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  • Innocent Eye, The (work by Read)

    Sir Herbert Read: …he described his childhood in The Innocent Eye (1933), which was later incorporated with other autobiographical writings in The Contrary Experiences (1963). After working in a bank, he enrolled at the University of Leeds in 1912 and then served for three years as an infantry officer during World War I.…

  • Innocent I, Saint (pope)

    Saint Innocent I, ; feast day July 28), pope from 401 to 417, who condemned Pelagianism, a heresy concerning the role of grace and free will. Probably a Roman deacon, Innocent was possibly the son of St. Anastasius I, whom he succeeded in the papacy on Dec. 22, 401. In 404 Innocent ordered a synod

  • Innocent II (pope)

    Innocent II, pope from 1130 to 1143. A cardinal by 1116, Innocent was appointed in 1122 by Pope Calixtus II as one of the ambassadors who drafted the Concordat of Worms, an agreement ending disputes between the pope and the Holy Roman emperor Henry V over the right of investiture; i.e., whether the

  • Innocent III (pope)

    Innocent III, the most significant pope of the Middle Ages. Elected pope on January 8, 1198, Innocent III reformed the Roman Curia, reestablished and expanded the pope’s authority over the Papal States, worked tirelessly to launch Crusades to recover the Holy Land, combated heresy in Italy and

  • Innocent III (work by Luchaire)

    Achille Luchaire: His later works include Innocent III, 6 vol. (1904–08), an elaborate study of the pope’s life and the social climate and events of his day, and La Société fran?aise au temps de Philippe-Auguste (1909). He also contributed essays on the 13th century to Ernest Lavisse’s monumental Histoire de France…

  • Innocent III (antipope)

    Innocent (III), last of four antipopes (1179–80) during the pontificate of Alexander III. A member of a family of German origin, he was a cardinal when elected on Sept. 29, 1179, by a faction opposing Alexander, who, in January 1180, relegated Innocent to the southern Italian abbey of SS. Trinità

  • Innocent IV (pope)

    Innocent IV, one of the great pontiffs of the Middle Ages (reigned 1243–54), whose clash with Holy Roman emperor Frederick II formed an important chapter in the conflict between papacy and empire. His belief in universal responsibility of the papacy led him to attempt the evangelization of the East

  • Innocent IX (pope)

    Innocent IX, pope from Oct. 29 to Dec. 30, 1591. As bishop of Nicastro, Kingdom of Naples, he participated in the Council of Trent in 1562. In 1566 he was a papal ambassador at Venice. He was later employed in the Roman Inquisition (to combat Protestantism) by Pope Gregory XIII, who appointed him

  • Innocent Man, The (work by Grisham)

    John Grisham: His first nonfiction book, The Innocent Man: Murder and Injustice in a Small Town (2006), explores a 1982 murder case that resulted in two Oklahoma men being wrongfully sentenced to death row. In 2009 Grisham published the short-story collection Ford County. The following year saw Theodore Boone: Kid Lawyer,…

  • innocent passage (international law)

    Law of the Sea: …are granted the right of innocent passage through this zone. Passage is innocent as long as a ship refrains from engaging in certain prohibited activities, including weapons testing, spying, smuggling, serious pollution, fishing, or scientific research. Where territorial waters comprise straits used for international navigation (e.g., the straits of Gibraltar,…

  • Innocent V Blessed (pope)

    Blessed Innocent V, ; feast day June 22), pope during 1276, the first Dominican pontiff. He collaborated with SS. Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas in drafting a rule of studies for the Dominican order. Innocent V became a Dominican (c. 1240) and studied at the University of Paris (1255–59), where

  • Innocent Veniaminov, Saint (Russian Orthodox priest)

    Saint Innocent Veniaminov, ; canonized Oct. 6, 1977), the most famous Russian Orthodox missionary priest of the 19th century, who later became Metropolitan Innocent of Moscow. He was canonized in the Russian Church. Veniaminov began his career, from 1824 until 1839, as a parish priest, first in

  • Innocent VI (pope)

    Innocent VI, pope from 1352 to 1362. A professor of civil law at Toulouse, Fr., Innocent VI took holy orders and was appointed to the French bishoprics of Noyon (1338) and Clermont (1340). A cardinal priest in 1342, he was made cardinal bishop of Ostia, Papal States, in 1352 by Pope Clement VI,

  • Innocent VII (pope)

    Innocent VII, pope from 1404 to 1406. Appointed archbishop of Ravenna (1387) by Pope Urban VI and, in 1389, bishop of Bologna, he was made cardinal by Pope Boniface IX, whom he succeeded on Oct. 17, 1404. Innocent’s election was opposed at Rome, where it caused considerable strife, and at Avignon,

  • Innocent VIII (pope)

    Innocent VIII, pope from 1484 to 1492. Named bishop of Savona, Italy, in 1467 by Pope Paul II, he was made cardinal in 1473 by Pope Sixtus IV, whom he succeeded. His election was manipulated by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere (later Pope Julius II), whose tool Innocent remained. The executions of

  • Innocent Wayfaring, The (work by Chute)

    children's literature: Contemporary times: …few high points, as did The Innocent Wayfaring (1943), a tale of Chaucer’s England by the equally scholarly Marchette Chute. Poetry for children had at least two talented representatives. One was the eminent poet-critic John Ciardi, the other David McCord, a veteran maker of nonsense and acrobat of language.

  • Innocent Wife, The (novel by Colette)

    Claudine: …The Indulgent Husband (1902), and The Innocent Wife (1903). Locked by Willy in a room so that she would write without distractions, the young Colette drew on her own experiences as a girl from the provinces and as a young married woman with a libertine husband to produce scenes from…

  • Innocent X (pope)

    Innocent X, pope from 1644 to 1655. Pamfili was a church judge under Pope Clement VIII and a papal representative at Naples for Pope Gregory XV. He was made ambassador to Spain and cardinal (1626) by Pope Urban VIII, whom he succeeded on Sept. 15, 1644. Having been supported by cardinals who had

  • Innocent XI Blessed (pope)

    Blessed Innocent XI, ; feast day August 13), pope from 1676 to 1689. Odescalchi studied law at the University of Naples and entered the Curia under Pope Urban VIII. Pope Innocent X made him cardinal (1645), emissary to Ferrara, Italy, and bishop of Novara, Italy (1650). He was elected pope on Sept.

  • Innocent XII (pope)

    Innocent XII, pope from 1691 to 1700. After studying at the Jesuit College, Rome, Pignatelli joined the Curia under Pope Urban VIII, becoming successively governor of Viterbo and papal ambassador to Tuscany and to Poland and Austria. He was made cardinal in 1681 by Pope Innocent XI, whose

  • Innocent XIII (pope)

    Innocent XIII, pope from 1721 to 1724. Of noble birth, Conti was papal ambassador to Switzerland and to Portugal before Pope Clement XI made him cardinal (1706) and bishop of Osimo, Papal States (1709). He was elected pope on May 8, 1721. In the following year he invested the Holy Roman emperor

  • Innocent, The (film by Schlesinger [1993])

    John Schlesinger: Films of the 1990s and final work: …have been a Soviet spy; The Innocent (1993) focused on the internecine deception between a British (Anthony Hopkins) and an American (Campbell Scott) intelligence agent in Berlin. Considerably lighter in tone was Cold Comfort Farm (1995). Made for British television, it brought to the screen the 1932 novel by Stella

  • Innocent, The (novel by McEwan)

    English literature: Fiction: …Berlin in the 1950s (The Innocent [1990]) and in Europe in 1946 (Black Dogs [1992]). These novels’ scenes set in the 1990s are haunted by what McEwan perceives as the continuing repercussions of World War II. These repercussions are also felt in Last Orders (1996), a masterpiece of quiet…

  • Innocents (American baseball team)

    Pittsburgh Pirates, American professional baseball team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Sometimes referred to as the “Bucs,” the Pirates are among the oldest teams in baseball and have won the World Series five times (1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979). The team that would become the Pirates was

  • Innocents Abroad, The (work by Twain)

    The Innocents Abroad, a humorous travel narrative by Mark Twain, published in 1869 and based on Twain’s letters to newspapers about his 1867 steamship voyage to Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land. The Innocents Abroad sharply satirizes tourists who learn what they should see and feel by reading

  • Innocents Abroad; or, The New Pilgrim’s Progress, The (work by Twain)

    The Innocents Abroad, a humorous travel narrative by Mark Twain, published in 1869 and based on Twain’s letters to newspapers about his 1867 steamship voyage to Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land. The Innocents Abroad sharply satirizes tourists who learn what they should see and feel by reading

  • Innocents’ Day (Christianity)

    Feast of the Holy Innocents, Christian feast in remembrance of the massacre of young children in Bethlehem by King Herod the Great in his attempt to kill the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:16–18). The feast is observed by Western churches on December 28 and in the Eastern churches on December 29. The

  • Innocents, The (work by Simon)

    Taryn Simon: The resulting series, entitled The Innocents, was published as a book in 2003, and permutations of the series were exhibited at galleries and museums in New York City, Chicago, Los Angeles, and London.

  • Innocents, The (film by Clayton [1961])

    The Innocents, British horror film, released in 1961, that is widely considered one of the best ghost stories ever filmed and the finest screen adaptation of Henry James’s novella The Turn of the Screw (1898). Deborah Kerr portrayed Miss Giddens, a spinster governess, hired by an affluent bachelor

  • Innoko River (river, Alaska, United States)

    Innoko River, river, west-central Alaska, U.S. It is the westernmost major tributary of the Yukon River. The Innoko rises in the Kuskokwim Mountains west of the town of McGrath and flows north and then southwest for about 500 miles (800 km) before joining the Yukon near Holy Cross. The river’s

  • innominate artery (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: The aorta and its principal branches: …origin from the heart, the innominate, the left common carotid, and the left subclavian. These three branches supply the head, neck, and arms with oxygenated blood.

  • innominate vein (anatomy)

    vena cava: Superior vena cava.: The brachiocephalic veins, as their name implies—being formed from the Greek words for “arm” and “head”—carry blood that has been collected from the head and neck and the arms; they also drain blood from much of the upper half of the body, including the upper part…

  • Innommable, L’? (novel by Beckett)

    The Unnamable, novel by Samuel Beckett, published in French as L’Innommable in 1953 and then translated by the author into English. It was the third in a trilogy of prose narratives that began with Molloy (1951) and Malone meurt (1951; Malone Dies), published together in English as Three Novels

  • Innoshima (Japan)

    Innoshima, former city, eastern Hiroshima ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It was coextensive with Inno Island (Japanese Inno-shima), a small offshore island in the Inland Sea just south of Onomichi. Innoshima city was merged administratively with Onomichi in 2006. Inno Island was

  • innovation (creativity)

    Innovation, the creation of a new way of doing something, whether the enterprise is concrete (e.g., the development of a new product) or abstract (e.g., the development of a new philosophy or theoretical approach to a problem). Innovation plays a key role in the development of sustainable methods

  • innovation, business

    economics: Industrial organization: …in price but in successful innovation, and this kind of competition has proved more effective for economic progress than the more traditional price competition.

  • Innovative Market Systems (American company)

    Michael Bloomberg: Early life and Bloomberg LP: Twenty years later the renamed Bloomberg LP had become a global leader in financial data services. Central to the company’s success was the Bloomberg computer terminal, a comprehensive financial news and information source. The company’s other holdings included the Bloomberg Business News wire service, news radio station WBBR in New…

  • Inns of Court (British legal association)

    Inns of Court, in London, group of four institutions of considerable antiquity that have historically been responsible for legal education. Their respective governing bodies, the benches, exercise the exclusive right of admitting persons to practice by a formal call to the bar. They consist of the

  • Innsbruck (Austria)

    Innsbruck, city, capital of Bundesland (federal state) Tirol, western Austria, on the Inn at the mouth of the Sill River in the Eastern Alps. First mentioned in 1180 as a small market town belonging to the Bavarian counts of Andech, it developed rapidly because of its strategic position at the

  • Innsbruck 1964 Olympic Winter Games

    Innsbruck 1964 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Innsbruck, Austria, that took place Jan. 29–Feb. 9, 1964. The Innsbruck Games were the ninth occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. After having narrowly lost the 1960 Games to Squaw Valley, Calif., U.S., Innsbruck was awarded the 1964

  • Innsbruck 1976 Olympic Winter Games

    Innsbruck 1976 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Innsbruck, Austria, that took place Feb. 4–15, 1976. The Innsbruck Games were the 12th occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The 1976 Games were originally awarded to Denver, but, fearing environmental damage and an increase in costs,

  • Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen (song by Isaac)

    Heinrich Isaac: His famous “Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen” (“Innsbruck, I must leave you”) recalls the style of the simpler frottola. This song was later reworked as a chorale, “O Welt [“World”], ich muss dich lassen,” familiar through arrangements by J.S. Bach and by Brahms.

  • Innu (peoples)

    Innu, North American Indian peoples who spoke almost identical Algonquian dialects and whose cultures differed chiefly in their adaptation to their respective environments. The southern Innu, or Montagnais, traditionally occupied a large forested area paralleling the northern shores of the Gulf of

  • Innuit (people)

    Eskimo, any member of a group of peoples who, with the closely related Aleuts, constitute the chief element in the indigenous population of the Arctic and subarctic regions of Greenland, Canada, the United States, and far eastern Russia (Siberia). Early 21st-century population estimates indicated

  • Innuitian Mountains (mountains, Nunavut, Canada)

    Innuitian Mountains, mountain range in Nunavut, Canada. It extends southwest to northeast across several Arctic islands for about 800 miles (1,300 km) and reaches heights of 6,000 feet (1,830 metres) or more. “Innuitian” is derived from innuit, a term applied by the Eskimos of Alaska to

  • Innuitian Region (region, Canada)

    Canada: The Arctic Archipelago: …and the mountains of the Innuitian Region to the north. The Innuitian ranges are geologically young mountains similar to the Western Cordillera, with some peaks and ridges reaching 10,000 feet (3,000 metres). Much of the Innuitian Region is permanently covered with snow and ice through which mountain peaks occasionally protrude.

  • Ino (insect)

    Forester moth, (genus Procris or Ino), any of a group of moths in the family Zygaenidae (order Lepidoptera) that are closely related to the burnet moths. The adult forester moth has shining green forewings with a span of about 3 cm (1.2 inches), translucent, dark hind wings, and an iridescent body.

  • Ino (work by Telemann)

    Georg Philipp Telemann: Legacy: …songs to the dramatic cantata Ino, written at the age of 84. Of his operas the comic ones were the most successful, particularly Pimpinone. His orchestral works consist of suites (called ouvertures), concerti grossi, and concerti. His chamber works are remarkable for their quantity, the great variety of instrumental combinations,…

  • Ino (Greek mythology)

    Leucothea, (Greek: White Goddess [of the Foam]), in Greek mythology, a sea goddess first mentioned in Homer’s Odyssey, in which she rescued the Greek hero Odysseus from drowning. She was customarily identified with Ino, daughter of the Phoenician Cadmus; because she cared for the infant god

  • Inoceramus (fossil mollusk genus)

    Inoceramus, genus of extinct pelecypods (clams) found as fossils in Jurassic to Cretaceous rocks (laid down between 199.6 million and 65.5 million years ago). Especially important and widespread in Cretaceous rocks, Inoceramus had a distinctive shell; it is large, thick, and wrinkled in a

  • inoculation (medicine)

    Inoculation, process of producing immunity and method of vaccination that consists of introduction of the infectious agent onto an abraded or absorptive skin surface instead of inserting the substance in the tissues by means of a hollow needle, as in injection. Of the common vaccines, only

  • ?n?nü, battles of (Turkish history)

    Kemal Atatürk: The nationalist movement and the war for independence: …10, 1921, at the First Battle of the ?n?nü.

  • ?n?nü, Erdal (Turkish politician)

    Turkey: The Kurdish conflict: Erdal ?n?nü, the son of ?smet ?n?nü, led the Social Democratic and Populist Party (SDPP; founded 1985), which gained one-fourth of the vote. Erbakan’s new Welfare Party (WP; an Islamic party) and Türke?’s right-wing National Endeavour Party (NEP) also took part, although they failed to…

  • ?n?nü, ?smet (president of Turkey)

    ?smet ?n?nü, Turkish army officer, statesman, and collaborator with and successor to Mustafa Kemal Atatürk as president of the Turkish Republic. Identified with one-party rule between 1939 and 1946, he later emerged as a champion of democracy. ?smet served on the general staff of the 3rd Army at

  • Inopportune: Stage One (work by Cai Guo-Qiang)

    Cai Guo-Qiang: …a dramatic installation piece entitled Inopportune: Stage One (2004). For the work, Cai used nine actual cars suspended at various angles to evoke a sort of stop-action image of a car bombing, complete with timed sprays of lights. The show’s other pieces included several of Cai’s signature gunpowder drawings and…

  • inorganic chemical preservative (chemical compound)

    food preservation: Inorganic chemical preservatives: Sulfur dioxide and sulfites are perhaps the most important inorganic chemical preservatives. Sulfites are more effective against molds than against yeasts and are widely used in the preservation of fruits and vegetables. Sulfur compounds are extensively used in wine making and, as…

  • inorganic chemistry

    chemistry: Inorganic chemistry: Modern chemistry, which dates more or less from the acceptance of the law of conservation of mass in the late 18th century, focused initially on those substances that were not associated with living organisms. Study of such substances, which normally have little or…

  • inorganic compound (chemical compound)

    Inorganic compound, any substance in which two or more chemical elements (usually other than carbon) are combined, nearly always in definite proportions. Compounds of carbon are classified as organic when carbon is bound to hydrogen. Carbon compounds such as carbides (e.g., silicon carbide [SiC2]),

  • inorganic pigment (chemistry)

    pigment: The majority of inorganic pigments are brighter and last longer than organic ones. Organic pigments made from natural sources have been used for centuries, but most pigments used today are either inorganic or synthetic organic ones. Synthetic organic pigments are derived from coal tars and other petrochemicals. Inorganic…

  • inorganic polymer (chemistry)

    Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins, cellulose, and nucleic

  • inorganic polymers

    Inorganic polymer, any of a class of large molecules that lack carbon and are polymers—that is, made up of many small repeating units called monomers. The word polymer is derived from the Greek term poly, meaning many, and meros, which means part. Nature abounds with carbon-based (that is, organic)

  • inorganic scintillator (physics)

    radiation measurement: Inorganic scintillators: Most inorganic scintillators consist of transparent single crystals, whose dimensions range from a few millimetres to many centimetres. Some inorganics, such as silver-activated zinc sulfide, are good scintillators but cannot be grown in the form of optical-quality large crystals. As a result, their…

  • inorganic soil (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Essential plant nutrients: The inorganic or mineral fraction, which comprises the bulk of most soils, is derived from rocks and their degradation products. The power to supply plant nutrients is much greater in the larger particles, sand and silt, than in the fine particles, or clay. The minerals that…

  • inosilicate (chemical compound)

    Inosilicate, any of a class of inorganic compounds that have structures characterized by silicate tetrahedrons (each of which consists of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron) arranged in chains. Two of the oxygen atoms of each tetrahedron are

  • inosinic acid (chemical compound)

    Inosinic acid, a compound important in metabolism. It is the ribonucleotide of hypoxanthine and is the first compound formed during the synthesis of purine in organisms. From inosinic acid are derived such important compounds as the purine nucleotides found in nucleic acids and the energy-rich

  • inositol (chemical compound)

    Inositol, any of several stereoisomeric alcohols similar in molecular structure to the simple carbohydrates. The best known of the inositols is myoinositol, named for its presence in muscle tissue, from which it was first obtained in 1850. Myoinositol is essential for the growth of yeasts and o

  • inotropic agent (drug)

    cardiovascular drug: Contractions: Inotropic agents are drugs that influence the force of contraction of cardiac muscle and thereby affect cardiac output. Drugs have a positive inotropic effect if they increase the force of the heart’s contraction. The cardiac glycosides, substances that occur in the leaves of the foxglove…

  • Inotropic drug (drug)

    cardiovascular drug: Contractions: Inotropic agents are drugs that influence the force of contraction of cardiac muscle and thereby affect cardiac output. Drugs have a positive inotropic effect if they increase the force of the heart’s contraction. The cardiac glycosides, substances that occur in the leaves of the foxglove…

  • Inoue Enryō (Japanese philosopher)

    Inoue Enryō, Japanese philosopher and educator who attempted to reinterpret Buddhist concepts so they would be relevant to Western philosophical doctrines. An ardent nationalist, Inoue helped make Buddhism an intellectually acceptable alternative to Western religious doctrines. After attending the

  • Inoue Kaoru (Japanese statesman)

    Inoue Kaoru, one of the elder statesmen (genro) who ruled Japan during the Meiji period (1868–1912). Inoue was born to a samurai family of the Chōshū clan of western Japan and was a close boyhood friend of Itō Hirobumi, who later became Japan’s first prime minister. Both wished to rid Japan of

  • Inoue Tetsujirō (Japanese philosopher)

    Inoue Tetsujirō, Japanese philosopher who opposed Christianity as incompatible with Japanese culture and who worked to preserve traditional Japanese values. At the same time, using Western philosophical methods, he helped to create a systematic history of the theories of Oriental philosophy and

  • Inoue Yasushi (Japanese writer)

    Inoue Yasushi, Japanese novelist noted for his historical fiction, notably Tempyō no iraka (1957; The Roof Tile of Tempyō), which depicts the drama of 8th-century Japanese monks traveling to China and bringing back Buddhist texts and other artifacts to Japan. Inoue graduated from Kyōto University

  • Inouye, Daniel (United States senator)

    Daniel Inouye, American Democratic politician who was the first U.S. representative of Hawaii (1959–63) and who later served as a U.S. senator (1963–2012). He was the first Japanese American to serve in both bodies of Congress. Inouye was born to working-class parents of Japanese ancestry. His

  • Inouye, Daniel Ken (United States senator)

    Daniel Inouye, American Democratic politician who was the first U.S. representative of Hawaii (1959–63) and who later served as a U.S. senator (1963–2012). He was the first Japanese American to serve in both bodies of Congress. Inouye was born to working-class parents of Japanese ancestry. His

  • Inowroc?aw (Poland)

    Inowroc?aw, city, Kujawsko-Pomorskie województwo (province), north-central Poland, in the Kujawy region. First mentioned in 1185 as a trading settlement, Inowroc?aw lay on an ancient trade route between southern Europe and the Baltic Sea. It became capital of the autonomous principality of Kujawy,

  • Inowroc?aw (historical province, Poland)

    Kujawy: …Kujawski (the southeastern portion) and Inowroc?aw (the northwestern portion).

  • inpainting

    art conservation and restoration: Paintings on canvas: It is customary nowadays to inpaint only the actual missing areas, matching carefully the artist’s technique and paint texture. Some restorers adopt various methods of inpainting in which the surrounding original paint is not imitated completely. The inpainting is done in a colour or with a texture intended to eliminate…

  • INPS (Italian government)

    Italy: Health and welfare: …range of benefits, is the National Social Insurance Institute (Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale; INPS).

  • input (economics)

    factors of production: …of production are the “inputs” necessary to obtain an “output.” However, not all the “inputs” that must be applied are to be regarded as factors in the economic sense. Some of these inputs in a normal situation are “free.” Although atmospheric air, for example, or a substitute for it,…

  • input (computing)

    automata theory: …external conditions or to other inputs. For example, thermostats, automatic pilots of aircraft, missile guidance systems, telephone networks, and controls of certain kinds of automatic elevators are all forms of automata.

  • input (control system)

    automation: Feedback controls: The input to the system is the reference value, or set point, for the system output. This represents the desired operating value of the output. Using the previous example of the heating system as an illustration, the input is the desired temperature setting for a room.…

  • input-output analysis (economics)

    Input–output analysis, economic analysis developed by the 20th-century Russian-born U.S. economist Wassily W. Leontief, in which the interdependence of an economy’s various productive sectors is observed by viewing the product of each industry both as a commodity demanded for final consumption and

  • input–output device (computer technology)

    Peripheral device, any of various devices (including sensors) used to enter information and instructions into a computer for storage or processing and to deliver the processed data to a human operator or, in some cases, a machine controlled by the computer. Such devices make up the peripheral

  • input/output device (computer technology)

    Peripheral device, any of various devices (including sensors) used to enter information and instructions into a computer for storage or processing and to deliver the processed data to a human operator or, in some cases, a machine controlled by the computer. Such devices make up the peripheral

  • inquartation (metallurgy)

    Parting, in metallurgy, the separation of gold and silver by chemical or electrochemical means. Gold and silver are often extracted together from the same ores or recovered as by-products from the extraction of other metals. A solid mixture of the two, known as bullion, or doré, can be parted by

  • inquest (law)

    Inquest, judicial inquiry by a group of persons appointed by a court. The most common type is the inquest set up to investigate a death apparently occasioned by unnatural means. Witnesses are examined, and a special jury returns a verdict on the cause of death. In England inquests are also

  • inquilinism (biology)

    termite: Nest types: A few termites, known as inquilinous species, live only in obligatory association with other termite species. Examples of such obligate relationships are Ahamitermes and Incolitermes species, which live only in the mound nests of certain Coptotermes species. In these, the galleries of guests and hosts are completely separate. Inquilinous species…

  • Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development (work by Galton)

    Francis Galton: Advocacy of eugenics: Galton’s Inquiries into Human Faculty (1883) consists of some 40 articles varying in length from 2 to 30 pages, which are mostly based on scientific papers written between 1869 and 1883. The book can in a sense be regarded as a summary of the author’s views…

  • Inquiry Concerning Virtue (work by Shaftesbury)

    Denis Diderot: Mature career: …a free translation of the Inquiry Concerning Virtue by the 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, whose fame and influence he spread in France. Diderot’s own Pensées philosophiques (1746; Philosophic Thoughts), an original work with new and explosive anti-Christian ideas couched in a vivid prose, contains many passages directly translated from or…

  • Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, An (work by Jenner)

    Edward Jenner: …privately a slender book entitled An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae.

  • Inquiry into the Crown Revenues (work by Cotton)

    Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, 1st Baronet: …to the king a historical Inquiry into the Crown Revenues, in which he supported the creation of the order of baronets as a means of raising money. In the same year, he himself received the title.

  • Inquiry into the Distinctness of the Principles of Natural Theology and Morals (work by Kant)

    Immanuel Kant: Critic of Leibnizian rationalism: …work of this period was Untersuchung über die Deutlichkeit der Grunds?tze der natürlichen Theologie und der Moral (1764; “An Inquiry into the Distinctness of the Fundamental Principles of Natural Theology and Morals”). In this work he attacked the claim of Leibnizian philosophy that philosophy should model itself on mathematics and…

  • Inquiry into the Human Prospect, An (work by Heilbroner)

    environmentalism: Apocalyptic environmentalism: …most vividly in Robert Heilbroner’s An Inquiry into the Human Prospect (1974), which argued that human survival ultimately required the sacrifice of human freedom. Counterarguments, such as those presented in Julian Simon and Herman Kahn’s The Resourceful Earth (1984), emphasized humanity’s ability to find or to invent substitutes for resources…

  • Inquiry into the Monastic Life (work by Eustathius of Thessalonica)

    Eustathius of Thessalonica: …monasticism in his famous tract Inquiry into the Monastic Life. Noted for his promotion of sound principles of education and for the preservation of books as well as for his moral example, Eustathius is popularly regarded as a saint by the Greek Orthodox.

  • Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, An (work by Smith)

    Adam Smith: The Wealth of Nations: Despite its renown as the first great work in political economy, The Wealth of Nations is in fact a continuation of the philosophical theme begun in The Theory of Moral Sentiments. The ultimate problem to which Smith addresses himself is how…

  • Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth (work by Lauderdale)

    James Maitland, 8th earl of Lauderdale: …work in economics was his Inquiry into the Nature and Origin of Public Wealth (1804), in which, although basically adhering to the ideas of Adam Smith, he deviated from classical economists on a number of issues. In particular, he was a forerunner of Thomas Malthus in his belief in the…

  • Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of Its Perpetuation, An (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Later works and career: With An Inquiry into the Nature of Peace and the Terms of Its Perpetuation (1917), Veblen acquired an international following. He maintained that modern wars were caused mainly by the competitive demands of national business interests and that an enduring peace could be had only at…

  • Inquiry into the Original of Our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, An (work by Hutcheson)

    aesthetics: The origins of modern aesthetics: In An Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and Virtue (1725), Hutcheson explained: “The origin of our perceptions of beauty and harmony is justly called a ‘sense’ because it involves no intellectual element, no reflection on principles and causes.”

  • Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy (work by Denham)

    Sir James Steuart Denham, 4th Baronet: His chief work, Inquiry into the Principles of Political Economy (1767), is probably the first systematic treatise on economics written in English. As an exponent of mercantilist economics, Denham accorded government a key role in the economic development of society, particularly in the management of population and employment.…

  • Inquisitio comitatus Cantabrigiensis (English history)

    Domesday Book: …yet another related document, the Inquisitio comitatus Cantabrigiensis (“The Inquisition of the County of Cambridge”), a very early draft of the Cambridgeshire material, the actual procedure followed by the commissioners is revealed. Their method was that of the sworn inquest, by which answers were given to a long list of…

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