,100 km) to the south of St. Helena. Inaccessible, Nightingale,…

  • inactivated poliovirus vaccine (medicine)

    John Franklin Enders: …to the development of the Salk vaccine for polio in 1954. Similarly, their production in the late 1950s of a vaccine against the measles led to the development of a licensed vaccine in the United States in 1963. Much of Enders’ research on viruses was conducted at the Children’s Hospital…

  • inactivated vaccine (vaccine)

    vaccine: Vaccine types: Inactivated vaccines are those that contain organisms that have been killed or inactivated with heat or chemicals. Inactivated vaccines elicit an immune response, but the response often is less complete than with attenuated vaccines. Because inactivated vaccines are not as effective at fighting infection as…

  • inactivation (biology)

    nervous system: Inactivation: A series of nerve impulses arriving in rapid succession at the axon terminal is accurately reproduced as a series in the postsynaptic cell because the quanta of neurotransmitter released by each impulse are inactivated as soon as they stimulate the receptor proteins. Neurotransmitter inactivation…

  • inactive ice wedge

    permafrost: Active wedges, inactive wedges, and ice-wedge casts: Ice wedges may be classified as active, inactive, and ice-wedge casts. Active ice wedges are those that are actively growing. The wedge may not crack every year, but during many or most years cracking does occur, and an increment of…

  • inadequate personality disorder (psychology)

    personality disorder: Persons with dependent personality disorder lack energy and initiative and passively let others assume responsibility for major aspects of their lives. Persons with passive-aggressive personality disorder express their hostility through such indirect means as stubbornness, procrastination, inefficiency, and forgetfulness.

  • Inadunata (fossil echinoderm subclass)

    Triassic Period: Invertebrates: The inadunates survived the crisis; they did not become extinct until the end of the Triassic and gave rise to the articulates, which still exist today.

  • inadunate (fossil echinoderm subclass)

    Triassic Period: Invertebrates: The inadunates survived the crisis; they did not become extinct until the end of the Triassic and gave rise to the articulates, which still exist today.

  • Inagaki Hiroshi (Japanese director)
  • Inamgon (historical site, India)

    India: The late 2nd millennium and the reemergence of urbanism: …settlements at sites such as Inamgaon declined; temporary encampments of pastoral nomads indicate a general deterioration in the standard of living.

  • Inamori Foundation (foundation, Kyoto, Japan)

    Issey Miyake: …lifetime achievement, awarded by the Inamori Foundation in Japan; the prize included a diploma, a 20-karat-gold prize medal, and 50 million yen (about $446,000). The organization singled out as seminal the clothing line Miyake developed in 1993 called Pleats Please, which “allows unrestricted body movement while enabling the fabric to…

  • Inanna (Mesopotamian goddess)

    Ishtar, in Mesopotamian religion, goddess of war and sexual love. Ishtar is the Akkadian counterpart of the West Semitic goddess Astarte. Inanna, an important goddess in the Sumerian pantheon, came to be identified with Ishtar, but it is uncertain whether Inanna is also of Semitic origin or

  • Inao (Thai play)

    Rama II: …wrote a famous version of Inao, dramatic version of a popular traditional story, as well as episodes of the Ramakien and popular dance dramas such as Sang Thong.

  • inappropriate antidiuretic hormone, syndrome of (pathology)

    Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), disorder characterized by the excessive excretion of sodium in the urine, thereby causing hyponatremia (decreased sodium concentrations in the blood plasma). SIADH is caused by excessive unregulated secretion of vasopressin (antidiuretic

  • inarching (horticulture)

    mango: Inarching, or approach grafting (in which a scion and stock of independently rooted plants are grafted and the scion later severed from its original stock), is widely practiced in tropical Asia but is tedious and relatively expensive. In Florida, more efficient methods—veneer grafting and chip…

  • Inari (Japanese mythology)

    Inari, in Japanese mythology, god primarily known as the protector of rice cultivation. The god also furthers prosperity and is worshiped particularly by merchants and tradesmen, is the patron deity of swordsmiths and is associated with brothels and entertainers. In Shintō legends Inari is

  • Inari, Lake (lake, Finland)

    Lake Inari, largest lake in northern Finland, lying near the Russian border. At an elevation of 389 ft (119 m), it is approximately 50 mi (80 km) long and 25 mi (40 km) wide at its farthest points, has an area of 425 sq mi (1,102 sq km), and is about 200 ft (61 m) deep. The lake is fed by the Ivalo

  • Inaros (Libyan prince)

    Achaemenes: …and slain in battle by Inaros, the leader of the second rebellion of Egypt against Achaemenid rule.

  • Inarticulata (brachiopod class)

    lamp shells: Paleontology: The Inarticulata, the most abundant brachiopods of the Cambrian, soon gave way to the Articulata and declined greatly in number and variety toward the end of the Cambrian. They were represented in the Ordovician (about 488 million to 444 million years ago) but decreased thereafter. In…

  • ?‘Inasmuch’: Extracts from Letters, Journals, Papers, etc. (work by Fulton)

    Mary Hannah Fulton: …her later years she wrote “Inasmuch”: Extracts from Letters, Journals, Papers, etc., a memoir of her work that also included a strong plea for continued support of missionary work in China.

  • Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (film by Anger [1954])

    Kenneth Anger: Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome (1954) was a kaleidoscopic montage of performers, including Nin, in the guise of various deities. Those themes, reflective of Anger’s adherence to the mystical teachings of British occultist Aleister Crowley, would pervade much of his later work. Anger defined himself…

  • inauthentic existence (philosophy)

    Martin Heidegger: Being and Time: …lead an existence that is inauthentic. Rather than facing up to their own finitude—represented above all by the inevitability of death—they seek distraction and escape in inauthentic modalities such as curiosity, ambiguity, and idle talk. Heidegger characterized such conformity in terms of the notion of the anonymous das Man—“the They.”…

  • Inazawa (Japan)

    Inazawa, city, northwestern Aichi ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. It lies in the Owari plain, with the Kiso River on its western border. Inazawa was a small rural town during the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), producing vegetables for the market of nearby Nagoya (southeast). Increased

  • InBev (international company)

    InBev, former international brewing company that was founded in 2004 through the merger of the Brazilian Companhia de Bebidas das Américas (AmBev) and the Belgian Interbrew SA. In 2008 it acquired Anheuser-Busch, and the resulting company was named Anheuser-Busch InBev. Interbrew’s history dates to

  • inboard motorboat

    motorboat: Types.: An inboard motorboat has the engine permanently mounted within the hull, with the drive shaft passing through the hull. An outboard motorboat has a portable, detachable motor, incorporating drive shaft and propeller, that is clamped or bolted to the stern or in a well within the…

  • inborn error of metabolism (genetics)

    Inborn error of metabolism, any of multiple rare disorders that are caused by an inherited genetic defect and that alter the body’s ability to derive energy from nutrients. The term inborn error of metabolism was introduced in 1908 by British physician Sir Archibald Garrod, who postulated that

  • inbreeding (genetics)

    Inbreeding, the mating of individuals or organisms that are closely related through common ancestry, as opposed to outbreeding, which is the mating of unrelated organisms. Inbreeding is useful in the retention of desirable characteristics or the elimination of undesirable ones, but it often results

  • Inbreeding and Outbreeding (work by East and Jones)

    Edward Murray East: In their 1919 book, Inbreeding and Outbreeding, East and Jones laid the basis for the concept of heterosis, or hybrid vigour (that hybrids are often more viable, stronger, and more fertile than inbred strains). East joined the faculty of Harvard University at the Bussey Institution facility in Jamaica Plain…

  • inbreeding, coefficient of (genetics)

    consanguinity: Inbreeding and pedigree construction: The coefficient of inbreeding (F) is used to define the probability that two alleles will be identical and derived from the same forebear. The application of this principle is most easily demonstrated by example. If a brother and sister married, their offspring would have one chance…

  • INC (Filipino church)

    Iglesia ni Cristo (INC), (Tagalog: “Church of Christ”) international Christian religious movement that constitutes the largest indigenous Christian church in the Philippines. It was established by Félix Ysagun Manalo in 1914. Manalo (birth name Félix Manalo y Ysagun) was raised in the Roman

  • Inca (people)

    Inca, South American Indians who, at the time of the Spanish conquest in 1532, ruled an empire that extended along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from the northern border of modern Ecuador to the Maule River in central Chile. A brief treatment of the Inca follows; for full treatment, see

  • Inca calendar

    calendar: Peru: the Inca calendar: So little is known about the calendar used by the Incas that one can hardly make a statement about it for which a contrary opinion cannot be found. Some workers in the field even assert that there was no formal calendar but only a…

  • Inca Garcilaso (Spanish chronicler)

    Garcilaso de la Vega, one of the great Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century, noted as the author of distinguished works on the history of the Indians in South America and the expeditions of the Spanish conquistadors. Garcilaso was the illegitimate son of a Spanish conquistador, Sebastian G

  • Inca religion

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Inca religion: Inca religion—an admixture of complex ceremonies, practices, animistic beliefs, varied forms of belief in objects having magical powers, and nature worship—culminated in the worship of the sun, which was presided over by the priests of the last native pre-Columbian conquerors of the Andean…

  • Inca Roca (Incan emperor)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: The beginnings of external expansion: Inca Roca (’Inka Roq’a ’Inka) succeeded his father and subjugated some groups that lived about 12 miles southeast of Cuzco. He is mostly remembered in the chronicles for the fact that he fathered a large number of sons, one of whom, Yahuar Huacac (Yawar Waqaq),…

  • Inca tern (bird)

    tern: …distinct type of tern, the Inca tern (Larosterna inca), of Peru and northern Chile, bears distinctive white plumes on the side of the head.

  • Inca Trail (trail, Peru)

    Machu Picchu: …visitors arrive by hiking the Inca Trail. The portion of the trail from the “km 88” train stop to Machu Picchu is normally hiked in three to six days. It is composed of several thousand stone-cut steps, numerous high retaining walls, tunnels, and other feats of classical engineering; the route…

  • Inca Urcon (Incan emperor)

    pre-Columbian civilizations: Internal division and external expansion: The Emperor chose Inca Urcon (’Inka ’Urqon) as his successor, but the two generals Vicaquirao and Apo Mayta preferred another son, Cusi Inca Yupanqui (Kusi ’Inka Yupanki). As the Chanca approached Cuzco, Viracocha Inca and Inca Urcon withdrew to a fort near Calca, while Cusi Inca Yupanqui, the…

  • Inca wheat (plant)

    Amaranthaceae: Some species—namely, Inca wheat, or love-lies-bleeding (Amaranthus caudatus), red amaranth (A. cruentus), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)—are high-protein pseudo-grain crops of interest to agricultural researchers. Quinoa in particular, touted as a health food, grew in popularity worldwide during the early 21st century.

  • Inca, El (Spanish chronicler)

    Garcilaso de la Vega, one of the great Spanish chroniclers of the 16th century, noted as the author of distinguished works on the history of the Indians in South America and the expeditions of the Spanish conquistadors. Garcilaso was the illegitimate son of a Spanish conquistador, Sebastian G

  • Incamminati, Accademia degli (art academy, Italy)

    Lodovico Carracci: …and his cousins founded the Accademia degli Incamminati, an art school that became the most progressive and influential institution of its kind in Italy. Lodovico led this school for the next 20 years, during which time he and his cousins trained some of the leading Italian artists of the younger…

  • Incan caenolestid (marsupial)

    rat opossum: …Caenolestes) with four species, the Incan caenolestid (Lestoros inca), and the Chilean shrew opossum (Rhyncholestes raphanurus). These six species, together with opossums (family Didelphidae), form the New World section (Ameridelphia) of the cohort Marsupialia. Rat opossums, named for their general appearance and size, have 46–48 teeth and long epipubic bones…

  • incandescence (physics)

    luminescence: Luminescence and incandescence: As mentioned above, luminescence is characterized by electrons undergoing transitions from excited quantum states. The excitation of the luminescent electrons is not connected with appreciable agitations of the atoms that the electrons belong to. When hot materials become luminous and radiate light, a process…

  • incandescent lamp (lighting)

    Incandescent lamp, any of various devices that produce light by heating a suitable material to a high temperature. When any solid or gas is heated, commonly by combustion or resistance to an electric current, it gives off light of a colour (spectral balance) characteristic of the material. With the

  • incandescent lightbulb (technology)

    invention: What inventors are: …the carbon filament for his incandescent lightbulb, described his work as "one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.” At his laboratory in Menlo Park, N.J., Edison’s approach was to identify a potential gap in the market and fill it with an invention. His workers were told, “There’s a way to…

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