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  • induction rite (society)

    rite of passage: Initiation rites: The most prevalent of rites of initiation among societies of the world are those observed at puberty. These have frequently been called puberty rites, but, as van Gennep argued long ago, this name is inappropriate. Puberty among females is often defined as the…

  • induction system (air-conditioning)

    air-conditioning: In the induction system, air is cooled once at a central plant and then conveyed to individual units, where water is used to adjust the air temperature according to such variables as sunlight exposure and shade. In the dual-duct system, warm air and cool air travel through…

  • induction, electromagnetic (physics)

    Electromagnetic induction, in physics, the induction of an electromotive force in a circuit by varying the magnetic flux linked with the circuit. See Faraday’s law of

  • induction, mathematical (mathematics)

    Mathematical induction, one of various methods of proof of mathematical propositions, based on the principle of mathematical induction. A class of integers is called hereditary if, whenever any integer x belongs to the class, the successor of x (that is, the integer x + 1) also belongs to the

  • induction, problem of

    Problem of induction, problem of justifying the inductive inference from the observed to the unobserved. It was given its classic formulation by the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711–76), who noted that all such inferences rely, directly or indirectly, on the rationally unfounded premise that

  • induction-type meter (electronics)

    watt-hour meter: Induction-type meters measure power in alternating-current circuits and are the type commonly seen on the outside of houses. Specialized watt-hour meters include totalizing meters, which record the power used in more than one circuit, and highly accurate portable meters, which are used for testing installed…

  • inductive effect (chemistry)

    carboxylic acid: Acidity: …one example of the so-called inductive effect, in which a substituent affects a compound’s distribution of electrons. There are a number of such effects, and atoms or groups may be electron-withdrawing or electron-donating as compared with hydrogen. The presence of such groups near the COOH group of a carboxylic acid…

  • inductive inference (reason)

    Induction, in logic, method of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal. As it applies to logic in systems of the 20th century, the term is obsolete. Traditionally, logicians distinguished between deductive logic (inference in which the

  • inductive logic (reason)

    Induction, in logic, method of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal. As it applies to logic in systems of the 20th century, the term is obsolete. Traditionally, logicians distinguished between deductive logic (inference in which the

  • Inductive Metrology, or the Recovery of Ancient Measures from the Monuments (work by Petrie)

    Sir Flinders Petrie: …age of 24, Petrie wrote Inductive Metrology; or, The Recovery of Ancient Measures from the Monuments, a work that represented a new approach to archaeological study. Fieldwork done at various locations in Britain, including Stonehenge, enabled him to determine by mathematical computations the unit of measurement for the construction of…

  • inductive reactance (electronics)

    reactance: Inductive reactance is associated with the magnetic field that surrounds a wire or a coil carrying a current. An alternating current in such a conductor, or inductor, sets up an alternating magnetic field that in turn affects the current in, and the voltage (potential difference)…

  • inductive reasoning (reason)

    Induction, in logic, method of reasoning from a part to a whole, from particulars to generals, or from the individual to the universal. As it applies to logic in systems of the 20th century, the term is obsolete. Traditionally, logicians distinguished between deductive logic (inference in which the

  • Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer

    Earth sciences: Radiometric dating: Another technological development is the ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer), which is able to provide the isotopic age of the minerals zircon, titanite, rutile, and monazite. These minerals are common to many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

  • inductor (electronics)

    electricity: Basic phenomena and principles: Inductors are essentially coils of conducting wire; they store magnetic energy in the form of a magnetic field generated by the current in the coil. All three components provide some impedance to the flow of alternating currents. In the case of capacitors and inductors, the…

  • inductor alternator (machine)

    electric generator: Inductor alternators: An inductor alternator is a special kind of synchronous generator in which both the field and the output winding are on the stator. In the homopolar type of machine, the magnetic flux is produced by direct current in a stationary field coil concentric…

  • inductor compass (instrument)

    navigation: The gyromagnetic compass: …at both ends, or an inductor element can be employed. In one such arrangement, a saturable-inductor compass (so named because of its use of materials that can be readily induced to carry a maximum magnetic flow, or magnetic saturation) is mounted on a gyroscope, but this is not always convenient…

  • Indulekha (novel by Chandu Menon)

    Malayalam literature: Prose: …in Malayalam, Oyyarathu Chandu Menon’s Indulekha, which portrays the effect of Western ideas on an orthodox Hindu family. Modern Malayalam literature began around the beginning of the 20th century and was influenced by the Western literary forms. Kerala Varma Valiya Koyil Thampuran is regarded as the last of the neo-classicists…

  • indulgence (Roman Catholicism)

    Indulgence, a distinctive feature of the penitential system of both the Western medieval and the Roman Catholic Church that granted full or partial remission of the punishment of sin. The granting of indulgences was predicated on two beliefs. First, in the sacrament of penance it did not suffice to

  • Indulgence, Declaration of (British history)

    United Kingdom: War and government: In 1672 Charles promulgated the Declaration of Indulgence, which suspended the penal code against all religious Nonconformists, Catholic and Dissenter alike. But a declaration of toleration could not bring together these mortal enemies, and the king found himself faced by a unified Protestant front. Parliamentary Anglicans would not vote money…

  • Indulgent Husband, The (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: … (1900), Claudine in Paris (1901), The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and as a young married woman with a libertine…

  • Indulgents (French history)

    Georges Danton: Leader of the moderate opposition: …as the leader of the Indulgents, the moderate faction that had risen out of the Cordeliers.

  • indulto

    bullfighting: Act three: …if a rare pardon (indulto) is granted, it is indicated by the president waving an orange handkerchief. The kill, in these rare instances, is simulated using a banderilla or an empty hand, and the bull is then put out to stud.

  • Indur (India)

    Nizamabad, city, northwestern Telangana state, southern India. The city is located on a level upland plain of the Telangana Plateau, north-northwest of Hyderabad. Nizamabad lies on a rail line to Hyderabad, and it is connected to Hyderabad and to Adilabad to the north by a national highway.

  • Indur (Madhya Pradesh, India)

    Indore, city, western Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is located in an upland area on the Saraswati and Khan rivers, which are tributaries of the Shipra River. Indore was founded in 1715 as a trade market on the Narmada River valley route by local landowners, who erected Indreshwar Temple

  • Indurain, Miguel (Spanish cyclist)

    Lance Armstrong: Cancer and comeback: …tying a record set by Miguel Indurain. He surpassed Indurain in 2004 when he won his sixth consecutive race. After winning his seventh Tour in 2005, Armstrong retired from the sport, but in September 2008 he announced that he was returning to competitive racing. He placed third in the 2009…

  • induration (geology)

    Induration, hardening of rocks by heat or baking; also the hardening of sediments through cementation or compaction, or both, without the introduction of heat. The classic example is the rock called hornfels, which is formed at contacts with igneous intrusions and in which heat and fluids from the

  • Indus (astronomy)

    Indus, (Latin: “Indian”) constellation in the southern sky at about 21 hours right ascension and 50° south in declination. Its brightest star is Alpha Indi, with a magnitude of 3.1. This constellation was invented by Pieter Dircksz Keyser, a navigator who joined the first Dutch expedition to the

  • Indus Basin project (Indian-Pakistani history)

    Mangla Dam: …the main structures in the Indus Basin Project (another is Tarbela Dam).

  • Indus civilization

    Indus civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The nuclear dates of the civilization appear to be about 2500–1700 bce, though the southern sites may have lasted later into the 2nd millennium bce. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the

  • Indus Cone (alluvial fan)

    Arabian Basin: …of a great alluvial fan—the Indus Cone—whose thickness diminishes to the south.

  • Indus Delta (physical region, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The Indus River plain: In the south the Indus delta (in marked contrast to the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta) is a wild waste. When high tides and Indus floods coincide, the littoral is flooded for some 20 miles (30 km) inland.

  • Indus Kohistan (region, Pakistan-Afghanistan)

    Kohistan: …eastern part is known as Indus Kohistan (for the Indus River), and the western part, divided between Swat Kohistan (also called Kalam) and Dir Kohistan, extends across the northern part of the state to the Afghanistan border. The area comprises mountain ranges in the outer reaches of the Himalayas that…

  • Indus Plain (region, Pakistan)

    Indian monsoon: Peak period: …southwest monsoon over the lower Indus plain is only 500 metres (about 1,600 feet) thick and does not hold enough moisture to bring rain. On the other hand, the upper tropospheric easterlies become stronger and constitute a true easterly jet stream. Western Pakistan, Iran, and Arabia remain dry (probably because…

  • Indus River (river, Asia)

    Indus River, great trans-Himalayan river of South Asia. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km). Its total drainage area is about 450,000 square miles (1,165,000 square km), of which 175,000 square miles (453,000 square km) lie in the ranges and

  • Indus river dolphin (mammal)

    Pakistan: Plant and animal life: …itself is home to the Indus river dolphin, a freshwater dolphin whose habitat has been severely stressed by hunting, pollution, and the creation of dams and barrages. At least two types of sea turtles, the green and olive ridley, nest on the Makran coast.

  • Indus River flood of 2010

    Pakistan Floods of 2010, flooding of the Indus River in Pakistan in late July and August 2010 that led to a humanitarian disaster considered to be one of the worst in Pakistan’s history. The floods, which affected approximately 20 million people, destroyed homes, crops, and infrastructure and left

  • Indus susu (mammal)

    Pakistan: Plant and animal life: …itself is home to the Indus river dolphin, a freshwater dolphin whose habitat has been severely stressed by hunting, pollution, and the creation of dams and barrages. At least two types of sea turtles, the green and olive ridley, nest on the Makran coast.

  • Indus Valley (region, Pakistan)

    river: Significance to trade, agriculture, and industry: …the 1,300-kilometre length of the Indus valley, for instance, depends almost exclusively on barrages (i.e., distributor canals) running down alluvial fans and along floodplains.

  • Indus valley civilization

    Indus civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. The nuclear dates of the civilization appear to be about 2500–1700 bce, though the southern sites may have lasted later into the 2nd millennium bce. The civilization was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the

  • Indus Waters Treaty (India-Pakistan [1960])

    Indus Waters Treaty, treaty, signed on September 19, 1960, between India and Pakistan and brokered by the World Bank. The treaty fixed and delimited the rights and obligations of both countries concerning the use of the waters of the Indus River system. The Indus River rises in the southwestern

  • Indus-Tsang-po Suture Zone (geological region, Asia)

    mountain: The Himalayan chain: …some refer to as the Indus-Tsang-po Suture Zone, where a jumble of volcanic and sedimentary rocks have been folded and thrust over one another in a narrow zone parallel to these rivers. North of this suture, a belt of granites forms the backbone of the Trans-Himalayan range. These granites were…

  • indusium (plant anatomy)

    sorus: …flap of tissue called an indusium. In rust and smut fungi, a sorus is a spore mass produced on the leaf of an infected plant. Reproductive structures called sori also occur in various species of marine algae. See also spore.

  • Industria de Dise?o Textil, SA (Spanish company)

    Amancio Ortega: …of the Spanish clothing merchandiser Inditex (Industria de Dise?o Textil, SA), which included the Zara chain store.

  • industrial accident (safety)

    Accident, unexpected event, typically sudden in nature and associated with injury, loss, or harm. Accidents are a common feature of the human experience and result in injury or permanent disability to large numbers of people worldwide every year. Many accidents also involve damage to or loss of

  • industrial agriculture

    water scarcity: Economic and social solutions: Industrial agriculture is a major contributor to water pollution from pesticide and fertilizer runoff and animal wastes. Policies that incentivize organic farming and other sustainable farming practices serve to protect water sources from agricultural pollutants. Industrial sources of water pollution are usually more easily regulated…

  • Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (bank, China)

    China: Finance: …industrial and construction enterprises; the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, which conducts ordinary commercial transactions and acts as a savings bank for the public; the Agricultural Bank of China, which serves the agricultural sector; and the China Investment Bank, which handles foreign investment. Many foreign banks maintain offices in…

  • Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (union, South Africa)

    Southern Africa: Political organizations and trade unions: …a Nyasaland migrant, founded the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU). Initially consisting of dockworkers in Cape Town, the ICU spread rapidly as a mass movement in the towns and in the countryside, where those who had been evicted responded with millenarian zeal to its message. At its height the…

  • industrial architecture

    architecture: Commercial and industrial architecture: Buildings for exchange, transportation, communication, manufacturing, and power production meet the principal needs of commerce and industry. In the past these needs were mostly unspecialized. They were met either within domestic architecture or in buildings distinguished from domestic types chiefly by their size.…

  • Industrial Areas Foundation (American organization)

    Industrial Areas Foundation (IAF), a network of faith organizations from a variety of religious denominations in primarily low-income communities across the United States, Canada, and Europe. Its mission is to help ordinary citizens participate in the public arena in order to improve conditions in

  • industrial art

    Industrial design, the design of mass-produced consumer products. Industrial designers, often trained as architects or other visual arts professionals, are usually part of a larger creative team. Their primary responsibility is to help produce manufactured items that not only work well but please

  • Industrial Bank of China (Chinese bank)

    Philippe Berthelot: …with the affairs of the Industrial Bank of China, of which his brother was a director. Reappointed secretary-general in 1925, he accompanied Briand to Locarno and to London and conducted negotiations for resuming Franco-Russian relations. From then until 1932 he virtually controlled the internal organization of the ministry, following a…

  • Industrial Bank of Japan (Japanese bank)

    Industrial Bank of Japan, former Japanese commercial bank that operated a general-banking and foreign-exchange business with branches in Japan and overseas. Established in 1902, the bank had specialized in medium- and long-term financing of industrial development, and both its main office and its

  • industrial capitalism (economics)

    economic system: From commercial to industrial capitalism: Commercial capitalism proved to be only transitional. The succeeding form would be distinguished by the pervasive mechanization and industrialization of its productive processes, changes that introduced new dynamic tendencies into the economic system while significantly transforming the social and physical landscape.

  • industrial ceramics

    Industrial ceramics, Ceramics are broadly defined as inorganic, nonmetallic materials that exhibit such useful properties as high strength and hardness, high melting temperatures, chemical inertness, and low thermal and electrical conductivity but that also display brittleness and sensitivity to

  • industrial city (sociology)

    urban culture: The industrial city: Industrial cities appeared after the full development of industrial capitalism in the core nation-states of the late 18th-century world system. Their urban cultural role fit well with the capitalist economic order that came to dominate all other social institutions. Capitalism depended on the…

  • Industrial College of the Armed Forces (school, United States)

    National Defense University: …(ICAF) in 1946 (becoming the Dwight D. Eisenhower School for National Security and Resource Strategy in 2012), addressed that need.

  • Industrial Conciliation Act (South Africa [1924])

    South Africa: Union and disunity: …with the passage of the Industrial Conciliation Act in 1924, which set up new state structures for regulating industrial conflicts.

  • Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act (New Zealand [1894])

    organized labour: Compulsory arbitration and union growth in Australasia: The Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act of 1894 was drafted by that government’s most radical member, William Pember Reeves, a socialist among liberals. Addressing the problem of employers’ noncompliance with arbitration decisions, Reeves devised a system in which participation was voluntary for unions but compulsory for…

  • industrial country (economics)

    carbon footprint: Carbon footprint calculation: In developed countries, transportation and household energy use make up the largest component of an individual’s carbon footprint. For example, approximately 40 percent of total emissions in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century were from those sources. Such emissions are included…

  • industrial court (law)

    Industrial court, any of a variety of tribunals established to settle disputes between management and labour, most frequently disputes between employers and organized labour. The industrial courts stem loosely from the guild courts of the Middle Ages. Modern industrial courts began in France in

  • industrial customer (business)

    marketing: Business customers: Business customers, also known as industrial customers, purchase products or services to use in the production of other products. Such industries include agriculture, manufacturing, construction, transportation, and communication, among others. They differ from consumer markets in several respects. Because the customers are organizations,…

  • Industrial Democracy (work by Sidney and Beatrice Webb)

    Sidney and Beatrice Webb: Their work after marriage.: …of Trade Unionism (1894) and Industrial Democracy (1897). In these books the Webbs, in effect, introduced the economists and social historians of Britain to a part of British social life of which they had hitherto been unaware. The work that followed extended into areas of historical and social research, educational…

  • industrial design

    Industrial design, the design of mass-produced consumer products. Industrial designers, often trained as architects or other visual arts professionals, are usually part of a larger creative team. Their primary responsibility is to help produce manufactured items that not only work well but please

  • Industrial Designers Society of America (American organization)

    industrial design: Modern design in the United States: …eventually merged to form the Industrial Designers Society of America (1965). As with the Deutscher Werkbund and most professional organizations, these served to validate the profession in the view of the public and to facilitate communication among their members.

  • Industrial Development Corporation (South African organization)

    South Africa: Economy: Through the Industrial Development Corporation, the apartheid-era government set up and controlled a wide array of public corporations, many relating to industrial infrastructure. Two such corporations—one, the country’s primary producer of iron and steel; the other, an important producer of oil from coal—were privatized in the 1980s.…

  • Industrial Development Corporation (Zambian organization)

    Zambia: Economy: …to be controlled by the Industrial Development Corporation (INDECO). By January 1970 a majority holding had been acquired in the Zambian operations of the two major foreign mining corporations, the Anglo American Corporation and the Rhodesia Selection Trust (RST), which became the Nchanga Consolidated Copper Mines (NCCM) and Roan Consolidated…

  • Industrial Development, Institute of (Colombian industrial organization)

    Colombia: Industry: …reforms in the 1990s, the Institute of Industrial Development supplied the necessary capital for enterprises too large to be privately financed, investing large sums to strengthen the metalworking industry, to set up motor-vehicle assembly plants, to stimulate the construction of railroad cars and fishing vessels, and to encourage the manufacture…

  • industrial diamond (mineral)

    Industrial diamond, any diamond that is designated for industrial use, principally as a cutting tool or abrasive. In general, industrial diamonds are too badly flawed, irregularly shaped, poorly coloured, or small to be of value as gems, but they are of vital importance in the modern metalworking

  • industrial disease

    Occupational disease, any illness associated with a particular occupation or industry. Such diseases result from a variety of biological, chemical, physical, and psychological factors that are present in the work environment or are otherwise encountered in the course of employment. Occupational

  • industrial dispute (labour)

    industrial relations: Paternalism: …of the bitterness of the disputes, in part because any grievance a resident may have is seen to be the fault of the company.

  • industrial ecology (ecology)

    Industrial ecology, Discipline that traces the flow of energy and materials from their natural resources through manufacture, the use of products, and their final recycling or disposal. Research in industrial ecology began in the early 1990s. Life-cycle analysis traces the flow of materials; design

  • industrial education

    Technical education, the academic and vocational preparation of students for jobs involving applied science and modern technology. It emphasizes the understanding and practical application of basic principles of science and mathematics, rather than the attainment of proficiency in manual skills

  • industrial education

    Vocational education, instruction intended to equip persons for industrial or commercial occupations. It may be obtained either formally in trade schools, technical secondary schools, or in on-the-job training programs or, more informally, by picking up the necessary skills on the job. Vocational

  • industrial engineering

    Industrial engineering, application of engineering principles and techniques of scientific management to the maintenance of a high level of productivity at optimum cost in industrial enterprises. The managers responsible for industrial production require an enormous amount of assistance and support

  • industrial espionage

    Industrial espionage, acquisition of trade secrets from business competitors. A by-product of the technological revolution, industrial espionage is a reaction to the efforts of many businessmen to keep secret their designs, formulas, manufacturing processes, research, and future plans in order to

  • industrial fabric (textile)

    textile: Industrial fabrics: This class of fabrics includes composition products, processing fabrics, and direct-use types.

  • industrial feeding school (education)

    Ragged school, any of the 19th-century English and Scottish institutions maintained through charity and fostering various educational and other services for poor children, such as elementary schooling, industrial training, religious instruction, clothing clubs, and messenger and bootblack

  • industrial gas (industrial and domestic)

    occupational disease: Gases: Gases may act as local irritants to inflame mucous surfaces. Common examples include sulfur dioxide, chlorine, and fluorine, which have pungent odours and can severely irritate the eyes and the respiratory tract. Some gases, such as nitrogen oxides and phosgene, are much more insidious.…

  • industrial glass

    Glass, an inorganic solid material that is usually transparent or translucent as well as hard, brittle, and impervious to the natural elements. Glass has been made into practical and decorative objects since ancient times, and it is still very important in applications as disparate as building

  • industrial hemp (plant)

    Hemp, (Cannabis sativa), plant of the family Cannabaceae cultivated for its fibre (bast fibre) or its edible seeds. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. Although all three products—hemp, marijuana, and

  • industrial hygiene

    medicine: Industrial medicine: …physician may advise management about industrial hygiene and the need for safety devices and protective clothing and may become involved in building design. The physician or health worker may also inform the worker of occupational health hazards.

  • industrial injury insurance

    Workers’ compensation, social welfare program through which employers bear some of the cost of their employees’ work-related injuries and occupational diseases. Workers’ compensation was first introduced in Germany in 1884, and by the middle of the 20th century most countries in the world had some

  • Industrial Institute and College (university, Columbus, Mississippi, United States)

    Mississippi University for Women v. Hogan: Facts of the case: in Columbus, Mississippi, in 1884, Mississippi University for Women (MUW) historically limited its enrollment to female students. In 1974 the university instituted a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing. Five years later the plaintiff, Joe Hogan, applied for admission. The plaintiff, a registered nurse in Columbus, Mississippi, did not possess a…

  • Industrial Institute and College of Louisiana (university, Ruston, Louisiana, United States)

    Louisiana Tech University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Ruston, Louisiana, U.S. It offers a broad range of undergraduate and graduate degree programs, emphasizing engineering, science, technology, and business and awarding doctorates in business, philosophy, and

  • Industrial Light and Magic (American film company)

    history of the motion picture: United States: At the special-effects firm Industrial Light and Magic, models of the dinosaurs were scanned into computers and animated realistically to produce the first computer-generated images of lifelike action, rather than fantasy scenes. In Independence Day, a film combining the science-fiction and disaster genres in which giant alien spaceships attack…

  • industrial management

    business organization: Types of business associations: …essential feature, a system of management, varies greatly. In a simple form of business association the members who provide the assets are entitled to participate in the management unless otherwise agreed. In the more complex form of association, such as the company or corporation of the Anglo-American common-law countries, members…

  • industrial medicine

    Occupational medicine, the branch of medicine concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention and treatment of diseases and accidental injuries in working populations in the workplace. Historically, occupational medicine was limited to the treatment of injuries and diseases occurring to

  • industrial melanism (biology)

    Industrial melanism, the darkness—of the skin, feathers, or fur—acquired by a population of animals living in an industrial region where the environment is soot-darkened. The melanization of a population increases the probability that its members will survive and reproduce; it takes place over the

  • industrial microbiology (microbiology)

    microbiology: Industrial microbiology and genetic engineering: Many substances of considerable economic value are products of microbial metabolism. From an industrial viewpoint the substrate may be regarded as a raw material and the microorganism as the “chemical factory” for converting the raw material into new products. If…

  • industrial music (music)

    Industrial music, dissonant electronic music that arose in the late 1970s in response to punk rock. Coined by British postpunk experimentalists Throbbing Gristle, the term industrial simultaneously evoked the genre’s bleak, dystopian worldview and its harsh, assaultive sound (“muzak for the death

  • industrial nation (economics)

    carbon footprint: Carbon footprint calculation: In developed countries, transportation and household energy use make up the largest component of an individual’s carbon footprint. For example, approximately 40 percent of total emissions in the United States during the first decade of the 21st century were from those sources. Such emissions are included…

  • industrial noise (acoustics)

    noise pollution: Dealing with the effects of noise: Environmental and industrial noise is regulated in the United States under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Noise Control Act of 1972. Under these acts, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration set up industrial noise criteria in order to provide limits on the…

  • Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice (work by Woodward)

    organizational analysis: Special topics: In Industrial Organization: Theory and Practice (1965), the English management scholar Joan Woodward argued that an organization’s methods are determined by the class of “core technologies” that characterize its work: small batch (where the work must be adapted to the peculiarities of the current batch—e.g., emergency…

  • Industrial Organizations, Congress of (American labour organization)

    American Federation of Labor–Congress of Industrial Organizations: …in craft unions, and the CIO (founded 1935), which organized workers by industries.

  • industrial polymer (chemistry)

    Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins, cellulose, and nucleic

  • industrial polymer chemistry

    Chemistry of industrial polymers, structure and composition of chemical compounds made up of long, chainlike molecules. What distinguishes polymers from other types of compounds is the extremely large size of the molecules. The size of a molecule is measured by its molecular weight, which is equal

  • industrial polymers

    Major industrial polymers, chemical compounds used in the manufacture of synthetic industrial materials. In the commercial production of plastics, elastomers, man-made fibres, adhesives, and surface coatings, a tremendous variety of polymers are used. There are many ways to classify these

  • industrial psychology

    Industrial-organizational psychology, application of concepts and methods from several subspecialties of the discipline (such as learning, motivation, and social psychology) to business and institutional settings. The study of industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology originated in the United

  • Industrial Reconstruction, Institute for (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Economic policy: …Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision. Italy thus acquired a huge, state-led industrial sector, which was…

  • industrial relations

    Industrial relations, the behaviour of workers in organizations in which they earn their living. Scholars of industrial relations attempt to explain variations in the conditions of work, the degree and nature of worker participation in decision making, the role of labour unions and other forms of

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