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  • inquisition (Roman Catholicism)

    Inquisition, a judicial procedure and later an institution that was established by the papacy and, sometimes, by secular governments to combat heresy. Derived from the Latin verb inquiro (“inquire into”), the name was applied to commissions in the 13th century and subsequently to similar structures

  • Inquisition, Palace of the (building, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: Disaster and reconstruction: The Palace of the Inquisition, utterly flattened, was not rebuilt when Pombal enlarged and realigned the Rossio, and on its site, 90 years later, the National Theatre of Dona Maria II was erected. Pombal banished the Jesuit order and transformed their establishment into St. Joseph’s Hospital…

  • inquisitorial procedure (law)

    Inquisitorial procedure, in law, one of the two methods of exposing evidence in court (the other being the adversary procedure; q.v.). The inquisitorial system is typical of countries that base their legal systems on civil or Roman law. Under the inquisitorial procedure, the pretrial hearing for

  • INR (United States government)

    intelligence: The United States: Through its Bureau of Intelligence and Research, the Department of State collects, analyzes, and disseminates large quantities of political, economic, and cultural information about countries in which the United States has accredited representation. The bureau, known in the intelligence community by the acronym INR, has the dual…

  • inro (clothing accessory)

    Inro, in Japanese dress, small portable case worn on the girdle. As indicated by the meaning of the word inrō (“vessel to hold seals”), these objects, probably originally imported from China, were used as containers for seals. About the 16th century they were adapted by the Japanese for holding

  • inrō (clothing accessory)

    Inro, in Japanese dress, small portable case worn on the girdle. As indicated by the meaning of the word inrō (“vessel to hold seals”), these objects, probably originally imported from China, were used as containers for seals. About the 16th century they were adapted by the Japanese for holding

  • INS (United States agency)

    cybercrime: Counterfeiting and forgery: …had been missed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). Finally, a 2002 report by the GAO reported that more than 90 percent of certain types of benefit claims were fraudulent and further stated that immigration fraud was “out of control.” Partially in response to these revelations, the INS was…

  • INS (news agency)

    United Press International: …Press (UP; 1907) with the International News Service (INS). UPI and its precursor agencies pioneered in some key areas of news coverage, including the wired transmission of news photographs in 1925.

  • insane, general paralysis of the (pathology)

    Paresis, psychosis caused by widespread destruction of brain tissue occurring in some cases of late syphilis. Mental changes include gradual deterioration of personality, impaired concentration and judgment, delusions, loss of memory, disorientation, and apathy or violent rages. Convulsions are n

  • insanity

    Mental disorder, any illness with significant psychological or behavioral manifestations that is associated with either a painful or distressing symptom or an impairment in one or more important areas of functioning. Mental disorders, in particular their consequences and their treatment, are of

  • insanity (law)

    Insanity, in criminal law, condition of mental disorder or mental defect that relieves persons of criminal responsibility for their conduct. Tests of insanity used in law are not intended to be scientific definitions of mental disorder; rather, they are expected to identify persons whose incapacity

  • Insarov (Soviet government official)

    Khristian Georgiyevich Rakovsky, Bulgarian revolutionary who conducted subversive activities in Romania before joining the Russian Bolshevik Party and becoming a leading political figure in Soviet Russia. The grandson of the Bulgarian revolutionary Georgi Rakovski, he became involved in socialist

  • INSAT (Indian satellite system)

    Indian Space Research Organisation: …several space systems, including the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system for telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology, and disaster warning and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for resource monitoring and management. The first INSAT was launched in 1988, and the program expanded to include geosynchronous satellites called GSAT. The first IRS…

  • inscape (philosophy)

    Gerard Manley Hopkins: …thing, which he called “inscape.” To Hopkins, each sensuous impression had its own elusive “selfness”; each scene was to him a “sweet especial scene.”

  • INSCOM (United States Army)

    the United States Army: Administrative structure: The United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM) performs intelligence and security functions above the corps level. The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is an ASCC that controls the movement of freight, personal property, and passengers for the Department of Defense. Another duty…

  • inscribed stone (rock carving)

    pictography: …carved on rocks are called petroglyphs.) A pictograph that stands for an individual idea or meaning may be called an ideogram; if a pictograph stands for an individual word, it is called a logogram (q.v.). Pictographs are also used as memory aids. Various North American Indian tribes used pictographs both…

  • inscription (writing)

    history of medicine: The ancient Middle East and Egypt: …is preserved on which is inscribed the Code of Hammurabi, who was a Babylonian king of the 18th century bce. This code includes laws relating to the practice of medicine, and the penalties for failure were severe. For example, “If the doctor, in opening an abscess, shall kill the patient,…

  • Inscription House (cliff dwelling, Arizona, United States)

    Navajo National Monument: …Keet Seel (“Broken Pottery”), and Inscription House—are among the best-preserved and most-elaborate cliff dwellings known. The three sites, made a national monument in 1909, have a total area of 0.6 square mile (1.6 square km).

  • Inscription Maritime (French history)

    Brest: The former instituted the Inscription Maritime, still functioning, which inducted Breton fishermen (18–48 years old) into the Naval Reserve. In exchange for this obligation, the Inscription offers them family security for life. Brest has been the seat of the French Naval Academy since 1830.

  • Inscription Rock (national monument, New Mexico, United States)

    El Morro National Monument, rock formation and archaeological site in west-central New Mexico, U.S., 12 miles (19 km) southeast of Ramah. The monument was established in 1906 and has an area of 2 square miles (5 square km). El Morro (the “Headlands,” or “Bluff”), or Inscription Rock, is a soft

  • Inscriptiones Graecae (inscription collection)

    epigraphy: Greek and Latin inscriptions: …1902 took charge of the Inscriptiones Graecae (1873– ), which continued where the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum left off and included the Corpus Inscriptionum Atticaru, as well as all Greek inscriptions from European Greece (including Magna Graecia in Italy) and Cyprus. Those of Anatolia were left to the Tituli Asiae Minoris…

  • Inscriptions and Belles-Lettres, Academy of (school, Paris, France)

    Paris: The Institute of France: …membership of “40 Immortals”; the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, founded in 1663 by Louis XIV’s finance minister, Jean-Baptiste Colbert; the Academy of Sciences, founded in 1666, also by Colbert; the Academy of Fine Arts, two sections formed at different times by Mazarin and Colbert and joined in 1795;…

  • Inscriptions, Temple of the (temple, Palenque, Mexico)

    Palenque: …largest and best-preserved structures, the Temple of the Inscriptions, is noted for its hieroglyphic inscriptions. In 1952 a crypt was discovered under the temple, in which were found the jade-ornamented remains of what may have been a ruler-priest of the 7th century. The Temple of the Sun is noted for…

  • Insect (film by ?vankmajer [2018])

    Jan ?vankmajer: Hmyz (2018; Insect) is based on the play Ze ivota hmyzu (1921; The Insect Play) by Karel and Josef ?apek.

  • insect (arthropod class)

    Insect, (class Insecta or Hexapoda), any member of the largest class of the phylum Arthropoda, which is itself the largest of the animal phyla. Insects have segmented bodies, jointed legs, and external skeletons (exoskeletons). Insects are distinguished from other arthropods by their body, which is

  • insect bite and sting

    Insect bite and sting, break in the skin or puncture caused by an insect and complicated by introduction into the skin of the insect’s saliva, venom, or excretory products. Specific components of these substances are believed to give rise to an allergic reaction, which in turn produces skin lesions

  • insect brownies (insect)

    Treehopper, (family Membracidae), any of approximately 3,200 species of insects (order Homoptera) that are easily recognized by their vertical face and grotesquely enlarged thorax, which may extend anteriorly over the head to form one or more spines and expands posteriorly over the body to form a

  • insect defensin (chemical compound)

    Jules Hoffmann: Referred to as “insect defensins,” the peptides were found to act selectively against gram-positive bacteria (bacteria having a thick cell wall). The finding suggested that small bacteria-killing peptides, which had been reported previously only in mammals, are more widespread than was thought and that they had been evolutionarily…

  • insect farming (agriculture)

    entomophagy: Farming insects: Insects in tropical countries are predominantly harvested from nature, although that approach cannot be continued sustainably as the demand for edible insects grows. In Thailand, 20,000 cricket farms produced an average of 7,500 tonnes (16.5 million pounds) of insects per year in 1996–2011…

  • Insect Physiology (work by Wigglesworth)

    Sir Vincent Wigglesworth: His Insect Physiology (1934) is often considered the foundation for this branch of entomology.

  • Insect Play, The (work by ?apek)

    Karel ?apek: …?ivota hmyzu (with Josef, 1921; The Insect Play) satirizes human greed, complacency, and selfishness, emphasizing the relativity of human values and the need to come to terms with life. His faith in democracy made him support his friend Tomá? Garrigue Masaryk and write a biography of him. The quest for…

  • insect repellent

    camphor: …cellulose nitrate and as an insect repellent, particularly for moths. The molecular formula is C10H16O.

  • Insect Societies, The (work by Wilson)

    Edward O. Wilson: In 1971 he published The Insect Societies, his definitive work on ants and other social insects. The book provided a comprehensive picture of the ecology, population dynamics, and social behaviour of thousands of species.

  • insect wax (insect secretion)

    Chinese wax, white or yellowish-white crystalline wax resembling spermaceti but harder, more friable, and with a higher melting point. It is deposited on the branches of certain trees by the scale insect Ceroplastes ceriferus, common in China and India, or a related scale insect, Ericerus pe-la, of

  • Insecta (arthropod class)

    Insect, (class Insecta or Hexapoda), any member of the largest class of the phylum Arthropoda, which is itself the largest of the animal phyla. Insects have segmented bodies, jointed legs, and external skeletons (exoskeletons). Insects are distinguished from other arthropods by their body, which is

  • insecticide (chemical substance)

    Insecticide, any toxic substance that is used to kill insects. Such substances are used primarily to control pests that infest cultivated plants or to eliminate disease-carrying insects in specific areas. Insecticides can be classified in any of several ways, on the basis of their chemistry, their

  • Insectivora (mammal)

    Insectivore, the common name applied to any of 450 or so species of mammals—comprising hedgehogs, golden moles, “true” moles, “true” shrews, the moonrat, gymnures, solenodons, and tenrecs—that subsist primarily on insects, other arthropods, and earthworms. Insectivora is obsolete as a taxonomic

  • insectivore (mammal)

    Insectivore, the common name applied to any of 450 or so species of mammals—comprising hedgehogs, golden moles, “true” moles, “true” shrews, the moonrat, gymnures, solenodons, and tenrecs—that subsist primarily on insects, other arthropods, and earthworms. Insectivora is obsolete as a taxonomic

  • insectivorous plant (botany)

    Carnivorous plant, any plant especially adapted for capturing and digesting insects and other animals by means of ingenious pitfalls and traps. Carnivory in plants has evolved independently about six times across several families and orders. The more than 600 known species of carnivorous plants

  • insecure attachment (psychology)

    human behaviour: Attachment: …attached and those who are “insecurely” attached. Infants with a secure attachment to a parent are less afraid of challenge and unfamiliarity than are those with an insecure attachment.

  • insei (Japanese history)

    Insei, (Japanese: “cloistered government”) in Japanese history, rule by retired emperors who had taken Buddhist vows and retired to cloisters. During the late 11th and 12th centuries, governmental control of Japan passed from the Fujiwara family, which had maintained power through marriages to the

  • Insel Verlag (German publishing company)

    typography: Mechanical composition: …and decorated title pages; the Insel Verlag in Germany, with millions of inexpensive yet well-printed and designed pocket books—these and their many colleagues brought within the reach of the ordinary book buyer mass-produced books whose appearance, if not their method of manufacture, had been profoundly altered and improved by the…

  • inselberg (geology)

    Inselberg, (from German Insel, “island,” and Berg, “mountain”), isolated hill that stands above well-developed plains and appears not unlike an island rising from the sea. The early German explorers of southern Africa were impressed by such features, and they dubbed the domed or castlelike

  • insensible perspiration (physiology)

    perspiration: …evaporation from the epidermis (insensible perspiration) or as sweat, a form of cooling in which liquid actively secreted from sweat glands evaporates from the body surface. Sweat glands, although found in the majority of mammals, constitute the primary means of heat dissipation only in certain hoofed animals (orders Artiodactyla…

  • Inseparable (album by Cole)

    Natalie Cole: …beginning with her debut album, Inseparable (1975), which earned Cole two Grammy Awards, including one for best new artist. The following year Natalie was released, which went gold and received a Grammy for the hit single “Sophisticated Lady.” Her success continued with Unpredictable (1977) and Thankful (1977), both of which…

  • Inser??es em circuitos ideológicos (work by Meireles)

    Cildo Meireles: …responded by producing his two-part Inser??es em circuitos ideológicos (1970–75; Insertions into Ideological Circuits). For this project he stamped anonymous messages in English or Portuguese on Brazilian cruzeiros (currency) and Coca-Cola bottles and introduced them into circulation. His banknotes said such things as “Elei??es Diretas” (“Direct Elections”), “Yankees Go Home,”…

  • insertion (anatomy)

    animal: Types of skeletons and their distribution: …the origin, the other the insertion. One muscle contracts and moves the skeletal element on which it is inserted, and an antagonistic muscle contracts and moves the skeletal element in the opposite direction. The biceps and triceps of the upper arm in humans are such a set of antagonistic muscles…

  • insertional mutagenesis (pathology)

    cancer: Retroviruses and the discovery of oncogenes: This mechanism, called insertional mutagenesis, can cause an oncogene to become overactive, or it can inactivate a tumour suppressor gene (see below Tumour suppressor genes).

  • inshā? (literature)

    Islamic arts: Development of literary prose: …years manuals of composition (inshā?) were written elaborating the technique of secretarial correspondence, and they grew into an accepted genre in Arabic as well as in Persian and Turkish literature. The devices thought indispensable for elegance in modern poetry were applied to prose. The products were mannered, full of…

  • inshā?a Allāh (Islam)

    Allah: The formula in shā?a Allāh, “if Allah wills,” appears frequently in daily speech. This formula is the reminder of an ever-present divine intervention in the order of the world and the actions of human beings. Muslims believe that nothing happens and nothing is performed unless it is…

  • Inside Amy Schumer (American television series)

    Amy Schumer: …stand-up special, Comedy Central green-lighted Inside Amy Schumer, which premiered in 2013. The show made Schumer a household name, and in 2014 the program received a Peabody Award for showcasing Schumer’s “important brand of culturally aware humor.” She won a prime-time Emmy Award for Inside Amy Schumer in 2015.

  • inside caliper (measurement device)

    caliper: …and outside diameters of objects; inside calipers measure hole diameters and distances between surfaces. To check the dimensions of a machined part, the calipers are first adjusted to the required dimension on a ruler or a standard plug or hole gauge; accuracy in calipering depends in large part on the…

  • inside contracting (manufacturing)

    Inside contracting, system of manufacturing intermediate between the putting-out system and full factory production. A factory proprietor supplies floor space and machinery to a contractor who then hires the workers needed to make a particular part on the proprietor’s premises. Inside contracting

  • Inside Daisy Clover (film by Mulligan [1965])

    Robert Mulligan: …1965 Mulligan made the musical Inside Daisy Clover, in which Wood played a woman who becomes a movie star and experiences the dark side of celebrity; it was perhaps most notable for Robert Redford’s acclaimed performance as a homosexual movie star. The film was a box-office disappointment, but the director…

  • inside game (baseball)

    baseball: League formation: The “inside game” dominated the next two decades, until hitter-friendly rules were instituted in 1920, ushering in the “live-ball era” (the period of inside-game dominance was also known as the “dead-ball era”). The inside game was a style of play that emphasized pitching, speed, and batsmanship.…

  • Inside Llewyn Davis (film by Joel and Ethan Coen [2013])

    F. Murray Abraham: …and Joel and Ethan Coen’s Inside Llewyn Davis (2013). He also appeared in Wes Anderson’s comedies The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) and the stop-motion animated Isle of Dogs (2018), and he provided the voice of the villainous Grimmel in How to Train Your Dragon: Hidden World (2019). His later films…

  • Inside Man (film by Lee [2006])

    A.R. Rahman: …the soundtrack of Spike Lee’s Inside Man (2006) and cowrote the score for Elizabeth: The Golden Age (2007). However, his true breakthrough to Western audiences came with Danny Boyle’s rags-to-riches saga Slumdog Millionaire (2008). Rahman’s score, which captured the frenzied pace of life in Mumbai’s underclass, dominated the awards circuit…

  • Inside Out (film by Docter and del Carmen [2015])

    John Lasseter: …Toy Story franchise (2010); and Inside Out (2015), which deals with the complicated emotions of a young girl. In addition, he codirected Cars 2 (2011).

  • Inside Passage (sea route, North America)

    Inside Passage, natural sheltered sea route extending for more than 1,000 miles (1,600 km) from Seattle (Wash., U.S.) northwest to Skagway (Alaska, U.S.). It comprises channels and straits between the mainland and islands (including Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Can., and the Alexander

  • Inside the Endless House (work by Kiesler)

    Frederick John Kiesler: Inside the Endless House (1966), written as a journal, is basically an account of Kiesler’s artistic life. His last important work was the Shrine of the Book (1959–65), which houses the Dead Sea Scrolls in Israel.

  • Inside the German Empire (work by Swope)

    Herbert Bayard Swope: …articles, collected in the book Inside the German Empire (1917), won him a Pulitzer Price in 1917.

  • Inside the Third Reich (work by Speer)

    Albert Speer: His published works included Erinnerungen (1969; Inside the Third Reich, 1970), Spandauer Tagebücher (1975; Spandau: The Secret Diaries, 1976), and Der Sklavenstaat (1981; Infiltration, 1981).

  • insider trading (business)

    Insider trading, Illegal use of insider information for profit in financial trading. Since 1934, the Securities and Exchange Commission has prohibited trading while in possession of material nonpublic information. See also arbitrage, Michael R.

  • Insider, The (film by Mann [1999])

    Russell Crowe: …tobacco-industry whistle-blower Jeffrey Wigand in The Insider (1999). Two years later he took the academy’s best actor award for his role as Maximus, a Roman general-turned-gladiator in Ridley Scott’s Gladiator. His commanding performance, which blended scenes of yearning love with those of brutal physical violence, helped make the epic one…

  • insidious flower bug (insect)

    flower bug: The insidious flower bug, Orius insidiosus, is a common North American species that preys on the grape phylloxera and the chinch bug. In general, most of the species feed on aphids and aphid eggs. However, several species, such as the larger pirate bug (Lycotcoris campestris), suck…

  • insight (learning)

    Insight, in learning theory, immediate and clear learning or understanding that takes place without overt trial-and-error testing. Insight occurs in human learning when people recognize relationships (or make novel associations between objects or actions) that can help them solve new problems. Much

  • InSight (Mars lander)

    Mars: Spacecraft exploration: InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) lander touched down on Elysium Planitia in November 2018. InSight placed a seismometer on the surface that made the first detections of quakes on Mars. The lander also deployed a probe that burrowed into the…

  • Insight (work by Lonergan)

    Christianity: 20th-century discussions: …work of Bernard Lonergan in Insight (1957), which has stimulated considerable discussion. Lonergan argued that the act of understanding, or insight, is pivotal for the apprehension of reality, and that it implies in the long run that the universe is itself due to the fiat of an “unrestricted act of…

  • Insila ka Shaka (novel by Dube)

    John Langalibalele Dube: …of Insila ka Shaka (1930; Jeqe, the Bodyservant of King Shaka), the first novel published by a Zulu in his native language.

  • Insolación (novel by Bazán)

    Emilia, condesa de Pardo Bazán: Insolación (“Sunstroke”) and Morri?a (“The Blues”; both 1889) are excellent psychological studies. Her husband separated from her because her literary reputation scandalized him. Pardo Bazán was professor of Romance literature at the University of Madrid. In 1916 she was accorded the distinction—unusual for a woman…

  • insolation (radiant energy)

    atmosphere: Radiation: …traditionally divided into two types: insolation from the Sun and emittance from the surface and the atmosphere. Insolation is frequently referred to as shortwave radiation; it falls primarily within the ultraviolet and visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum and consists predominantly of wavelengths of 0.39 to 0.76 micrometres (0.00002 to…

  • insolubilia (logic)

    history of logic: The properties of terms and discussions of fallacies: …special treatises were devoted to insolubilia (semantic paradoxes such as the liar paradox, “This sentence is false”) and to a kind of disputation called “obligationes,” the exact purpose of which is still in question.

  • insoluble fibre (nutrition)

    therapeutics: General requirements: Dietary fibre can be insoluble (wheat bran) or soluble (oat bran and psyllium). Only the soluble fibres found in oats, fruit, and legumes lower blood cholesterol and benefit individuals with diabetes by delaying the absorption of glucose.

  • insolvency (finance)

    Insolvency, financial condition in which the total liabilities of an individual or enterprise exceed the total assets so that the claims of creditors cannot be paid. There are essentially two approaches in determining insolvency: insolvency in the equity sense and under the balance-sheet approach.

  • Insomnia (film by Nolan [2002])

    Christopher Nolan: Nolan followed up with Insomnia (2002), a thriller set in the Alaskan wilds, which starred Al Pacino as a compromised police detective.

  • insomnia (sleep disorder)

    Insomnia, the inability to sleep adequately. Causes may include poor sleeping conditions, circulatory or brain disorders, a respiratory disorder known as apnea, stress, or other physical or mental disorders. Insomnia is not harmful if it is only occasional; the body is readily restored by a few

  • Insomnis Cura Parentum (work by Moscherosch)

    Johann Michael Moscherosch: Another work is the Insomnis Cura Parentum (1643), a religious tract addressed to his family that reflects his strict Lutheran piety. Moscherosch was also a member of the Fruchtbringende Gesellschaft (“Productive Society”), which was founded for the purification of the German language and the fostering of German literature.

  • Insoutenable Légèreté de l’être, L’ (novel by Kundera)

    The Unbearable Lightness of Being, novel by Milan Kundera, first published in 1984 in English and French translations. In 1985 the work was released in the original Czech, but it was banned in Czechoslovakia until 1989. Through the lives of four individuals, the novel explores the philosophical

  • inspection (quality control)

    aerospace industry: Inspection technologies: The most critical portion of maintenance work is inspection to detect cracks, flaws, debonds, delamination, corrosion, and other detrimental changes before they threaten the aircraft. Inspectors do much of their work visually, often using nothing more sophisticated than a flashlight and a mirror.…

  • inspection time (psychology)

    human intelligence: Cognitive theories: He argued that inspection time is a particularly useful means of measuring intelligence. It is thought that individual differences in intelligence may derive in part from differences in the rate of intake and processing of simple stimulus information. In the inspection-time task, a person looks at two vertical…

  • Inspection, Certificate of (United States maritime law)

    ship: International conventions: …are largely focused in a Certificate of Inspection that is required for commercial shipping under its jurisdiction. The owner of a vessel required to have this certificate must submit certain construction plans and other data for approval during the design and building stages. Inspectors from the Coast Guard may visit…

  • Inspector Clouseau (film by Yorkin [1968])

    Alan Arkin: …title role in Bud Yorkin’s Inspector Clouseau (1968), and was nominated for another Oscar as well as a Golden Globe Award for his performance as the deaf protagonist of The Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1968), based on a novel by Carson McCullers.

  • Inspector General, The (play by Gogol)

    The Government Inspector, farcical drama in five acts by Nikolay Gogol, originally performed and published as Revizor in 1836. The play, sometimes translated as The Inspector General, mercilessly lampoons the corrupt officials of an obscure provincial town that is portrayed as a microcosm of the

  • Inspector General, The (film by Koster [1949])

    Henry Koster: Films of the 1940s: The popular The Inspector General (1949) featured Danny Kaye in a musical interpretation of Nikolay Gogol’s play.

  • Inspector Maigret (fictional character)

    Jules Maigret, fictional character, an unassuming, compassionate, and streetwise Parisian police commissioner who is the protagonist of more than 80 novels by Georges Simenon. Simenon’s books featuring Inspector Maigret include Pietr-le-Letton (1931; The Case of Peter the Lett), Le Chien jaune

  • Inspector Morse (British television series)

    Colin Dexter: …the popular British television series Inspector Morse (1987–2000) and two spin-off series.

  • Inspector Morse (fictional character)

    Colin Dexter: … featuring the erudite and curmudgeonly Chief Inspector Morse; the novels inspired the popular British television series Inspector Morse (1987–2000) and two spin-off series.

  • Inspectorate General of Customs (Chinese history)

    China: Foreign relations in the 1860s: …offices attached to it: the Inspectorate General of Customs and Tongwen Guan. The former was the centre for the Maritime Custom Service, administered by Western personnel appointed by the Qing. The latter was the language school opened to train the children of bannermen in foreign languages, and later some Western…

  • inspiration (religion)

    eschatology: The early church: …movement, whose leaders claimed divine inspiration for their visions and utterances and believed in the imminent descent of the heavenly Jerusalem to the small Phrygian town of Pepuza.

  • inspiration (respiratory system)

    speech: Respiratory mechanisms: …and synchrony of inhalation (inspiration) and exhalation (expiration). Inspiration and expiration are equally long, equally deep, and transport the same amount of air during the same period of time, approximately half a litre (one pint) of air per breath at rest in most adults. Recordings (made with a device…

  • inspiration of scripture

    biblical literature: Types of biblical hermeneutics: …from this axiom of biblical inspiration: whereas some have argued that the interpretation must always be literal, or as literal as possible (since “God always means what he says”), others have treated it as self-evident that words of divine origin must always have some profounder “spiritual” meaning than that which…

  • instability, plasma (physics)

    plasma: Containment: …to diffuse out of the plasma; this time is different for each type of configuration. Various types of instabilities can occur in plasma. These lead to a loss of plasma and a catastrophic decrease in containment time. The most important of these is called magnetohydrodynamic instability. Although an equilibrium state…

  • Install (novel by Wataya)

    Wataya Risa: …age 17 with Insutōru (2001; Install; film 2004), for which she won the 2001 Bungei literary prize. The novel depicted a troubled high-school girl’s experience with the erotic world of adults through Internet chat rooms. Watya went on to attend Waseda University, studying Japanese literature and education. Her second novel,…

  • installation art

    Japanese art: Sculpture: Installation art has joined the larger sculptural repertoire, and outdoor sitings—both in open natural spaces and in urban environments—attracted much interest. Massive creations in bamboo and other works that interact with the environment are especially popular.

  • installment credit (finance)

    Installment credit, in business, credit that is granted on condition of its repayment at regular intervals, or installments, over a specified period of time until paid in full. Installment credit is the means by which most durable goods such as automobiles and large home appliances are bought by

  • installment loan

    consumer credit: …fall into two broad categories: installment loans, repaid in two or more payments; and noninstallment loans, repaid in a lump sum. Installment loans include (1) automobile loans, (2) loans for other consumer goods, (3) home repair and modernization loans, (4) personal loans, and (5) credit card purchases. The most common…

  • installment plan (finance)

    Installment credit, in business, credit that is granted on condition of its repayment at regular intervals, or installments, over a specified period of time until paid in full. Installment credit is the means by which most durable goods such as automobiles and large home appliances are bought by

  • instant coffee

    coffee: Instant coffee: In the manufacture of instant coffee (called soluble coffee in the industry), a liquid concentration of coffee prepared with hot water is dehydrated. This can be done by spray drying (by drying with a hot gas) or by freeze drying (a dehydration process known…

  • Instant Family (film by Anders [2018])

    Octavia Spencer: …Like Jake and the comedy Instant Family (both 2018). Spencer’s roles from 2019 included a menacing neighbour in the horror film Ma and an inscrutable high-school teacher in the drama Luce. The following year she lent her voice to Dolittle and Onward and starred in Self Made, a Netflix miniseries…

  • Instant in the Wind, An (work by Brink)

    André Philippus Brink: …oomblik in die wind (1975; An Instant in the Wind), and Gerugte van re?n (1978; Rumours of Rain) used the sexual relationship between a black man and a white woman to show the destructiveness of racial hatred. Brink was perhaps best known outside his homeland for the antiapartheid novel ’N…

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