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  • India

    India, country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Its capital is New Delhi, built in the 20th century just south of the historic hub of Old Delhi to serve as India’s administrative centre. Its government is a constitutional republic that represents a highly diverse population consisting

  • India Act (Great Britain [1784])

    Government of India Acts: Pitt’s India Act (1784), named for the British prime minister William Pitt the Younger, established the dual system of control by the British government and the East India Company, by which the company retained control of commerce and day-to-day administration but important political matters were reserved…

  • India Bill (Great Britain [1783])

    India: The company and the state: …transfer the control of British India to seven commissioners was defeated by the influence of King George III in the House of Lords, but the next year the matter was settled for more than 70 years by Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger’s India Act of 1784. Its essence was…

  • India Gate (memorial, New Delhi, India)

    India Gate, monumental sandstone arch in New Delhi, dedicated to the troops of British India who died in wars fought between 1914 and 1919. India Gate, which is located at the eastern end of the Rajpath (formerly called the Kingsway), is about 138 feet (42 metres) in height. India Gate is one of

  • India ink

    India ink, black pigment in the form of sticks that are moistened before use in drawing and lettering, or the fluid ink consisting of this pigment finely suspended in a liquid medium, such as water, and a glutinous binder. The sticks or cakes consist of specially prepared lampblack, or carbon b

  • India padauk (tree)

    narra: …especially to Pterocarpus indicus, or India padauk, noted for the ability of its wood to take a high polish.

  • India rubber plant (tree)

    India rubber plant, (Ficus elastica), large tree of the family Moraceae, once an important source of an inferior natural rubber. It was largely replaced as a source of rubber by the unrelated rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in the early 20th century. The India rubber plant is native to Southeast

  • India rubber tree (tree)

    India rubber plant, (Ficus elastica), large tree of the family Moraceae, once an important source of an inferior natural rubber. It was largely replaced as a source of rubber by the unrelated rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) in the early 20th century. The India rubber plant is native to Southeast

  • India Song (film by Duras [1975])

    Delphine Seyrig: …femme fatale in Marguerite Duras’s India Song—she usually worked with women directors. Despite her many films she considered herself primarily a stage actress; she performed in both classic and contemporary plays, often with small experimental theatres in France.

  • India’s Computer Revolution

    In May 2000 India’s lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha (House of the People), passed the Information Technology Bill to boost e-commerce and Internet-related business in the country. The bill provided a legal framework for e-commerce, legalized digital documents, and created a police task

  • India, Casa da (Portuguese trade company)

    House of India, 15th-century Portuguese establishment that managed the trade in products from overseas colonies. It was called House of Guinea because it began by processing products from Guinea. Originally housed in a warehouse at Lagos in southern Portugal, it was reestablished in Lisbon with the

  • India, Conselho da (Portuguese colonial supervisory body)

    Council of India, supervisory body established in 1604 by Philip III of Spain, who also ruled Portugal. It oversaw Portuguese colonial affairs along the lines of the Spanish Council of the Indies. After the reestablishment of Portuguese independence from Spain in 1640, the Council of India was

  • India, Council of (Portuguese colonial supervisory body)

    Council of India, supervisory body established in 1604 by Philip III of Spain, who also ruled Portugal. It oversaw Portuguese colonial affairs along the lines of the Spanish Council of the Indies. After the reestablishment of Portuguese independence from Spain in 1640, the Council of India was

  • India, flag of

    horizontally striped deep saffron (muted orange)–white–green national flag with a 24-spoked blue chakra (wheel) in the centre. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.For decades the All-India Congress under the leadership of Mohandas K. Gandhi struggled to rally the millions of British-ruled

  • India, history of

    India: History: The Indian subcontinent, the great landmass of South Asia, is the home of one of the world’s oldest and most influential civilizations. In this article, the subcontinent, which for historical purposes is usually called simply “India,” is understood to comprise the areas of not…

  • India, House of (Portuguese trade company)

    House of India, 15th-century Portuguese establishment that managed the trade in products from overseas colonies. It was called House of Guinea because it began by processing products from Guinea. Originally housed in a warehouse at Lagos in southern Portugal, it was reestablished in Lisbon with the

  • India, Republic of

    India, country that occupies the greater part of South Asia. Its capital is New Delhi, built in the 20th century just south of the historic hub of Old Delhi to serve as India’s administrative centre. Its government is a constitutional republic that represents a highly diverse population consisting

  • India, Survey of (international cartographic organization)

    Himalayas: Study and exploration: In the mid-19th century the Survey of India organized a systematic program to measure correctly the heights of the Himalayan peaks. The Nepal and Uttarakhand peaks were observed and mapped between 1849 and 1855. Nanga Parbat, as well as the peaks of the Karakoram Range to the north, were surveyed…

  • India-Pakistan heat wave of 2015

    India-Pakistan heat wave of 2015, extended period of extreme heat that spanned the Indian subcontinent during April, May, and June 2015 and resulted in more than 2,500 deaths in India and more than 1,100 deaths in Pakistan. Heat waves are common in India between March and June, and the country’s

  • Indian (people)

    American Indian, member of any of the aboriginal peoples of the Western Hemisphere. Eskimos (Inuit and Yupik/Yupiit) and Aleuts are often excluded from this category, because their closest genetic and cultural relations were and are with other Arctic peoples rather than with the groups to their

  • Indian (ethnic group with origin in India)

    Mauritius: Early history and colonial administration: …replaced by indentured labourers from India. The country’s modern-day Indo-Pakistani population stems from this program of replacing slavery with indentured servitude (deemed Britain’s “Great Experiment”); by the time it ended in the 1920s, almost a half million indentured labourers had come from India to work on the sugar plantations.

  • Indian Act (Canada [1876])

    Canada: Native peoples: …legal definition given in the Indian Act of 1876. People legally defined as Indians are known as status Indians. Indians who have chosen to give up their status rights or who have lost them through intermarriage with those of European ancestry are called nonstatus Indians. (Beginning in 1985, Canadian law…

  • Indian Adoption Project (United States program)

    Native American: The outplacement and adoption of indigenous children: …of America in launching the Indian Adoption Project (IAP), the country’s first large-scale transracial adoption program. The IAP eventually moved between 25 and 35 percent of the native children in the United States into interstate adoptions and interstate foster care placements. Essentially all of these children were placed with Euro-American…

  • Indian Affairs (novel by Woiwode)

    Larry Woiwode: …an out-of-work television actor, and Indian Affairs (1992) is a sequel to What I’m Going to Do.

  • Indian Affairs, Bureau of (United States agency)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs, agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior that serves as the principal link between federally recognized American Indian and Alaska Native populations and the U.S. government. It is responsible for administering about 66 million acres (27 million hectares) of land held

  • Indian Air Force (Indian military)

    Pakistan: Imran Khan’s premiership: …credit for the attack, the Indian Air Force conducted air strikes in Pakistan for the first time in five decades. Though India claimed it had destroyed a large training camp belonging to the militant group, Pakistan denied that any such camp had existed and said India had struck an empty…

  • Indian Airlines

    Indian Airlines, former domestic and regional airline of India that merged with Air India in 2007, thereafter operating as Air India. Indian Airlines was founded in 1953. The airline was headquartered in New Delhi and served the Indian subcontinent—India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh,

  • Indian Airlines Corporation

    Indian Airlines, former domestic and regional airline of India that merged with Air India in 2007, thereafter operating as Air India. Indian Airlines was founded in 1953. The airline was headquartered in New Delhi and served the Indian subcontinent—India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh,

  • Indian albizia (plant species)

    albizia: Indian albizia, or siris (A. lebbek), native to tropical Asia and Australia, grows about 24 metres tall and bears pods 23–30 cm long. Both species are common ornamental trees.

  • Indian almond (plant)

    Terminalia: catappa, the Indian, or tropical, almond, is commonly cultivated for ornament, particularly along streets in the tropics.

  • Indian almond family (plant family)

    Myrtales: Family distributions and abundance: Combretaceae, the white mangrove or Indian almond family, has about 500 species in 14 genera of mostly trees and shrubs. The family is especially important along tropical seacoasts, in African savannas, and in Asiatic monsoon forests. It comprises mangrove species of muddy shores or estuaries,…

  • Indian alphabets

    Indic writing systems, writing systems that include the syllabic Kharosthi and semialphabetic Brahmi scripts of ancient India. No systems of writing subsequently developed from the Kharosthi script. Brahmi, however, is thought to be the forerunner of all of the scripts used for writing the

  • Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Department of (Canadian agency)

    Northwest Territories: Constitutional framework: …territories’ natural resources through the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

  • Indian and Pronghorn Antelope (sculpture by Manship)

    Paul Manship: …early compositions, including the popular Indian and Pronghorn Antelope (1914). Among his other large decorative works—mostly in bronze—are Dancer and Gazelles (1916), of which there are versions in several museums, and Prometheus (1934), a fountain sculpture at Rockefeller Center in New York. He executed many portraits in marble; most striking…

  • Indian and Woman (painting by Pechstein)

    Max Pechstein: …colours, as in his painting Indian and Woman (1910). He frequently painted with Heckel and fellow Die Brücke member Ernst Ludwig Kirchner.

  • Indian Appropriation Act (United States law [1871])

    Native American: The conquest of the western United States: …with the passage of the Indian Appropriation Act (1871), which declared that “hereafter no Indian nation or tribe” would be recognized “as an independent power with whom the United States may contract by treaty.” Indian affairs were thus brought under the legislative control of the Congress to a much greater…

  • Indian Archaeological Survey (Indian history)

    Sir John Hubert Marshall: …English director general of the Indian Archaeological Survey (1902–31) who in the 1920s was responsible for the large-scale excavations that revealed Harappā and Mohenjo-daro, the two largest cities of the previously unknown Indus Valley Civilization.

  • Indian architecture

    India: Architecture: Architecture is perhaps India’s greatest glory. Among the most-renowned monuments are many cave temples hewn from rock (of which those at Ajanta and Ellora are most noteworthy); the Sun Temple at Konarak (Konarka); the vast temple complexes at Bhubaneshwar, Khajuraho, and

  • Indian art (visual arts)

    Native American art, the visual art of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. For a further discussion of the visual art of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American art. The very use of the word art suggests one of the basic

  • Indian Arts and Crafts Board (American government)

    Native American art: Arts of the American Indian peoples in the contemporary world: …by means of which the Indian Arts and Crafts Board came into existence. Sparked by John Collier, then commissioner of Indian affairs, this body is one of the few governmental organizations set up specifically to promote, encourage, and revive native arts and crafts. While intended largely as an economic device…

  • Indian Association (political organization, India)

    Indian Association, nationalist political group in India that favoured local self-government and served as a preparatory agent for the more truly national Indian National Congress. The association was founded in Bengal in 1876 by Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose; it soon displaced the

  • Indian bael (fruit and tree)

    Bel fruit, (Aegle marmelos), tree of the family Rutaceae, cultivated for its fruit. The plant is native to India and Bangladesh and has naturalized throughout much of Southeast Asia. The unripe fruit, sliced and sun-dried, is traditionally used as a remedy for dysentery and other digestive

  • Indian baskets (visual arts)

    Native American art, the visual art of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. For a further discussion of the visual art of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American art. The very use of the word art suggests one of the basic

  • Indian Battle Park (park, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada)

    Lethbridge: …with the Indians, stands in Indian Battle Park on the Oldman River. The park marks the site of the last great encounter (1870) between the Cree and the Blackfoot Indians prior to a peace treaty (1871). In July the city holds the annual Whoop-Up Days exhibition and rodeo. The park…

  • Indian beadwork (visual arts)

    Native American art, the visual art of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. For a further discussion of the visual art of the Americas produced in the period after European contact, see Latin American art. The very use of the word art suggests one of the basic

  • Indian black vulture (bird)

    vulture: Old World vultures: …(Sarcogyps calvus), often called the Pondicherry vulture or the Indian (black) vulture, is an Old World vulture ranging from Pakistan to Malaysia. It is about 75 cm (30 inches) long and has a wingspan of about 2.7 metres (8.9 feet). It is black with white down on the breast and…

  • Indian Botanic Garden (garden, Haora, India)

    Indian Botanic Garden, botanical garden in Haora (Howrah), West Bengal, India, famous for its enormous collections of orchids, bamboos, palms, and plants of the screw pine genus (Pandanus). In 2009 it was renamed to honour Indian plant physiologist and physicist Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose. It is

  • Indian Bridge (national capital, Barbados)

    Bridgetown, capital and port of the island-state of Barbados, in the West Indies, southeastern Caribbean Sea. It is on the southwestern end of the island, on the wide curve of Carlisle Bay. A built-up coastal strip stretches for several miles on each side of the town. The town, which was founded in

  • Indian buffalo (mammal)

    Water buffalo, (Bubalus bubalis), either of two forms, wild and domestic, of Asian mammal similar to the ox. There are 74 breeds of domestic water buffalo numbering some 165 million animals, but only small numbers of wild water buffalo remain. Both forms are gray to black with off-white “socks” and

  • Indian Charlie (racehorse)

    Real Quiet: …started at Churchill Downs, with Indian Charlie as the favourite. Real Quiet stayed close to the favourite, and, when Indian Charlie made his move, his “bargain-basement” competitor passed not only Indian Charlie but Victory Gallop, winning the Derby by half a length. The win was worth $700,000 for Real Quiet…

  • Indian Child Welfare Act (United States [1978])

    adoption: In 1978 the federal Indian Child Welfare Act required that placements of Native American children living on reservations give preference to applicants from within the child’s tribe or extended family. Another federal law, the 1994 Multiethnic Placement Act, prevented child-welfare agencies that receive federal assistance from denying or delaying…

  • Indian Civil Service (Indian government)

    British Empire: Dominance and dominions: …tried, ranging from the sophisticated Indian Civil Service, with its largely effective adoption of native practices in civil law and administration, to the very loose and indirect supervision exercised in a number of African territories, where settlers and commercial interests were left much to themselves while native Africans were segregated…

  • Indian Claims Commission (United States government)

    Native American: Reorganization: A special Indian Claims Commission, created by an act of Congress on August 13, 1946, received petitions for land claims against the United States. Many land claims resulted in significant compensation, including nearly $14,800,000 to the Cherokee nation, $10,250,000 to the Crow tribe, $12,300,000 to the Seminoles,…

  • Indian cobra (snake)

    cobra: The Indian cobra (or Indian spectacled cobra, Naja naja) was formerly considered a single species with much the same distribution as the king cobra. Recently, however, biologists have discovered that nearly a dozen species exist in Asia, some being venom spitters and others not. They vary…

  • Indian Commissioners, Board of (United States history)

    United States: Indian policy: …Congress to establish a nonpolitical Board of Indian Commissioners to supervise the administration of relations between the government and the Indians. The board, however, encountered so much political opposition that it accomplished little. The reformers then proposed legislation to grant title for specific acreages of land to the head of…

  • Indian cooking

    cereal processing: Human food: In India the major part of the grain is not ground into flour in roller mills but is roughly ground in small crushing mills into a meal called atta. This meal is cooked into flat cakes known as chapatis.

  • Indian corn (plant)

    Corn, (Zea mays), cereal plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible grain. The domesticated crop originated in the Americas and is one of the most widely distributed of the world’s food crops. Corn is used as livestock feed, as human food, as biofuel, and as raw material in industry. In the

  • Indian Councils Act (1861, India)

    India: Government organization: The Indian Councils Act of 1861 transformed the viceroy’s Executive Council into a miniature cabinet run on the portfolio system, and each of the five ordinary members was placed in charge of a distinct department of Calcutta’s government—home, revenue, military, finance, and law. The military commander…

  • Indian Councils Act (1892, India)

    India: Government organization: The act of 1892 further expanded the council’s permissible additional membership to 16, of whom 10 could be nonofficial, and increased their powers, though only to the extent of allowing them to ask questions of government and to criticize formally the official budget during one day…

  • Indian Councils Act of 1909 (United Kingdom-India)

    Indian Councils Act of 1909, series of reform measures enacted in 1909 by the British Parliament, the main component of which directly introduced the elective principle to membership in the imperial and local legislative councils in India. The act was formulated by John Morley, secretary of state

  • Indian courser (bird)

    courser: The Indian courser (C. coromandelicus) is brown with a strong face pattern. The bronze-winged courser (Rhinoptilus chalcopterus), largest of several species in sub-Saharan Africa, frequents woodlands and is chiefly nocturnal. It is about 30 cm (12 inches) long.

  • Indian crane (bird)

    India: Birds: …birds in India include the Indian crane, commonly known as the sarus (Grus antigone); a large gray bird with crimson legs, the sarus stands as tall as a human. Bustards inhabit India’s grasslands. The great Indian bustard (Ardeotis nigriceps), now confined to central and western India, is an endangered species…

  • Indian Creek Massacre (American history [1832])

    Black Hawk War: Raids and retreat: In the resulting Indian Creek Massacre, 15 whites were killed, scalped, and mutilated. Two teenage girls were taken captive and then later ransomed. Another early encounter was the Battle of the Pecatonica in southwestern Wisconsin. Eleven Kickapoo who had attacked a group of settlers on June 14 and…

  • Indian cress (plant)

    nasturtium: Tropaeolum majus, the common nasturtium, is also known as Indian cress. The young flower buds and fruit are sometimes used as seasoning. The plant grows 2.4–3.6 metres (8–12 feet) tall, and the flowers are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes. T. minus, the dwarf nasturtium, has flowers…

  • Indian crested tree swift (bird)

    crested swift: A widespread species is the crested tree swift (Hemiprocne longipennis), ranging from Southeast Asia eastward to the Celebes. It is about 20 cm (8 inches) long and has pale blue-gray upperparts, dark brown wings and tail, and reddish cheeks. The 29-centimetre-long whiskered tree swift (H. mystacea) of Southeast Asia is…

  • Indian Criminal Procedure Code (law)

    crime: Islamic countries: …Pakistan, which originally inherited the Indian Criminal Procedure Code, adopted an adversarial system similar to that of England. Both sides in a trial present their oral arguments to an impartial judge, and there is a competent and independent bar from whose ranks judges are chosen. The regular courts were supplemented…

  • Indian cuisine

    cereal processing: Human food: In India the major part of the grain is not ground into flour in roller mills but is roughly ground in small crushing mills into a meal called atta. This meal is cooked into flat cakes known as chapatis.

  • Indian currant (plant)

    snowberry: Indian currant, or coralberry (S. orbiculatus), more than 2 m tall, bears purplish berries. Creeping snowberry is a plant of the genus Gaultheria (family Ericaceae).

  • Indian dance

    Native American dance, the dance of the aboriginal inhabitants of the Americas, often called American Indians. The treatment of Native American dance in this article is meant to focus first on certain general features of dance and their manifestation in a number of areas. The diversities existing

  • Indian dance (South Asian arts)

    South Asian arts: Indian dance: Dance in India can be organized into three categories: classical, folk, and modern. Classical dance forms are among the best-preserved and oldest practiced in the 21st century. The royal courts, the temples, and the guru to pupil teaching tradition have kept this art…

  • Indian Elections of 2009, The

    India’s 15th general Elections to the lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha (House of the People), were conducted over a four-week period from April 16 to May 13, 2009. In India’s parliamentary system, the country’s prime minister is elected by a simple majority of the Lok Sabha’s 543 elected

  • Indian elephant (mammal)

    elephant: …elephant includes three subspecies: the Indian, or mainland (E. maximus indicus), the Sumatran (E. maximus sumatranus), and the Sri Lankan (E. maximus maximus). African elephants have much larger ears, which are used to dissipate body heat.

  • Indian Emperour, The (play by Dryden)

    John Dryden: Writing for the stage: …own first outstanding success with The Indian Emperour, a play that was a sequel to The Indian Queen.

  • Indian Equatorial Countercurrent (ocean current)

    equatorial countercurrent: The countercurrent of the Indian Ocean flows only during the northern winter and only south of the equator.

  • Indian Evidence Act (United Kingdom [1872])

    Indian Evidence Act, act passed by the British Parliament in 1872 that set forth the rules of evidence admissible in Indian courts and that had far-reaching consequences for the traditional systems of caste government in India. Since ancient times, the way of resolving intracaste disputes had been

  • Indian Famine Code (1833, India)

    famine: Historical responses to famine: The highly detailed Indian Famine Code of 1883 classified situations of food scarcity according to a scale of intensity, and it laid out a series of steps that governments were obligated to take in the event of a famine. The code continues to influence contemporary policies, such as…

  • Indian field mouse (rodent)

    mouse: Natural history: …deserts of India, the little Indian field mouse (M. booduga) bears from 1 to 13 young per litter and breeds throughout the year. In Southeast Asia, the fawn-coloured mouse (M. cervicolor) has been reported to produce litters of two to six young in July and December. In East Africa, the…

  • Indian fig (cactus)

    Opuntia: …pear, including the commonly cultivated Indian fig (O. ficus-indica) of Mexico, are grown for their edible fruits and paddles and are invasive species in South Africa, Australia, and elsewhere outside their native range.

  • Indian flapshell turtle (reptile)

    turtle: Habitats: The Indian and Burmese flapshell turtles (genus Lissemys) are ubiquitous in slow-moving streams and rice paddies. Their mud colouring and relatively small size (carapaces up to 28 cm [11 inches]) make them inconspicuous and more likely to be overlooked in cultures that view all turtles as…

  • Indian flying fox (mammal)

    bat: Life cycle: …for five months in the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus). By two months of age, most smaller bats have been flying and foraging for three or four weeks and have achieved adult size.

  • Indian Foreign Service (Indian government)

    Meira Kumar: In 1973 Kumar entered the Indian Foreign Service, where she served for more than a decade. After postings to Madrid and London, she decided in 1985 to enter politics, encouraged by her father and by Rajiv Gandhi, then prime minister of India. She ran in a by-election for a seat…

  • Indian fox (mammal)

    fox: Classification: bengalensis (Bengal, or Indian, fox) Small (1.5–3 kg) and gray; found in sparsely wooded regions of the Indian subcontinent. V. cana (Blanford’s, or hoary, fox) Small (1–2 kg) and catlike, with soft fur and a long bushy tail; found in the mountain steppes and deserts of…

  • Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (United States [1988])

    Native American: Economic development: tourism, tribal industries, and gaming: Congress passed the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act in 1988; the act differentiated between various forms of gambling (i.e., bingo, slot machines, and card games) and the regulations that would obtain for each. It also mandated that tribes enter into compacts with state governments; these agreements guaranteed that a…

  • Indian gavial (reptile)

    Gavial, (Gavialis gangeticus), an exceptionally long and narrow-snouted crocodilian classified as the sole species in the separate family Gavialidae (order Crocodilia). The gavial inhabits the rivers of northern India and Nepal. Like other crocodilians, it reproduces by means of hard-shelled eggs

  • Indian gazelle (mammal)

    gazelle: Asian gazelles: A sixth Asian gazelle, the Indian gazelle or chinkara (G. bennetti), survives in the deserts of India and Pakistan.

  • Indian gerbil (rodent)

    gerbil: Natural history: …plant parts, and insects, the Indian gerbil (Tatera indica) also eats eggs and young birds. Gerbils are active throughout the year, but in regions where winters are cold and snow is usual, they may remain in burrows, feeding on cached food for days or weeks at a time.

  • Indian glassfish (fish)

    glassfish: lala), sometimes called Indian glassfish, a popular Asian species 5 cm (2 inches) long with blue-edged fins; C. buruensis, a 5-centimetre Indonesian species; and C. nama, a 10-centimetre fish of India and Asia. The name glassfish is also given to certain other unrelated, semitransparent fishes, including the icicle…

  • Indian goods (decorative arts)

    Indian goods, in 17th- and 18th-century Europe, any of a vast variety of furniture, paper hangings, textiles, paintings, and enamels that were being imported from South and East Asia into Europe. The imported goods were not limited, as the term would seem to imply, to goods imported from India,

  • Indian grass (plant)

    Indian grass, (Sorghastrum nutans), perennial grass of the family Poaceae, one of the important constituents of the North American tallgrass prairie. Indian grass is sometimes planted as an ornamental border grass and is a good forage plant for livestock. It is a close relative of slender Indian

  • Indian gray mongoose (mammal)

    mongoose: …and southern Europe and the Indian gray mongoose (H. edwardsi), made famous as Rikki-tikki-tavi in Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Books (1894 and 1895). The meerkat (Suricata suricatta) is also a member of the mongoose family. The colloquial term mongoose may also include Malagasy mongooses—a group of five species found on…

  • Indian hedge mustard (plant)

    rocket: Eastern rocket, or Indian hedge mustard (S. orientale), is a Eurasian annual some 30–60 cm (1–2 feet) tall with long pods and clusters of small flowers at the stem tip. Hedge mustard (S. officinale), also a Eurasian species, has pods close to the stem and…

  • Indian hemp (plant, Apocynum species)

    Indian hemp, (species Apocynum cannabinum), North American plant of the dogbane family Apocynaceae (order Gentianales). It is a branched perennial that grows up to 1.5 m (5 feet) tall and has smooth opposite leaves and small greenish white flowers. Indians used the fibres from the stem to make

  • Indian hemp (plant)

    Sunn, (Crotalaria juncea), annual plant of the pea family (Fabaceae) and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. Sunn is likely native to the Indian subcontinent, where it has been cultivated since prehistoric times. The sunn plant is not a true hemp. The fibre is made into cordage, fishing nets,

  • Indian hemp (plant)

    Hemp, (Cannabis sativa), plant of the family Cannabaceae cultivated for its fibre (bast fibre) or its edible seeds. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. Although all three products—hemp, marijuana, and

  • Indian hog deer (mammal)

    artiodactyl: Reproduction: …occurs in the normally solitary Indian hog deer (Cervus porcinus); as many as 20 or 30 aggregate loosely in a certain area, then females and males leave in pairs and usually remain together until they have mated. Mating in artiodactyls often intensifies toward dawn and dusk.

  • Indian horse chestnut (plant)

    horse chestnut: The Indian horse chestnut (A. indica), with slender, pointed leaflets, has attractive feathery flower spikes with a bottlebrush effect. Red horse chestnut (A. × carnea), a hybrid of A. hippocastanum and A. pavia, grows up to 20 m (65 feet) and has flesh-coloured to scarlet flower…

  • Indian Independence Act (United Kingdom [1947])

    India: The transfer of power and the birth of two countries: … passed in July 1947 the Indian Independence Act. It ordered that the dominions of India and Pakistan be demarcated by midnight of August 14–15, 1947, and that the assets of the world’s largest empire—which had been integrated in countless ways for more than a century—be divided within a single month.…

  • Indian Industry, Confederation of (Indian trade association)

    Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), trade association representing the interests of Indian businesses in various sectors, chiefly including engineering, manufacturing, consulting, and services. The organization was founded as the Engineering and Iron Trades Association (EITA) in 1895. It

  • Indian John (fictional character)

    Chingachgook, fictional character, a Mohican chief in four of the novels by James Fenimore Cooper known under the collective title The Leatherstocking Tales—comprising The Pioneers (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). Chingachgook is a lifelong

  • Indian Journal (American newspaper)

    Eufaula: The state’s oldest newspaper, the Indian Journal (founded 1876 as a tribal organ in Muskogee), is published in Eufaula. The Eufaula Dam (1964) on the Canadian River impounds one of the world’s largest man-made lakes, covering 102,500 acres (41,500 hectares). Lake Eufaula and the nearby Fountainhead and Arrowhead state parks…

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