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  • infantile strabismus (pathology)

    strabismus: Congenital, or infantile, strabismus appears in infancy and is presumably due to defects present at birth that are poorly understood. However, given the strong tendency for strabismus to run in families, the causes undoubtedly have some genetic component. While congenital strabismus is more common in…

  • Infantino, Carmine Michael (American comic-book artist)

    Carmine Michael Infantino, American comic-book artist (born May 24, 1925, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died April 4, 2013, New York, N.Y.), revitalized the superhero genre with work that marked the dawn of the Silver Age of comics. In the 1950s Infantino’s clean lines and bold colours combined with Bob

  • Infantino, Gianni (sports executive)

    Gianni Infantino, At the Extraordinary FIFA Congress on Feb. 26, 2016, Gianni Infantino was elected the ninth president of FIFA, the world governing body of association football (soccer), with a mandate for three years. He replaced Sepp Blatter, who had served from 1998 until he was ousted in 2015.

  • infantry (military force)

    Infantry, troops who fight on foot, even though transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, aircraft, tanks and other motorized vehicles, skis, or other means. The term applies equally to troops armed with such hand weapons as the spear and sword in ancient times and with automatic rifles and

  • infantry fighting vehicle (military technology)

    armoured vehicle: …tank is the principal fighting armoured vehicle. Other types armed with large-calibre main guns include tank destroyers and assault guns. This article traces the development of armoured personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, and other armoured vehicles designed primarily as platforms for assault troops.

  • Infantry Training (work by Liddell)

    Sir Basil Liddell Hart: …he wrote the Army’s official Infantry Training manual that included his “battle drill” system evolved in 1917 and his so-called “expanding torrent” method of attack, which grew out of infiltration tactics introduced in 1917–18. Liddell Hart became an early advocate of air power and mechanized tank warfare. Defining strategy as…

  • Infants of the Spring (work by Thurman)

    Wallace Henry Thurman: …best known for his novel Infants of the Spring (1932), a satire of what he believed were the overrated creative figures of the Harlem scene. Some reviewers welcomed Thurman’s bold insight, while others vilified him as a racial traitor. Thurman never again wrote on African-American subjects.

  • infarction (pathology)

    Infarction, death of tissue resulting from a failure of blood supply, commonly due to obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or narrowing of the blood-vessel channel. The dead tissue is called an infarct. Myocardial infarction (heart attack)—death of a section of heart muscle—results from

  • infauna (marine zoology)

    benthos: …upon bottom objects; the so-called infauna live within the sediments of the seafloor. By far the best-studied benthos are the macrobenthos, those forms larger than 1 mm (0.04 inch), which are dominated by polychaete worms, pelecypods, anthozoans, echinoderms, sponges, ascidians, and crustaceans. Meiobenthos, those organisms between 0.1 and 1 mm…

  • infected abortion (medicine)

    pregnancy: Abortion: An infected abortion is an abortion associated with infection of the genital organs.

  • infection (biology)

    bacteria: Bacteria in medicine: …of the body and cause infection. Some bacteria are adept at invasion of a host and are called pathogens, or disease producers. Some pathogens act at specific parts of the body, such as meningococcal bacteria (Neisseria meningitidis), which invade and irritate the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal…

  • infectious arthritis (pathology)

    arthritis: Infectious arthritis: Infectious arthritides are a set of arthritic conditions caused by exposure to certain microorganisms. In some instances the microorganisms infiltrate the joint space and cause destruction, whereas in others an infection stimulates an inappropriate immune response leading to reactive arthritis. Typically caused by…

  • infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (animal disease)

    Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, an inflammation of the conjunctiva or the cornea of the eye in cattle as the result of an infection; early viral involvement is suspected. Moraxella bovis is usually found in discharge from the affected eye; other bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and

  • infectious chorea (pathology)

    Sydenham chorea, a neurological disorder characterized by irregular and involuntary movements of muscle groups in various parts of the body that follow streptococcal infection. The name St. Vitus Dance derives from the late Middle Ages, when persons with the disease attended the chapels of St.

  • infectious disease

    Infectious disease, in medicine, a process caused by an agent, often a type of microorganism, that impairs a person’s health. In many cases, infectious disease can be spread from person to person, either directly (e.g., via skin contact) or indirectly (e.g., via contaminated food or water). An

  • infectious endocarditis (pathology)

    endocarditis: Traditionally, infective endocarditis has been classified as acute or subacute. Acute infective endocarditis generally is caused by Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, or Gonococcus bacteria or by fungi. This form of endocarditis develops rapidly, with fever, malaise, and other signs of systemic infection coupled with abnormal cardiac function and…

  • infectious enteritis (viral disease)

    Feline distemper, viral disease of cats, kittens two to six months old being most susceptible. Highly contagious, it is caused by a parvovirus that is closely related to canine parvovirus type 2. About 3 to 10 days after exposure to the disease, infected kittens cough and sneeze, have running eyes

  • infectious hepatitis (pathology)

    virus: Chronic and slowly progressive diseases: Hepatitis A is caused by a picornavirus usually transmitted by the fecal-oral route in a manner similar to that of poliovirus. Hepatitis B is caused by a small DNA virus that contains its own DNA polymerase and is transmitted by transfusion of blood and other blood…

  • infectious mononucleosis (pathology)

    Mononucleosis, infection in humans, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whose most common symptoms are fever, general malaise, and sore throat. The disease occurs predominantly in persons from 10 to 35 years old, but it is known to appear at any age. Infection of young children by the EBV

  • infectious myxomatosis (animal pathology)

    Myxomatosis, a highly fatal infectious viral disease of rabbits. It is characterized by fever, swelling of the mucous membranes, and the presence of nodular skin tumours. The disease exists naturally in populations of certain South American rabbits of the genus Sylvilagus and has been introduced

  • infectious waste

    hazardous-waste management: Hazardous-waste characteristics: Infectious wastes include used bandages, hypodermic needles, and other materials from hospitals or biological research facilities. Radioactive wastes emit ionizing energy that can harm living organisms. Because some radioactive materials can persist in the environment for many thousands of years before fully decaying, there is…

  • infective endocarditis (pathology)

    endocarditis: Traditionally, infective endocarditis has been classified as acute or subacute. Acute infective endocarditis generally is caused by Staphylococcus, Pneumococcus, or Gonococcus bacteria or by fungi. This form of endocarditis develops rapidly, with fever, malaise, and other signs of systemic infection coupled with abnormal cardiac function and…

  • inference (statistics)

    Inference, in statistics, the process of drawing conclusions about a parameter one is seeking to measure or estimate. Often scientists have many measurements of an object—say, the mass of an electron—and wish to choose the best measure. One principal approach of statistical inference is Bayesian

  • inference (reason)

    Inference, in logic, derivation of conclusions from given information or premises by any acceptable form of reasoning. Inferences are commonly drawn (1) by deduction, which, by analyzing valid argument forms, draws out the conclusions implicit in their premises, (2) by induction, which argues from

  • inference engine (computer science)

    expert system: …a knowledge base and an inference engine. A knowledge base is an organized collection of facts about the system’s domain. An inference engine interprets and evaluates the facts in the knowledge base in order to provide an answer. Typical tasks for expert systems involve classification, diagnosis, monitoring, design, scheduling, and…

  • inference form (logic)

    formal logic: General observations: …above may be called an inference form, and (1) and (2) are then instances of that inference form. The letters—X, Y, and Z—in (3) mark the places into which expressions of a certain type may be inserted. Symbols used for this purpose are known as variables; their use is analogous…

  • inference schema (logic)

    formal logic: General observations: …above may be called an inference form, and (1) and (2) are then instances of that inference form. The letters—X, Y, and Z—in (3) mark the places into which expressions of a certain type may be inserted. Symbols used for this purpose are known as variables; their use is analogous…

  • Inference schemata (logic)

    formal logic: General observations: …above may be called an inference form, and (1) and (2) are then instances of that inference form. The letters—X, Y, and Z—in (3) mark the places into which expressions of a certain type may be inserted. Symbols used for this purpose are known as variables; their use is analogous…

  • inference, rules of (logic)

    logic: Definitory and strategic inference rules: There is a further reason why the formulation of systems of rules of inference does not exhaust the science of logic. Rule-governed, goal-directed activities are often best understood by means of concepts borrowed from the study of games. The “game” of logic is…

  • inferential-role semantics (semantics)

    semantics: Conceptual-role semantics: In order to avoid having to distinguish between meaning and character, some philosophers, including Gilbert Harman and Ned Block, have recommended supplementing a theory of truth with what is called a conceptual-role semantics (also known as cognitive-role, computational-role, or inferential-role semantics). According to…

  • inferior alveolar nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Mandibular nerve: …(4) the mandibular teeth (inferior alveolar nerve). Skin over the lateral and anterior surfaces of the mandible and the lower lip is served by cutaneous branches of the mandibular nerve.

  • inferior colliculus (anatomy)

    human ear: Ascending pathways: …of which end in the inferior colliculus, the auditory centre of the midbrain, although some fibres may bypass the colliculus and end, together with the fibres from the colliculus, at the next higher level, the medial geniculate body. From the medial geniculate body there is an orderly projection of fibres…

  • inferior conjunction (astronomy)

    conjunction: An inferior conjunction occurs when the planet passes approximately between Earth and Sun; if it passes exactly between them, moving across the Sun’s face as seen from Earth, it is said to be in transit. A superior conjunction occurs when Earth and the other planet are…

  • inferior court (law)

    court: Courts of limited jurisdiction: …of a better term, “inferior” courts. These are often staffed by part-time judges who are not necessarily trained in the law. They handle minor civil cases involving small sums of money, such as bill collections, and minor criminal cases carrying light penalties. In addition to finally disposing of minor…

  • inferior ganglion of vagus (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Vagus nerve (CN X or 10): …to the foramen is the inferior ganglion, containing visceral afferent cells.

  • inferior mesenteric ganglion (physiology)

    human nervous system: Sympathetic ganglia: …the small intestine; and the inferior mesenteric ganglion innervates the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, urinary bladder, and sexual organs.

  • inferior salivatory nucleus (physiology)

    human nervous system: Parasympathetic nervous system: …preganglionic neurons belongs to the inferior salivatory nucleus, located in the caudal part of the medullary reticular formation. Neurons of this group send axons out of the medulla in the ninth cranial (glossopharyngeal) nerve and to the otic ganglion. From this site, postganglionic fibres travel to and innervate the parotid…

  • inferior vena cava (anatomy)

    vena cava: Inferior vena cava.: The inferior vena cava is formed by the coming together of the two major veins from the legs, the common iliac veins, at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, just below the small of the back. Unlike the superior vena cava,…

  • inferior vesical artery (anatomy)

    renal system: Blood and nerve supplies: The inferior vesical artery supplies the inferolateral surfaces of the bladder and assists in supplying the base of the bladder, the lower end of the ureter, and other adjacent structures.

  • inferiority complex (psychology)

    Inferiority complex, a psychological sense of inferiority that is wholly or partly unconscious. The term has been used by some psychiatrists and psychologists, particularly the followers of the early psychoanalyst Alfred Adler, who held that many neurotic symptoms could be traced to

  • Infernal Machine, The (work by Cocteau)

    Jean Cocteau: Influence of Radiguet: …to be his greatest play, La Machine infernale, a treatment of the Oedipus theme that is very much his own. In these two works he moved into closer contact with the great myths of humanity.

  • Infernillo phase (archaeological record)

    Stone Age: Rise of agriculture: Here, in the Infernillo phase, it appears that native American squash, peppers, and perhaps beans were being cultivated as early as 6500 bc. At this time, domesticates formed only a small portion of the total diet, the bulk of which was derived from wild animals and, to a…

  • Inferno (work by Dante)

    The Divine Comedy: Divided into three major sections—Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso—the narrative traces the journey of Dante from darkness and error to the revelation of the divine light, culminating in the Beatific Vision of God.

  • Inferno (film by Avildsen [1999])

    John G. Avildsen: …the thriller genre again with Desert Heat (also released as Inferno), which starred Jean-Claude Van Damme; the film was loosely based on the 1961 classic Yojimbo by Kurosawa Akira.

  • Inferno (film by Howard [2016])

    Ron Howard: …Angels & Demons (2009) and Inferno (2016).

  • infertility (medical disorder)

    Infertility, the inability of a couple to conceive and reproduce. Infertility is defined as the failure to conceive after one year of regular intercourse without contraception or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to a live birth. Infertility can affect either the male or the female and

  • infestation (pathology)

    animal disease: Infectious and noninfectious diseases: The term infestation indicates that animals, including spiny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), roundworms (Nematoda), flatworms (Platyhelminthes), and arthropods such as lice, fleas, mites, and ticks, are present in or on the body of a host. An infestation is not necessarily parasitic.

  • infibulation (ritual surgical procedure)

    female genital cutting: The procedure: Infibulation (also called Pharoanic circumcision). The vaginal opening is reduced by removing all or parts of the external genitalia (the clitoris, labia minora, and labia majora) and sewing, pinning, or otherwise causing the remaining tissue to fuse together during the healing process. Those procedures that…

  • infidelity, marital (sexual behaviour)

    Adultery, sexual relations between a married person and someone other than the spouse. Written or customary prohibitions or taboos against adultery constitute part of the marriage code of virtually every society. Indeed, adultery seems to be as universal and, in some instances, as common as

  • infield (baseball)

    baseball: Play of the game: …play is divided into the infield and the outfield. Within the infield is a square area called the diamond, which has four white bases, one on each corner. The bases are 90 feet (27.4 metres) apart.

  • infield fly rule (baseball)

    baseball: The force play: The infield fly rule protects base runners from the deception of an infielder who may allow an infield fly ball to drop, thus setting up an easy force play. The rule applies only if both first and second are occupied by runners and there are fewer…

  • infielder (baseball)

    baseball: Infielders: The infielders form the inner ring of defense. They sometimes catch line drives on the fly, but mainly they pick up ground balls that roll toward the outfield or shoot swiftly across the grass on one or more bounces. When a batted ball strikes…

  • infiltrating ductal carcinoma (pathology)

    breast cancer: Types of breast cancer: …common type of tumour, called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is a single, hard, barely movable lump. This type of tumour accounts for about 70 percent of all cases. Fewer than 15 percent of all cases are lobular carcinomas.

  • infiltration (chemical bonding)

    advanced ceramics: Infiltration: The siliconization of RBSC is a good example of infiltration, which may be described as any technique of filling in pores by reaction with or deposition from a liquid or vapour. In the case of liquid reaction, the technique is called melt infiltration; in…

  • infiltration (hydrologic cycle)

    hydrologic sciences: Infiltration: When water from a rainstorm or a period of snowmelt reaches the ground, some or all of it will infiltrate the soil. The rate of infiltration depends on the intensity of the input, the initial moisture condition of the surface soil layer, and the…

  • infiltration anesthesia (medicine)

    anesthetic: Local anesthetics: This is called infiltration anesthesia. Some local anesthetics are applied directly to mucous membranes, such as those of the nose, throat, larynx, and urethra or those of the conjunctiva of the eye. This is called surface or topical anesthesia. A familiar example of topical anesthesia is

  • infiltration gallery (water supply system)

    water supply system: Groundwater sources: …out of a well or infiltration gallery. An infiltration gallery typically includes several horizontal perforated pipes radiating outward from the bottom of a large-diameter vertical shaft. Wells are constructed in several ways, depending on the depth and nature of the aquifer. Wells used for public water supplies, usually more than…

  • Infiltrator, The (film by Furman [2016])

    Bryan Cranston: In The Infiltrator (2016), Cranston played real-life undercover federal agent Robert Mazur, who, in the 1980s, impersonated a money-laundering businessman in a sting operation that traced enormous sums of money back to Colombian drug kingpin Pablo Escobar and helped uncover the wide-reaching malfeasance of the Bank…

  • Infini chez soi, L’ (novel by Rolin)

    Dominique Rolin: …Bruegel the Elder, while in L’Infini chez soi (1980; “The Infinite at Home”) a first-person narration identifying mother with daughter offers prenatal and birth visions. In Le Gateau des morts (1982; The Deathday Cake) the narrator fantasizes her own death in the year 2000. Trente ans d’amour fou (1988; “Thirty…

  • infinitary logic

    metalogic: Nonelementary logic and future developments: …such as second-order logic and infinitary logics, that develop the model theory of nonelementary logic. Second-order logic contains, in addition to variables that range over individual objects, a second kind of variable ranging over sets of objects so that the model of a second-order sentence or theory also involves, beyond…

  • infinite being (philosophy)

    Judaism: ?asdai Crescas: …on the contrast between an infinite being and finite beings. It is through infinitude that God’s essential attributes—wisdom, for instance—differ from the corresponding and otherwise similar attributes found in created beings. In Crescas’s doctrine, as in that of Spinoza, God’s attributes are infinite in number. The central place assigned to…

  • infinite descent (mathematics)

    number theory: Pierre de Fermat: He used a technique called infinite descent that was ideal for demonstrating impossibility. The logical strategy assumes that there are whole numbers satisfying the condition in question and then generates smaller whole numbers satisfying it as well. Reapplying the argument over and over, Fermat produced an endless sequence of decreasing…

  • infinite dimensional topology (mathematics)

    Hilbert space: …new subfield of topology called infinite dimensional topology in the 1960s and ’70s.

  • infinite game (mathematics)

    game theory: Classification of games: Infinite games are more subtle and will only be touched upon in this article.

  • infinite group (mathematics)

    Burnside problem: …clear to Burnside that an infinite group (such as the positive integers) may have a finite number of generators and a finite group must have finite generators, but he wondered if every finitely generated periodic group must necessarily be finite. The answer turned out to be no, as shown in…

  • Infinite in All Directions (work by Dyson)

    Freeman Dyson: … (1984), Origins of Life (1985), Infinite in All Directions (1988), Imagined Worlds (1998), and The Sun, the Genome, and the Internet (1999). Disturbing the Universe (1979) and the epistolary Maker of Patterns (2018) are autobiographies.

  • Infinite Jest (novel by Wallace)

    American literature: Multicultural writing: including David Foster Wallace’s Infinite Jest (1996), an encyclopaedic mixture of arcane lore, social fiction, and postmodern irony; Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections (2001, National Book Award) and Freedom (2010), both family portraits; and Don DeLillo’s Underworld (1997), a brooding, resonant, oblique account of the Cold War

  • infinite number (mathematics)

    Transfinite number, denotation of the size of an infinite collection of objects. Comparison of certain infinite collections suggests that they have different sizes even though they are all infinite. For example, the sets of integers, rational numbers, and real numbers are all infinite; but each is

  • Infinite Riches (novel by Okri)

    Ben Okri: …Songs of Enchantment (1993) and Infinite Riches (1998) continue the themes of The Famished Road, relating stories of dangerous quests and the struggle for equanimity in an unstable land. Okri’s other novels included Astonishing the Gods (1995); Dangerous Love (1996), about “star-crossed” lovers in postcolonial Nigeria; In Arcadia (2002); Starbook…

  • infinite series (mathematics)

    Infinite series, the sum of infinitely many numbers related in a given way and listed in a given order. Infinite series are useful in mathematics and in such disciplines as physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. For an infinite series a1 + a2 + a3 +?, a quantity sn = a1 + a2 +?+ an, which

  • infinite set (mathematics)

    axiom of choice: For infinite sets, however, it would take an infinite amount of time to choose elements one by one. Thus, infinite sets for which there does not exist some definite selection rule require the axiom of choice (or one of its equivalent formulations) in order to proceed…

  • infinitely repeated game (mathematics)

    Robert J. Aumann: …methodologies and analyses of so-called infinitely repeated games, he identified the outcomes that could be sustained in long-term relations and demonstrated the prerequisites for cooperation in situations where there are many participants, infrequent interaction, or the potential for a break in relations and when participants’ actions lack transparency.

  • infinitesimal (mathematics)

    Infinitesimal, in mathematics, a quantity less than any finite quantity yet not zero. Even though no such quantity can exist in the real number system, many early attempts to justify calculus were based on sometimes dubious reasoning about infinitesimals: derivatives were defined as ultimate ratios

  • infinitesimal strain (mechanics)

    mechanics of solids: Strain and strain-displacement relations: …to this situation, are called small strain or infinitesimal strain. Expressions for strain will also be given that are valid for rotations and fractional length changes of arbitrary magnitude; such expressions are called finite strain.

  • Infinitesimals

    Infinitesimals were introduced by Isaac Newton as a means of “explaining” his procedures in calculus. Before the concept of a limit had been formally introduced and understood, it was not clear how to explain why calculus worked. In essence, Newton treated an infinitesimal as a positive number that

  • Infinities, The (novel by Banville)

    John Banville: The Infinities (2009) is an eccentric work that relates a domestic drama that takes place in a parallel reality through the narrative of the Greek god Hermes, and Ancient Light (2012) uses characters that previously appeared in Eclipse and Shroud to recount an elderly man’s…

  • infinitive (linguistics)

    Celtic languages: Grammatical characteristics: …is its lack of the infinitive form of the verb found in most other Indo-European languages—e.g., English “to do,” “to call.” The equivalent is the verbal noun, which is a noun closely linked to the verb, though not necessarily derived from the same stem. Being a noun, it can have…

  • infinity (mathematics)

    Infinity, the concept of something that is unlimited, endless, without bound. The common symbol for infinity, ∞, was invented by the English mathematician John Wallis in 1657. Three main types of infinity may be distinguished: the mathematical, the physical, and the metaphysical. Mathematical

  • Infinity Mirror Room—Phalli’s Field (work by Kusama)

    Yayoi Kusama: Installations from that time included Infinity Mirror Room—Phalli’s Field (1965), a mirrored room whose floors were covered with hundreds of stuffed phalli that had been painted with red dots. Mirrors gave her the opportunity to create infinite planes in her installations, and she would continue to use them in later…

  • Infinity of Lists, The (book by Eco)

    Umberto Eco: …book, Vertigine della lista (2009; The Infinity of Lists), produced in conjunction with an exhibition he organized at the Louvre Museum, in which he investigated the Western passion for list making and accumulation. Costruire il nemico e altri scritti occasionali (2011; Inventing the Enemy, and Other Occasional Writings) collected pieces—some…

  • infinity, axiom of (set theory)

    foundations of mathematics: Foundational logic: …axiom to make them work—the axiom of infinity, which postulates the existence of an infinite set. Since the simplest infinite set is the set of natural numbers, one cannot really say that arithmetic has been reduced to logic. Most mathematicians follow Peano, who preferred to introduce the natural numbers directly…

  • infirmary (building)

    abbey: …housed the novitiate and the infirmary. In the manner of an early isolation hospital, it had its own chapel, bathhouse, refectory, kitchen, and garden. The doctor’s house, with its physic garden of essential medicinal herbs and with small sickrooms, was nearby.

  • infitā? (Egyptian history)

    Infitā?, program of economic liberalization in Egypt initiated by Pres. Anwar el-Sādāt in the early 1970s. Sādāt’s program of infitā?, officially outlined in the October Paper of April 1974, represented a marked departure from the socialist framework of his predecessor, Gamal Abdel Nasser. The

  • infix (grammar)

    Austroasiatic languages: Morphology: …extremely complex system of prefixes, infixes (elements inserted within the body of a word), and suffixes. Verbs, for instance, are inflected for person, number, tense, negation, mood (intensive, durative, repetitive), definiteness, location, and agreement with the object. Furthermore, derivational processes indicate intransitive, causative, reciprocal, and reflexive forms. On the other…

  • inflammation (pathology)

    Inflammation, a response triggered by damage to living tissues. The inflammatory response is a defense mechanism that evolved in higher organisms to protect them from infection and injury. Its purpose is to localize and eliminate the injurious agent and to remove damaged tissue components so that

  • inflammatory bowel disease (pathology)

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic inflammation of the intestines that results in impaired absorption of nutrients. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) encompasses two disorders: Crohn disease (regional ileitis) and ulcerative colitis. The onset of IBD typically occurs between ages 15 and 35,

  • inflammatory carcinoma (pathology)

    breast cancer: Types of breast cancer: Inflammatory carcinoma is a rare type of breast cancer that results in swelling and reddening of the affected area. The area then becomes purplish, and the skin is hot, with the nipple usually becoming crusted and retracted.

  • inflammatory myopathy (disease)

    Myositis, inflammation, and frequently infection, of muscle tissue; it may be caused by any of a number of bacteria, viruses, and parasites; in many cases it is of unknown origin. Most inflammatory muscle diseases are destructive to the tissue involved and to the surrounding areas. They may occur

  • inflammatory response (pathology)

    Inflammation, a response triggered by damage to living tissues. The inflammatory response is a defense mechanism that evolved in higher organisms to protect them from infection and injury. Its purpose is to localize and eliminate the injurious agent and to remove damaged tissue components so that

  • inflation (of lungs)

    respiratory system: The lung: As the lungs are inflated, there is an accompanying increase in the energy stored within the elastic tissues of the lungs, just as energy is stored in a stretched rubber band. The conversion of this stored, or potential, energy into kinetic, or active, energy during the deflation process supplies…

  • inflation (cosmogony)

    cosmic microwave background: Isotropy in the cosmic background: A mechanism called “inflation” offers an attractive way out of this dilemma. The basic idea is that at high energies, matter is better described by fields than by classical means. The contribution of a field to the energy density (and therefore the mass density) and the pressure of…

  • inflation (economics)

    Inflation, in economics, collective increases in the supply of money, in money incomes, or in prices. Inflation is generally thought of as an inordinate rise in the general level of prices. From a theoretical view, at least four basic schemata commonly used in considerations of inflation can be

  • inflationary universe (cosmogony)

    cosmic microwave background: Isotropy in the cosmic background: A mechanism called “inflation” offers an attractive way out of this dilemma. The basic idea is that at high energies, matter is better described by fields than by classical means. The contribution of a field to the energy density (and therefore the mass density) and the pressure of…

  • inflection (linguistics)

    Inflection, in linguistics, the change in the form of a word (in English, usually the addition of endings) to mark such distinctions as tense, person, number, gender, mood, voice, and case. English inflection indicates noun plural (cat, cats), noun case (girl, girl’s, girls’), third person singular

  • inflector (synchrotron)

    particle accelerator: Synchrotrons: …by a device called an inflector. They begin their acceleration in the ring when the magnetic field is small. As the field created by the ring magnets increases, the injection pulse is timed so that the field and the energy of the particles from the linear accelerator are properly matched.…

  • Inflexible, L’ (submarine)

    submarine: Strategic submarines: …of the 1970s, France built L’Inflexible. This 8,000-ton submarine, which entered service in 1985, carried 16 M-4 SLBMs, each with a range of 2,800 nautical miles (5,200 km). Between 1997 and 2010 four Triomphant-class submarines entered service; as replacements of L’Inflexible and the older Redoutable class, these are designed to…

  • infliximab (drug)

    immunosuppressant: Infliximab is an antibody that binds to the cytokine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which prevents TNFα from binding to its receptor. TNFα is thought to play a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease, and infliximab, which blocks the activity of…

  • inflorescence (plant anatomy)

    Inflorescence, in a flowering plant, a cluster of flowers on a branch or a system of branches. An inflorescence is categorized on the basis of the arrangement of flowers on a main axis (peduncle) and by the timing of its flowering (determinate and indeterminate). In determinate (cymose)

  • inflow (cyclones)

    weather forecasting: Analysis of synoptic weather reports: …Storms (1841) that air would flow toward the regions of lowest pressure and then would be forced upward, causing clouds and precipitation. Both Redfield and Espy proved to be right. The air does spin around the cyclone, as Redfield believed, while the layers close to the ground flow inward and…

  • influence fuze

    Proximity fuze, an explosive ignition device used in bombs, artillery shells, and mines. The fuze senses when a target is close enough to be damaged or destroyed by the weapon’s explosion. The sensor is typically a small radar set that sends out signals and listens for their reflections from

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